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Host Integration Basics

Upon completion of this module, you should be able


to:
Identify storage network topologies and
requirements
Describe PowerPath features and functions
Describe Unisphere Agent and Unisphere Server
Utility considerations

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

Host Integration Basics

Lesson 1: Storage Network Topologies and


Requirements

This lesson covers the following topics:


Identifying Network Technologies
Identifying Fibre Channel components,
addressing, and Connectivity rules
Identifying iSCSI components, addressing, and
Connectivity rules
Explaining host connectivity requirements

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

Network Technologies
Network technologies offer more flexibility and
distance capabilities than typical channel
technologies
Some characteristics of network technologies
are:

Low performance
High protocol overhead
Dynamic configuration
Long distance
Connectivity among
different systems

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Host Integration Basics

Storage Area Network Management

SANs are networks of host and storage devices

often connected over Fibre Channel Fabrics


A common method of managing the variety of
devices on a SAN is SNMP
Out of Band

The FibreAlliance is defining the SNMP MIB to


facilitate SAN management
The Fibre Channel Management Integration (FCMGMT-

INT) MIB provides a heterogeneous method of


managing multiple devices across a SAN

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Host Integration Basics

Fibre Channel
Fibre Channel is a serial data transfer interface
Copper Wire Connection
Optical Fiber Connection

High-speed is obtained through:


Mapping networking and I/O protocols to Fibre Channel

constructs
Encapsulating
them and transporting them within Fibre
Host Bus Adapters
Channel frames
Windows
Host

Linux
Host

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Storage

Fibre Channel
Switch

Host Integration Basics

Host Bus Adapter (HBA)


A Host Bus Adapter is
an I/O adapter that sits
between the host
computer's bus and the
Fibre Channel loop

Manages the transfer of information

Performs many lowlevel interface functions


automatically

Minimizes the impact on host processor


performance

Multiple Technologies
The HBA enables a
range of highavailability and storage
management
capabilities

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Fibre Channel
iSCSI
FICON
SCSI

Load balance
Fail-over
SAN administration
Storage management

Host Integration Basics

Fibre Channel Addressing

Fibre Channel Addresses are required to route the

frames from source to target


24 bits (3 bytes) physical addresses are assigned
when a Fibre Channel node is connected to the
switch (or loop in the case of FC-AL)
Target
FC Switch

Source

FC Initiator:
HBA

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FC Responder:
SP Ports

Host Integration Basics

Viewing SP Fibre Channel Port Properties

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Host Integration Basics

Switched Fabric Topology


Switched Fabric is a Fibre Channel topology where many
devices connect with each other via Fibre Channel
switches
This topology allows for the most number of connections

with a theoretical 16 million devices per Fabric

Frames are routed between source and destination by


the Fabric

Fibre Channel
Switch

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Host Integration Basics

Single Initiator Zoning

Always put ONLY one

HBA in a zone with


Storage ports
Each HBA port can only
talk to Storage ports in
the same zone
HBAs & Storage Ports
may be members of
more than one zone
HBA ports are isolated
from each other to
avoid potential
problems associated
with the SCSI discovery
process

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Single Emulex HBA zoned to two VNX ports

Host Integration Basics

10

iSCSI Overview
iSCSI
An IP-based protocol for
establishing and managing
connections between IP-based
storage devices, hosts, and
clients
A method to transfer block data
using a TCP/IP network
Works by wrapping SCSI
commands into TCP Packets to
transport them over an IP
network.
Route or switch on standard
Ethernet equipment.
Can use existing TCP/IP
infrastructure
Bridging devices can be used
between IP network and SAN
No Fibre
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2014 EMCChannel
Corporation. All Rights
content needed

IP Network

IP Network
iSCSI/FC
Gateway

FC

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11

iSCSI Device Options


Network Interface Card (NIC)
Checksum offload
Fragmentation, out of order packets
handled by host
Could hurt system performance

NIC with TCP Off-load Engine


(TOE)

Full TCP/IP offload


Fragmentation, out of order packets
handled
by TOE
Increased memory/processing
requirements
iSCSI
Adapter
iSCSI Host
& SCSIBus
handled
by host(HBA)
Full TCP/IP+iSCSI/SCSI
Completes storage connection
Runs all layers on HBA

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Host Integration Basics

12

iSCSI Names

An iSCSI address
Uniquely identifies nodes
There are Two variations
iqn. iSCSI Qualified Name
iqn.1992-04.com.emc:cx.fcntr073900083.a4
eui. Extended Unique Identifier
eui.5006016141e0163a

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Host Integration Basics

13

iSCSI Front-end Port Properties

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Host Integration Basics

14

iSCSI CHAP Security

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol


1. CHAP Target sends challenge to CHAP initiator
2. Initiator responds with a calculated value to the

target
3. Target checks the calculated value, and if it matches,
login continues
4. If mutual CHAP is enabled, initiator will authenticate
target using the same process

One-way and Mutual CHAP


.Target and Initiator configured the same

Configuration
.Unisphere Array
.Host NBAs Vendor Specific Tools

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Host Integration Basics

15

iSCSI Network Requirements

LAN configuration allows Layer 2 (switched) and


Layer 3 (routed) networks
Layer 2 networks are recommended over Layer 3

networks

The network should be dedicated solely to the iSCSI


configuration
For performance reasons EMC recommends that no

traffic apart from iSCSI traffic should be carried over it


If using MDS switches, EMC recommends creating a
dedicated VSAN for all iSCSI traffic.
The network must be a well-engineered network with
no packet loss or packet duplication.
vLAN tagging protocol is supported

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

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iSCSI Basic Connectivity Verification

Ping
Check basic connectivity

Trace Route
Provides information on number of hops required for the

packet to reach its destination

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

17

iSCSI and FC Host Connectivity Rules

All connections from a host to an array must use the


same protocol
Connections must be all FC or all iSCSI
NIC and HBA iSCSI connections cannot be mixed in

the same server


A server must have all NIC iSCSI connections or all HBA

iSCSI connections
Do not connect a single server to both an FC storage

system and an iSCSI storage system

Servers with iSCSI HBAs and servers with NICs can


connect to the same iSCSI storage system

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

18

Host Integration Basics

Lesson 1: Summary
During this lesson the following topics were covered:
Identifying Network Technologies
Identifying Fibre Channel and iSCSI components
and addressing
Explaining FC and iSCSI connectivity rules
Explaining host connectivity requirements

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

19

Host Integration Basics

Lesson 2: PowerPath and Other Host Utilities


This lesson covers the following topics:
Describe PowerPath Features and Functions
Describe Unisphere Agent and Unisphere Server
Utility Considerations
Implement Host Utilities

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

20

PowerPath
Host-Based Software
Provides Path Management

Multiple Storage System


Support
Multiple OS Support
Supports Fibre Channel and
iSCSI

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Host Integration Basics

21

Features and Functionality


Automatic path failover and path restore

HBA/NIC
Interconnect
Switch
Interface
Interface Port

Dynamic multipath load-balancing


Host by Host basis

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Host Integration Basics

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Array and OS Support


Supports all EMC-branded storage arrays
All currently-shipping and supported models of VNX
Both Fibre Channel and iSCSI interconnects

Supports several third-party, non-EMC storage arrays

IBM ESS (Shark)


Hitachi Lightning
HP-branded Hitachi (HPXP)
HP StorageWorks EVA
EMA
HSG80

Supports major host operating systems

Solaris
Windows Server
HP-UX
Linux Enterprise (Red Hat and SUSE)

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Host Integration Basics

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Integration with Volume Managers


Logical Volumes reside above native
devices and PowerPath devices in the I/O
stack
PowerPath has been qualified for
compatibility with most major third-party
volume managers

Solstice Disk Suite, Veritas, VCS on Solaris


Veritas, native LVM on HP-UX
Veritas, native LVM on AIX
Sistina LVM on Linux

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Host Integration Basics

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Device States
A native device path can be in one of two
States:
Live: the path is usable for I/O activity
Dead: the path has been detected as Failed by
PowerPath

All paths are tested periodically for a


possible change of state
Dead paths are restored automatically by
PowerPath after they are repaired
Only paths currently marked Live by PowerPath
can service I/O requests, and participate in loadbalancing
Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

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Device Modes
Mode can be set per LUN
Reserves Bandwidth
Active mode
Path is available to PowerPath for servicing I/O
Default Mode, can be manually changed by the
administrator
Standby Mode
Path is available to PowerPath, but is not servicing
I/O
Used in failure scenarios

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Host Integration Basics

26

Active/Passive Arrays: Failover Mechanism


Host

Two types of path failover:


Array-initiated LUN trespass
Typical cause: an SP fails or
needs to reboot
PowerPath logs a followover
Host-initiated LUN trespass

Active

Passive

Fabric A

Fabric B

PowerPath detects a path

failure, e.g. due to a cable


break, port failure etc.
PowerPath initiates a
trespass, and logs the
event

Trespass

SP-A

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SP-B
SP-B

Host Integration Basics

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Active/Active Mode (ALUA)


Asymmetric Logical Unit Access

Front-End Fault Masking

(ALUA)

Asymmetric accessibility to

logical units through various


ports
Request forwarding
implementation
Communication method to
pass IOs between SPs
Software on the controller
forwards requests to the
other controller

Back-End Fault Masking

Not an Active-Active Array


model!

I/Os are not serviced by both

SPs for a given LUN


I/Os are redirected to the SP
owning the LUN
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Host Integration Basics

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Symmetrical Active-Active: Overview


CX: Active-Passive

VNX: Active-Active
(ALUA)

Active-Active
(Symmetrical)

LUN

LUN

Only one SP serves IOs via a given LUN


The remaining SP is acting as standby
SP trespasses LUN when paths fail and
host software adjusts to new path

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

LUN

re
ohe
he C
Cac

L
ncy

inks

LUN is presented across both SPpaths via internal links


Only one SP is actively processing IO
to the backend
Host initiates trespass when path fails

LUN

Both SPs serve IOs to and from a given


LUN
If path fails, no disruption to LUN
The performance is now improved up to
2X
Classic LUNs only!

Host Integration Basics

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Asymmetric LUN Access: VNX


SP reports SCSI
descriptor:

I/O resumes to LUN


through alternate
SP after short
delay

TARGET_PORT_GROUP

S
Active/Optimized
Active/Non-

Optimized
ALUA masks
the failure and
trespasses
LUN

SPA

SPA

SPB

Owned
by SPA

Optimized Path

SPB

Owned
by SPB

Non-optimized Path

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Host Integration Basics

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Symmetric LUN Access: VNX with MCx


Both SPs send and

I/O continues
through remaining
SP and paths with
NO delay

receive
Active/Optimized
Classic LUNs ONLY (OE
R5.33)

SPA

SPA

SPB

Owned
by SPA

Optimized Path
Non-optimized Path

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SPB

Owned
by SPA

Host Integration Basics

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LUN Parallel Access Locking Service

Required for Active-Active access

SPA

CMI

Lock

SPB

Lock

LUN
Write I/O operation acquires a lock on LBA address on both SPs
Lock requests sent over CMI
Lock requests are smaller/quicker than the entire I/O

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

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VNX with Symmetric / Active-Active Benefits

Lower risk with increased availability within data

centers
Improved Availability
All Paths are Active
No trespass during path failure
No trespass during NDU

No setup on VNX or Host side


Improved Performance

LUN

All Paths serving I/O


Up to 2X Improvement
Eliminate application timeouts
Improve application throughput
Multi-path load balancing

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Host Integration Basics

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Requirements for Unisphere Host Agent,


Unisphere Server Utility
Supported version of the operating system
EMC VNX supported HBA hardware and
driver installed
Each SP must have an IP connection
Have a configured TCP/IP network connection
to any remote hosts

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Host Integration Basics

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Installing Unisphere Host Agent or Server


Utility
Host agent and server utility can be installed on the same
attached server
If both are installed:
Registration feature of the server utility will be disabled
The host agent will be used to register the servers NICs or HBAs to the
storage system

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

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Unisphere Server Utility: Install Rules for NIC


Initiators
Must use Unisphere

Server Utility
Microsoft iSCSI
initiator, you must
install the Microsoft
iSCSI Software
Do not install the
server utility on a
VMware Virtual
Machine.
Do not disable the
Registration Service
option
Reboot the server
when the installation

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

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Host Integration Basics

Lesson 2: Summary
During this lesson the following topics were covered:
Describe PowerPath Features and Functions
Describe Unisphere Agent and Unisphere Server
Utility Considerations
Implement Host Utilities

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

37

Summary
Key points covered in this module:
Each network technology has key components,
addressing, and connectivity requirements that
must be followed to enable host connectivity.
PowerPath provides path management essential for
multipathing and high availability.

Copyright 2014 EMC Corporation. All Rights

Host Integration Basics

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