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NMCA-E12 :

CLIENT SERVER
COMPUTING

Unit 2:
Components of
Client/Server
application

UNIT -2 SYLLABUS

The client: services, request for services, RPC,


windows services, fax, print services, remote boot
services, other remote services, Utility Services
& Other Services, Dynamic Data Exchange
(DDE), Object Linking and Embedding (OLE),
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
(CORBA).
The server: Detailed server functionality, the
network operating system, available platforms,
the network operating system, available platform,
the server operating system

CLIENT SERVER ARCHITECTURE

The client/server models can be distinguished by


the service they provide and how the distributed
application is split between the client and the
server.
Fat

Server Model
Fat Client Model

TYPES OF CLIENT SERVER MODEL

The Fat Server Model


More

functions are placed on the server


mission-critical applications
examples are the Groupware, Transaction Servers,
and Web Servers.

Fat Client Mod


More

functions are placed on the client.


A client that performs the bulk of the data processing
operations
Data itself is stored on the server
Used for decision support and personal software
Front-end tools and applications

THE ARCHITECTURES

2-tier Client/Server Architecture


were

developed in the 1980s


to improve usability by supporting a forms-based,
user-friendly interface.
improves scalability by accommodating up to 100
users
requires minimal operator intervention
used in non-complex, non-time critical information
processing systems
E.g.: File Servers, Database Servers with Stored
Procedure.

TWO-TIER CLIENT/SERVER
ARCHITECTURE

Two tier architectures consist of three components


distributed in two layers: client (requester of
services) and server (provider of services).
The three components are

User

System Interface (such as session, text input,


dialog, and display management services)
Processing Management (such as process
development, process enactment, process monitoring,
and process resource services)
Database Management (such as data and file services)

Typically the applications that worked perfectly well


in prototypes and small installations failed for largescale productions.

THREE-TIER CLIENT/SERVER
ARCHITECTURE
Emerged in the 1990s
The third tier (middle tier server) is between the
user interface (client) and the data management
(server) components.
This middle tier provides process management
where business logic and rules are executed .
Increased performance, flexibility,
maintainability, reusability, and scalability, while
hiding the complexity of distributed processing
from the user.

The client calls for the business logic on the server,


the business logic on the behalf of the client
accesses the database.

3 TIER ARCHITECTURE

3-TIER TO N-TIER

In the 3-tier applications, the middle tier is


generally not a single program but is
implemented as a collection of components that
are initiated by several client- initiated business
transaction.

ADVANTAGES OF COMPONENT
BASED APP
You

can develop big applications in small


steps Large mission-critical application
projects may be divided into small component
projects. You can reuse components.
Clients can access data and functions easily
and
safely.
The
server
component
encapsulates the details of the application
logic and thus raises the level of abstraction.
Custom applications can incorporate off-theshelf components.

WHEN CAN /SHOULD YOU USE 3TIER?


Many applications services/classes (around or
more than 60)
Application programmed in different languages
or written by different organizations
An application life longer than 3 years.
If there are more than 60,000 transactions per
day or more than 300 concurrent users on the
same system accessing the same database.
Two or more heterogeneous data sources like two
DBMS or a DBMS and a file system.

THE CLIENT

Services - Introduction
Any

workstation that is used by a single user is a


client, if multiple users share the same workstation
simultaneously, then it is a server.
The client workstation may use the DOS, Windows,
Windows NT, OS/2, MacOS (also referred to as
System 7), or UNIX operating system. When the
client workstation is connected to a LAN, it has
access to the services provided by the network
operating system (NOS) in addition to those provided
by the client workstation.

ROLE OF THE CLIENT AND ITS


SERVICES
Functions are provided by a combination of resources
using both the client workstation processor and the
server processor.
Like a database server provides data in response to an
SQL request issued by the client application. The local
processing by the client might calculate the invoice
amount and format the response to the workstation
screen.
The client workstation can provide business functions
using a mixture of personal productivity products
blended with a custom application.
The capability to cut and paste input from several
different sources is one of the most powerful aspect of a
client workstation.

ROLE OF THE CLIENT AND ITS


SERVICES
In the client/server model, the client is primarily a
consumer of services provided by one or more server
processors. Whereas the server acting a service provider
responding to the clients request.
The client provides presentation services. The user input
and final output are presentation at the client
workstation. The current technology provides full support
for GUIs. The functions like field edits, context sensitive,
help, navigation, training, personal data storage and
manipulation frequently execute on the client workstation.
All of them use the GUI and Windowing functionality.
The client workstation can use or uses local operating
system to support both basic services and the network OS
interfaces.

CLIENT SERVICES
The ideal client/server platform operates in an open
systems environment using a requester-server
discipline that is based on well-defined standards. This
enables multiple hardware and software platforms to
interact.
1. Request for Services
A client workstation requests services form the
attached server; whatever may be the type of processor
the format of request is the same. It is the job if the
NOS software to translate or add the necessary details
as required by the targeted requester to the application
request. OS also provides the redirection service.

REDIRECTION
The most basic service provided by the NOS is
redirection.
This service intercepts client workstation
operating system calls and redirects them to the
server operating system.
Thus in this way the request for disk directories
or disk files, printers, printer queues, serial
devices, application programs and named pipes
are trapped by the redirection software and
redirected to the correct server location.

HOW DOES THIS REDIRECTION


WORK?
Let the local disk driver be labeled A: and C: and
the remote drivers labeled D: , E: and F:
Any request for drive A: of C: is passed through
to the local file system by the redirection
software. Then the request is sent to the server
OS.
The NOS requester software constructs the
remote procedure call (RPC) to include the API
call to the NOS server.
The NOS server then processes the request as if
it was executed locally and ships the response
back to the application.

2. REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL


(RPC)
Developers want subroutines to be stored as
named objects "somewhere" and made available
to everyone with the right to use them.
Remote procedure calls (RPCs) provide this
capability.
RPCs standardize the way programmers must
write calls, so that remote procedures can
recognize and respond correctly.
The RPC facility provides for the invocation and
execution of requests from processors running
different operating systems and using hardware
platforms different from that of the caller.

3. WINDOW SERVICES

The capability to activate, view, move, size, or hide a


particular window is provided by the window services of
the client operating system.
They interact with message services provided to notify the
user of events that occur on a server.
Each application is written with the assumption that it
has a virtual screen.
The application, using GUI software, places data into the
virtual screen, and the windowing services handle
placement and manipulation of the application window.
The NOS provides software on the client workstation to
manage the creation of pop-up windows that display alerts
generated from remote servers.
E-mail receipt, print complete, Fax available, and
application termination are examples of alerts that might
generate a pop-up window to notify the client user

4. FAX/PRINT SERVICES
The NOS enables the client to generate print
requests even when the printer is busy.
These are redirected by the NOS redirector
software and managed by the print server queue
manager.
The client workstation can view the status of the
print queues at any time.
Many print servers notify the client workstation
when the print request is completed.
Fax services are made available in exactly the same
manner as print servers, with the same requester
server interface and notification made available.

5. REMOTE BOOT SERVICES


Some applications operate well on workstations
without any local disk storage; X-terminals and
workstations used in secure locations are examples.
The client workstation must provide sufficient
software burned into erasable programmable readonly memory (E-PROM) to start the initial
program load (IPL)that is, bootprocess. EPROM is included in all workstations to hold the
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) services.
This mini-operating system is powerful enough to
load the remote software that provides the
remaining services and applications functions to
the client workstation or X-terminal.

6. OTHER REMOTE SERVICES


Applications can be invoked from the client to
execute remotely on a server.
Backup services are an example of services that
might be remotely invoked from a client
workstation.
Mobile computing is increasingly being used to
remain functional while out of the office.
With appropriate architectural forethought,
applications can be built to operate effectively
from the office LAN or the remote laptop.

OTHER SERVICES
7.

8.

9.

10.

Utility Services - The operating system provides local functions


such as copy, move, edit, compare, and help that execute on the
client workstation.
Message Services - Messages can be sent and received
synchronously to or from the network. The message services
provide the buffering, scheduling, and arbitration services to
support this function.
Network Services - The client workstation communicates with
the network through a set of services and APIs that create, send,
receive, and format network messages. These services provide
support for communications protocols, such as NetBIOS, IPX,
TCP/IP, APPC, Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, X.25, and SNA.
These are more fully described in Chapter 5, "Components of
Client/Server ApplicationsConnectivity."
Application Services - In addition to the remote execution
services that the NOS provides, custom applications will use
their own APIs embedded in an RPC to invoke specialized
services from a remote server

11. DATABASE SERVICES


Database requests are made using the SQL
syntax.
Because the language uses a standard form, the
same application may be run on multiple
platforms.
Using unique features may prevent the use of
another vendor's products in a larger or smaller
site.
A
clear understanding, by the technical
architects on the project, of where the standards
are going is an important component of the SDE
standards for the project.

12. NETWORK MANAGEMENT


SERVICES-ALERTS
Most network interface cards (NICs) can
generate alerts to signify detected errors and
perhaps to signify messages sent and received.
Applications may also generate alerts to signify
real or potential problems.
Certain error conditions indicate that important
procedures are not being followed.
Application program failure may occur because
current versions of software are not being used.

13. DYNAMIC DATA EXCHANGE


(DDE)
DDE is a feature of Windows and OS/2
Presentation Manager that enables users to pass
data between applications from different vendors
through support for common APIs.
This information is attractive when the volume of
changes to the server data is so great that the
client prefers not to be burdened with repetitive
processing.

14. OBJECT LINKING AND


EMBEDDING (OLE)
OLE is an extension to DDE that enables objects
to be created with the object components software
aware. Aware means that a reference to the object
or one of its components automatically launches
the appropriate software to manipulate the data.
OLE is designed to let users to focus on data
encompassing of words, numbers and graphics
rather than on the software required to
manipulate the data.
Here the documents are collection of objects,
rather than a file, each object remembers the
software that maintains it.

OLE allows users to integrate data from different


applications. It allows users to share a single
source of data for a particular object.
Both the DDE and OLE techniques require the
user to be aware of the difference between data
sources. DDE and OLE provide a substantial
advantage any DDE or OLE-enabled application
can use any software that supports these data
interchange APIs.

15. COMMON OBJECT REQUEST


BROKER ARCHITECTURE (CORBA)
CORBA addresses cross-platform data transfer
and the process of moving objects over networks.
CORBA support enables Windows and UNIX
clients to share objects.
A word processor operating on a Windows
desktop can include graphics generated from a
UNIX workstation

THE SERVER
The server is a multiuser computer.
The hardware platform should be selected based
on application demands and economics.
Servers for client/server applications work best
when they are configured with an operating
system that supports shared memory, application
isolation, and preemptive multitasking.

ROLE OF THE SERVER


Servers provide application, file, database, print,
fax, image, communications, security, systems, and
network management services.
An entire or partial business function invoked
through an InterProcess Communication (IPC)
request for service.
A collection of application servers may work in
concert to provide an entire business function.
These servers may run different operating systems
on various hardware platforms and may use
different database servers.
Security at the server restricts access to software
and data accessed from the server.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SERVERS


ARE:
1.

2.

3.

4.

Application servers provide business


functionality to support the operation of the client
workstation.
Database Server - A database engine such as
Sybase, IBM, Ingres, Informix, or Oracle manages
database servers.
The file server provides the initial space, and the
database engine allocates space for tables within
the space provided by the file server.
Print servers provide support to receive client
documents, queue them for printing, prioritize
them, and execute the specific print driver logic
required for the selected printer.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SERVERS


ARE:
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Fax servers provide support similar to that provided by


print servers. Fax servers queue up outgoing faxes for
later distribution when communications charges are lower.
Communications servers provide support for wide area
network (WAN) communications. Communications access
is controlled from the communications server.
UNIX servers provide a range of product add-ons from
various vendors to support the entire range of
communications requirements.
VMS servers support DECnet, TCP/IP, and SNA as well
as various asynchronous and serial communications
protocols.
MVS servers provide support for SNA, TCP/IP, and some
support for other asynchronous communications.

SERVER SIDE FUNCTIONALITY


Request Processing
File Services
Print /Fax /Image Services
Database Services
Security Services
Communication Services

SERVER SIDE FUNCTIONALITY


Request Processing
Steps in Request Processing are:
1. A client issues requests to the NOS services
software resident on the client machine.
2. These services format the request into an
appropriate RPC and issue the request to the
application layer of the client protocol stack.
3. The application layer of the protocol stack on
the server receives this request.

FILE SERVICES
File services handle access to the virtual directories and
files located on the client workstation and to the server's
permanent storage.
In the typical implementation, software, shared data,
databases, and backups are stored on disk, tape, and optical
storage devices that are managed by the file server.
To minimize the effort and effect of installation and
maintenance of software, software should be loaded from
the server for execution on the client.
New versions can be updated on the server and made
immediately available to all users.
Backups of the server can be scheduled from the server and
monitored by a trained support person.
With more organizations looking at multimedia and image
technology, large optical storage devices are most
appropriately implemented as shared servers.

PRINT /FAX /IMAGE SERVICES


High-quality printers, workstation-generated faxes,
and plotters are natural candidates for support
from a shared server.
The server can accept input from many clients,
queue it according to the priority of the request and
handle it when the device is available.
Incoming faxes can be queued at the server and
transmitted to the appropriate client either on
receipt or on request.
In concert with workflow management techniques,
images can be captured and distributed to the
appropriate client workstation from the image
server.

PRINT /FAX /IMAGE SERVICES


In the client/server model, work queues are
maintained at the server by a supervisor in concert
with default algorithms that determine how to
distribute the queued work.
Incoming paper mail can be converted to image form
in the mail room and sent to the appropriate client
through the LAN rather than through interoffice mail.
Well-defined standards for electronic document
management will allow this technology to become
fully integrated into the desktop work environment.
There are dramatic opportunities for cost savings and
improvements in efficiency if this technology is
properly implemented and used.

DATABASE SERVICES
Early database servers were actually file servers
with a different interface. They execute the
database engine primarily on the client machine
and use the file services provided by the file server
for record access and free space management.
These
are
new
and
more
powerful
implementations of the original flat-file models
with extracted indexes for direct record access.
Currency control is managed by the application
program, which issues lock requests and lock
checks, and by the database server, which creates
a lock table that is interrogated whenever a record
access lock check is generated.

DATABASE SERVICES
Because access is at the record level, all records
satisfying the primary key must be returned to
the client workstation for filtering.
Client/server database engines such as Sybase,
IBM's Database Manager, Ingres, Oracle, and
Informix provide support at the server to execute
SQL requests issued from the client workstation.
The file services are still used for space allocation
and basic directory services, but all other
services are provided directly by the database
server

RELATIONAL DATABASE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Relational database management systems are
the current technology for data management.
Relational database technology provides the
current data management solution to many of
the problems inherent in the flat-file and
hierarchical technologies.
The primary design objective (of E.F Codd)
behind SQL was to provide a data access
language that could be shown mathematically to
manipulate the desired data correctly.

SECURITY SERVICES
Client/server applications require security services to
those provided by host environments. Every user should
be required to log in with a user ID and password.
If passwords might become visible to unauthorized
users, the security server should insist that passwords
be changed regularly.
The enterprise applications uses a single logon ID and
logon sequence is used to gain the authority once to
access all information and process for the user has a
need and right of access..
The encryption and decryption are done using the DES
algorithm and the user password. This ensures that no
unauthorized user can access stored data or
communications data.

COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
Client/server applications require LAN and WAN
communication services.
Basic LAN services are integral to the NOS.
Various communications server products provide
WAN services.

NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM


An operating System that includes special
functions for connecting computers and devices
into a local area network (LAN) are called as
Network Operating System.
OS like UNIX and Mac OS have networking
functions built-in.
Novell Netware, Microsoft Windows Server and
Windows NT are examples of NOS.
The main functions of NOS is to make the
physical location of resources over the network
transparent to an application.

FUNCTIONS PROVIDED BY NOS.


File and Print Sharing
Account Administration for users
Security
Data Back-up

VARIOUS NOS
Novell NetWare
LAN Manager
IBM LAN Server
Banyan VINES
PC Network File Services (NFS)

NOVELL NETWARE
The most popular NOS. NetWare is a family of LAN
products with support for IBM PC-compatible and Apple
Macintosh clients, and IBM PC-compatible servers.
It is based on Client /Server Model. NetWare provides the
premier LAN environment for file and printer resource
sharing.
The use of open protocol technology (OPT), Novell makes
NetWare fully network protocol independent.
Two standardized interfacesopen data link interface
(ODI) and NetWare Streamsenable other vendors to
develop products for the NetWare environment.
NetWare has benefitted from its high performance and
low resource requirements as much as it has from its
relative ease of use.

LAN MANAGER
LAN Manager and its IBM derivative, LAN Server,
are the standard products for use in Client / Server
implementations using OS/2 as the server operating
system.
LAN Manager and Advanced Server provide client
support for DOS, Windows, Windows NT, OS/2, and
Mac System 7.
The native NOS support for preemptive
multitasking and storage protection.
Advanced Server also supports TCP/IP
communication. Advanced Server provides
integrated support for peer-to-peer processing and
client/server applications.

IBM LAN SERVER


IBMLAN Serverstarted as a close cousin of
MicrosoftLAN Manager
It was originally designed to run on top of OS/2
Extended Edition.
The network client was called IBM LAN Requester
and was included withOS/2EE 1.1 by default.
Advantage
Its a low cost option for small LANs.
It supports DOS, Windows, and OS/2clients.
Disadvantage
No Support for MAC OS System.

BANYAN VINES

Banyan Systemsran as a collection of services on top


of AT&T System 5Unix,

VINES provide intelligent WAN routing within the


communications server component.
VINES incorporate a facility called StreetTalk that
enables every resource in a Banyan enterprise LAN to
be addressed by name.
StreetTalk enables resources to be uniquely identified
on the network, making them easier to access and
manage.
All resources, including file services, users, and
printers, are defined as objects. Each object has a
StreetTalk name associated with it.

PC NETWORK FILE SERVICES


(NFS)
NFS is the standard file system support for
UNIX.
PC NFS is available from SunSelect and FTP to
provide file services support from a UNIX server
to Windows, OS/2, Mac, and UNIX clients.
NFS lets a client mount an NFS host's filing
system (or a part of it) as an extension of its own
resources.
NFS's resource-sharing mechanisms encompass
inter-host printing.

WHAT ARE THE AVAILABLE


PLATFORMS?

Client/server computing requires that LAN and


WAN topologies be in place to provide the
necessary internetworking for shared
applications and data. The available platforms
are
Workstations

in LAN configuration
LAN to LAN/WAN configuration
LAN to Host Configuration
Enterprise Wide

WORKSTATIONS IN LAN
CONFIGURATION

This model is the most basic implementation


providing the standard LAN services for file and
printer sharing.

LAN TO LAN/WAN
CONFIGURATION
Routers and communication servers will be used
to provide communication services between LANs
and into the WAN.
In the client/server model, these connections will
be provided transparently by the SDE Tools.
There are significant performance implications if
the traffic volumes are large.
Integrated support for TCP/IP, LU6.2, and IPX
provides a solid platform for client/server LANto-WAN implementation within DECnet.

LAN TO HOST CONFIGURATION


The lack of real estate on the desktop encouraged
most organizations to move to a single device
using terminal emulation from the workstation
to access existing mainframe applications.
It will take considerable time and effort before all
existing host-based applications in an
organization are replaced by client/server
applications.
In the long term, the host will continue to be the
location of choice for enterprise database storage
and for the provision of security and network
management services.

ENTERPRISE WIDE
Information that is of value or interest to the
entire business must be managed by a central data
administration function and appear to be stored on
each user's desk.
These applications are traditionally implemented
as Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) to the
mainframe or minicomputer.
With the client/server model, it is feasible to use
database technology to replicate or migrate data to
distributed servers.
Wherever data resides or is used, the location
must be transparent to the user and the developer.

THE SERVER OPERATING SYSTEM

Servers provide the platform for application,


database, and communication services. There are
six operating system platforms that have the
greatest potential and/or are prevalent today:
NetWare,
OS/2,

Windows
MVS,

VMS,

NT,

and
UNIX.

THE SERVER OPERATING SYSTEM


Server Operating System is designed from the
ground up to provide platforms for multi user
frequently business critical, networked
applications.
The focus of SOS is security, stability and
collaboration rather than user interface.
Server OS provide a platform for multi user
applications and most come bundled with a batch
of common sever applications such as web
servers, email agents and terminal services.

VARIOUS SERVER OS

NetWare

NetWare

is a self-contained operating system that


has provision of file, printer, and network services.
It does not require a separate OS (as do Windows NT,
OS/2, and UNIX) to run.
Novell is taking steps to allow NetWare to run on
servers with UNIX.

OS/2 OS/2 is the server platform for Intel products


provided by IBM in the System Application
Architecture (SAA) model.
OS/2 provides the storage protection and
preemptive multitasking services needed for the
server platform.
The only network operating systems directly
supported with OS/2 are LAN Manager and LAN
Server.
The combination of Novell with an OS/2 database
and application servers can provide the necessary
environment for a production-quality client/server
implementation.

WINDOWS NT
NT provides the preemptive multitasking
services required for a functional server.
It provides excellent support for Windows clients
and incorporates the necessary storage protection
services required for a reliable server operating
system.
Its implementation of security goes well beyond
that provided by OS/2 and most UNIX
implementations.

MVS
IBM provides MVS as a platform for large
applications.
The standard networking environment for many
large organizationsSNAis a component of
MVS.
There is a commitment by IBM to provide
support for the LAN Server running natively
under MVS.
This is an attractive option for organizations with
large existing investments in MVS applications.

OPEN VMS
Digital Equipment Corporation provides OPENVMS
as its server platform of choice in the distributed
computing arena and includes many of the features
necessary to act as a server in the client/server
model.
VAX OPENVMS support for database products such
as RDB, Sybase, Ingres, and Oracle enables this
platform to execute effectively as a database server
for client/server applications.
Many organizations have large investments in VAX
hardware and DECnet networking. The option to use
these as part of client/server applications is attractive
as a way to maximize the value of this investment.

UNIX
UNIX is a primary player as a server system in
the client/server model.
The original intention of the UNIX architecture
was to define a standard set of services to be
provided by the UNIX kernel.
These services are used by a shell that provides
the command-line interface.
The power and appeal of UNIX lie in the common
definition of the kernel and shell and in the large
amount of software that has been built and is
available

OPEN SOFTWARE FOUNDATION


(OSF)

The Open Software Foundation (OSF) goal to


build distributed computing environment (DCE)
compatibility into its distributed computing
architecture. The important technologies defined
for OSF include
Remote

procedure call (RPC) services


Data-sharing services
E-mail naming
Security software
Time services
Parallel programming support
Data-sharing and print services
DOS file and printer clients

UNIX
UNIX is particularly desirable as a server
platform for client/server computing because of
the large range of platform sizes available and
the huge base of application and development
software available.
Government agencies are insisting on UNIX as
the platform for all government projects.
The combination of these pressures and
technology changes should ensure that UNIX
compatibility will be mandatory for server
platforms.

WAYS TO IMPROVE
PERFORMANCE
1.
2.
3.

Offload Work to Server


Reduce Total Execution Time
Use a Multitasking Client

OFFLOAD WORK TO SERVER


Database and communications processing are
frequently offloaded to a faster server processor,
particularly for a complex process, which is
required by many users.
Shared databases or specialized communications
interfaces are best supported by separate
processors. Thus, the client workstation is
available to handle other client tasks.
These advantages are best realized when the
client workstation supports multitasking or at
least easy and rapid task switching

REDUCE TOTAL EXECUTION TIME


Database searches, extensive calculations, and
stored procedure execution can be performed in
parallel by the server while the client
workstation deals directly with the current user
needs.
Servers may be multiprocessors with shared
memory, which enables programs to overlap the
LAN functions and database search functions
In order for this approach to reduce the total
elapsed time, the additional time required to
transmit the request over the network to the
server must be less than the saving.

USE A MULTITASKING CLIENT


As workstation users become more sophisticated,
the capability to be simultaneously involved in
multiple processes becomes attractive.
Several of these applications can be dynamically
linked together to provide the desktop
information processing environment. Functions
such as Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) and
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) permit
including spreadsheets dynamically into wordprocessed documents.

HOW TO REDUCE NETWORK


TRAFFIC
Minimize Network Requests
Ease Strain on Network Resources
How to Reduce Costs

MINIMIZE NETWORK REQUESTS


Records are locked when transactions are being
processed. With the introduction of specific
database server products in the client/server
implementation, the search request is packaged
and sent to the database server for execution.
The SQL syntax is very powerful andwhen
combined with server trigger logicenables all
selection and rejection logic to execute on the
server.
Wise use of OLTP can significantly reduce the
traffic between client and server and use the
powerful CPU capabilities of the server.

EASE STRAIN ON NETWORK


RESOURCES
The use of application and database servers to
produce the answer set required for client
manipulation will dramatically reduce network
traffic.
The maximum reduction in network overhead is
achieved when the only data returned to the
client is that necessary to populate the
presentation screen.
Client/server applications can reduce expensive
WAN overhead by using the LAN to provide local
communications services between the client
workstation and the server.

HOW TO REDUCE COSTS


Appropriate choice of technology and allocation of
the work to be done can result in dramatic cost
reduction.
These resources like CPU cycles, disk queues,
and D-RAM are orders of magnitude cheaper on
the workstation then on mainframe.
The use of communications server technology to
provide some of the functionality currently
provided within a client workstation frees up
valuable D-RAM for use by the client
applications.