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Nokia Academy

IP Backbone Network Planning with


Juniper
Learning Element 2 Network Dimensioning
and Topology

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Copyright and confidentiality

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Objectives
After completing this learning element, participant should be able to:
- perform the basic dimensioning of IP backbone supplied products.
- describe site, device and interface naming concept and rules.
- describe the proposed network architecture for the IP backbone.
- explain the IP addressing allocation concept and rules.
- describe the basic SCN, PCN and RAN inputs necessary for the IP
backbone dimensioning.

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Network Planning Stages

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Network Planning Stages


Network
Assessment

High Level
Design

Detailed
Network
Design

Databuild

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Network Assessment
Identify the networks specific requirements (partly from source network info), including:
Network architecture (no. of sites)
Interface and NE traffic model(s)
Subscriber traffic model(s)
Services to be supported by the network (no. of servers and security zones)
Interfaces required
IP addressing
Network resilience requirements
QoS requirements
Backbone and transmission type
O&M network requirements
Network element decision
Migration strategy (approach)
Software/System levels

Network Assessment

from the existing network


from network requirements for the
next planning period(s)

from CS planner
from PS planner

Routing strategy

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High Level Design Deliverables


Master Plan (including rollout plan)
- With proposed network topology and architecture
- Staged/phased introduction plan
Migration and/or Swap
Greenfield

Network Dimensioning/Capacity Planning description


- With proposed link transmission capacity
- With proposed device dimensioning
Interface cards needed
Total number ports needed
Redundancy requirements

Note: Network dimensioning is always proceeded with the network architecture and
topology design. Since the latter may require some dimensioning changes, these two
steps are normally performed together until a satisfactory design solution is achieved!

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Schedule for 3GPP releases


LTE is the next step for

A true global roaming technology

GSM/WCDMA/HSPA and
cdma2000

Specification:
UMTS Rel 99/4
2000

MBMS
IMS

WLAN IW

HSDPA

HSUPA

UMTS Rel 5
2003

UMTS Rel 6
2005

IMS Evolution

LTE & EPC

LTE Studies
UMTS Rel 7
2007

UMTS Rel 8
2008

2009

UMTS Rel 10
2010

2011

year

The dimensioning task for mobile core network mostly includes several phases, typically years.
Often the network is planned for different scenarios e.g. with/without a specific feature, with
alternative topology, with other subscriber growth assumptions etc.

Networks are changing in terms of subscribers, offered services and subscriber traffic model.
Based on subscriber and traffic growth forecasts, network operators dimension network
enhancements for each phase.

LTE has been developed by the same standardization organization. The target has been simple
multimode implementation and backwards compatibility.

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Network Topology

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General Considerations
The IP BB topology is highly structured and hierarchical:
- Allows predictable traffic flows and behaviors under both normal and fault conditions
- Allows for an accurate capacity planning, traffic engineering and end-to-end delivery of SLA
requirements

The IP BB topology is designed to recover from failure conditions:


- Generally the topology is designed (and capacity is planned) to handle a single failure at a
time, since handling all combinations of multiple failures is, in general, prohibitively expensive
- Capacity planning and QoS mechanisms are used to guarantee that low latency, control and
NMS traffic is maintained
- Some critical elements, such as Route Reflectors, may be deployed to withstand multiple
failures, thus guaranteeing the delivery of the services
Note:
When designing the network topology, the key performance metric to take into
account is one way delay.

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Provider Variables
Variables that affect the Providers topology include:

Physical transmission network diversity


Cost of transmission
Transmission technology availability
Subscriber traffic forecasts (Core Metrics)
Number of access sites required
National geography
Population density & distribution

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Provider Variables (II)


Variables that affect the Providers topology include:
Provision of redundant infrastructure
Overlay of IP BB and client network cores

Note:
When designing the network topology, the key performance metric to take into account is
one way delay.

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Network Topology - IP BB Variants


Depending on the desired network structure, planning variables, dimensioning criterions
and level of redundancy, the IP Backbone network can be classified into one of the
following variants:
Tiny IP BB
Small IP BB
Medium IP BB
Large IP BB
The key aspects here are the dimensioning and the optimization of the available network
resources.
The goal is to obtain a cost effective and service efficient IP BB solution for the providers
network.

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Network Topology - Tiny IP BB Variant


Tiny IP BB Solution

Uses a fully meshed constellation of


aggregation PEs only.

Normally used in small operators or as a


first stage deployment for larger IP BB.

Need to migrate to larger deployment


solutions when cost efficiency,
throughput or network topology no
longer satisfy the desired requirements.

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Network Topology - Small IP BB Variant


Small IP BB Solution

Uses at least 4 P nodes in a fully


meshed constellation.

Each access site should have 2 PEs


deployed for extra availability.

Each PE at site should have at least


one direct access circuit to the core.

Each access site should have at


least 2 access circuits terminating
on separate core nodes.

A local link connecting PEs should


be provided as an alternative path to
the primary WAN circuit.

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Network Topology - Medium IP BB Variant


Medium IP BB Solution
Uses at least 6 P nodes.
Additional P nodes help to reduce the
distances of transmission circuits.
Shorter transmissions in access and core
layer allow for affordable low delay circuits.
With fewer P nodes, like the Small IP BB
variant, can happen that unacceptable delays
are introduced between access sites that
have to communicate over a remote P node.
2 PEs per site and separated rings
terminating the transmission circuits are
recommended.

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Network Topology - Large IP BB Variant


Large IP BB Solution
Used by operators in very large geographic
areas.
Existing issues related with associated
costs and transmission delays.
Requires a distributed solution to address
unevenly distribution of populated areas.
Optimization of intra region connectivity
without using distant core sites.
End to end solution allowing for traffic flows
in a given area or region and consequent
connection to inter-region backbone.

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IP Backbone Design - Common Approach


Core has highest Bandwidth, usually STM-4 or higher
Normally in demographic center of network
Often 2x2 Routers
Core provides MPLS P-layer (Label Switching)
PP

Some cases P-layer is co-located with PE-Layer


Lower Bandwidth links to connect Core and GW Sites
Site Routers on those Core/GW sites provide PE layer (Label-Edge)
Normally demographically dense spots away from the center
With 2 PE Routers, connection to different P-routers (long links!)

P PE

With 1 PE Router, redundancy inside the box (i.e. still 2 uplinks)


If P and PE router collocated, often only local redundancy
Local Connections on Site provide VRRP Redundancy
Load-sharing between PE routers

PE CE

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IPBB and Site Connectivity

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Connectivity between Sites

CS Voice in R4 can use IP, ATM or TDM for backbone transport

VoIP in access interface based on generic IP/Internet connectivity (DSL or LAN access)

Further development supports IP in all Radio Network Access Interfaces


(Gb, IuCS/PS, lub,lur, A and Abis)

Reduced efforts and cost with ONE Transport technology: IP/MPLS


Backbone transport
Site B

Site A
IP/MPLS backbone

MSS

TDM (PPP)

ADM

MSS
ADM

Ethernet
ATM backbone
MGW

TDM (plain or ATM)

LAN + routing

LAN + routing
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MGW

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IPBB Connectivity Solution


EPC

SAE-GW

Release 4 Core

MSS

MME

MGW

IP
Backbone
Telco Cloud

Controller Site

BSC

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RNC

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Network Topology concept and rules


Site Location

(Requirements / Assumption)
Number and location of sites
Requirements for the size of sites,
(e.g. available floor space)

UTRAN
PSTN
MGW 3

UTRAN

UTRAN
MGW 2
PSTN

UTRAN

MGW 4
UTRAN

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Site description parameters

Site type

Name (e.g. town or neighborhood)

Location

Network sites definition (from the location


point of view)

Main sites (e.g. large core network site)

Remote sites (e.g. controller site with colocated MGW)

MGW 1

PSTN

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Site Types
The first step in the network dimensioning process
Server site
Charging, billing & application servers

Define all network sites on which the network elements


will be located

OAM systems
Controller site
BSC & RNC& (eventually MWG)
Interconnection WIMAX / WLAN
Gateway site
Gateway NE
POI (PSTN/PLMN)
Standard core site
MGW & MSC
PS core NE
Large core site
MGW & MSC
PS part core NE
MSS (w/ wo/ MGCF & NVS/CSCF)
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Core Site with all Equipment (R4)

CSCF

MGW Traffica MSC NEMU


Server

HSS

ATM (STM-1)
FE/GE connectivity
TDM (E1/T1)

SBC

Packet Core
IP Multimedia domain
CS Core

RNC

Charging
ISN Gateway

BSC

Radio Network

Gi Firewall

Site
switch
GRX
3G
2G
SGSN SGSN

Servers DNS

HLR

Common elements and servers

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Internet
Exchange
Point/ISP

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WAN

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Border
Gateway

IP Backbone Design - Naming Convention


Individual elements forming the device name string can include the following values and
significance:
<Owner><loc. code><loc. no><vendor><equip. type><device type><equip. no>
Owner: Departmental identifier or External Business Partner ID
Location code: region identifier + country id + city id
Location number: extra code for identification within same city (different campus
location)
Location type: l = large, m = medium, s = small
Vendor ID: c = Cisco; j = Juniper
Equipment type: r = router; s = switch; a = access point; f = firewall
Device type: p = P node, e = PE node, r = Route reflector
Equipment number: identifier for equipments with the same function
01 = first equipment , 02 = second equipment

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IP Backbone Design - Interface Description


Each physical interface or sub-interface of a router should have attached a description.
The Interface Description can include:
- Bandwidth
- Destination hostname
- Destination port
- Circuit ID

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Proposed network architecture - Dual Planes Concept


CORE SITE Y

CORE SITE X
Fire Room 1

PE1

Fire Room 1

P1

P1

PE1

Transmission Path A

High IGP Cost

High IGP Cost

Transmission Path B

Fire Room 2

PE2

P2

P2

Fire Room 2

GW SITE
Fire Room 1

PE1
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PE2

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Fire Room 2

PE2
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Proposed network architecture - Designing Edges

Fully Redundant Approach:

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Simplified Approach:

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Proposed network architecture - High Availability


A good network design allows for full resilience when a service card, a node or a link fail:
Hardware resilience can be achieved by having redundant elements deployed, using
dual processors, dual power supplies, dual fan units and resilient fabric modules. Its a
common approach to use multiple RR as protection against multiple node fails.
Software resilience can come from properly tuned dynamic routing protocols, Fast Reroute functionalities and Route Processor Redundancy mechanisms, among others. This
features may depend on the type of equipments used.

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Proposed network architecture for the IP backbone


GS 1

PE2

GS2

PE1

PE1
PE2

Core Site 1

CS2

CE

CE

Core Site 2

P1

P1

CS1

PE1

CS3

PE1

CE
RR

GS3
PE2

GS4
PE2

PE2

PE2

CS4

P2

P2
CE

P1

P1
PE1

PE1

PE1

PE1

PE router

RR
PE2

PE2

Core Site 3

P router

P2

Core Site 4

P2

CE router
Core Site

P1

Gateway Site

P2

PE1
PE2

Core Site 5
PE2

GS6

GS5
PE1

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Controller Site
PE1

PE2

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IP Backbone Design - MPLS in the Backbone


Tun-A
MSS

CE

PE

CE
PE

Site A

MSS

Site B
MGW

MGW

Tun-B

CE: (Client Edge)

PE: (Provider Edge)

P: (Provider)

Clients = MGW, MSS, SGSN, ...

entry point into IP Backbone

Label-Switching

IP QoS only (DSCP)

IP QoS mapped to tunnel

no knowledge about VPN

No MPLS label added

Labels & VPN added

MPLS used to define VPN between endpoints (PEs)

Like IPSec: VPNs defined by tunnels between VPN endpoints (only PE routers are endpoints)
VPN Tunnels provide Full-Mesh topology, similar to ATM or E1 permanent circuits
Tunnels ensure diverse Paths through the network (redundancy)

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IP Backbone Design - MPLS Link Resilience


MPLS VPN provides Redundancy on Link Layer:
Dynamic re-routing
works same way IP re-routing (OSPF, IS-IS)
no bandwidth reserved for backup paths
alternative path computed and signaled in failure
will result in some recovery delay
MPLS protection switching

predefined backup path (configuration)

backup path established in parallel to primary

backup with or without bandwidth reservation

can be faster than dynamic re-routing

requires notification to ingress node in failure

Fast re-route (FRR)

simplified local implementation of protection switching

can cover node and link protection

50 ms FRR repair time for link failures

no failure notifications are needed (recovery initiated at the point of failure).

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IP address allocation concept and rules

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IP Addressing Concept

Known as the Onion concept, the idea of

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allocating IP addresses is based on circular


layers. Each layer is defined in relation to the
physical or logical link type.
Permits for a concentric hierarchy and
subdivides the addressing block more
efficiently than a location based addressing
scheme.
A location based scheme suffers from
hierarchy identification when similar sites are
connected to one another and limits
scalability.
No summarization is used for these
addresses.

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IP Addressing Concept
P to P Links
P to P Links consist of intra and inter site link connectivity. Each point-to-point link will be allocated to
a /30 subnet.
Within a /24 subnet allocation there can be 64 point-to-point links in total allowing for good scalability.
P to PE Links
P to PE Links consist of intra and inter site link connectivity. Each point-to-point link will be allocated
in a /30 subnet.
A block of /24 and /25 will allow 96 point-to-point links in total.
PE to PE Links
PE to PE links consist of intra site connectivity only. Each point-to-point link will be allocated a /30
subnet.
With two block of /25 subnets allocated, there can be 64 point-to-point links can be assigned in total.
Loopback Interfaces
The loopback is a /32 host IP address assigned to the P, PE and RR routers in the network.
Within a /25 allocation there can be 128 host addresses in total.

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IP Address Allocation Example

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Layer

Address Range

Allocated

P to P

10.253.128.0/24

64 Links

P to PE

10.253.129.0/24, 10.253.130.0/25

96 Links

PE to PE

10.253.130.128/25, 10.253.131.0/24

96 Links

Loopbacks

10.253.132.0/24

64 Hosts

OAM

10.254.253.0/24, 10.254.254.0/24

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IP Address Allocation Summary

Example

Considerations
Public vs private addresses

Address Range

Link Type

Block assignment

<10.0.0.0 to
10.0.7.255>

Loopback

Loopback addresses

<10.0.8.0 to
10.0.15.255>

P to P

Link types

<10.0.16.0 to
10.0.31.255>

PE, RR to P

/30 segmentation

<10.0.128.0 to
10.0.255.255>

PE to CE

Summarization

The objective of a well conceived IP address plan should be to


maximize the amount of IP address space available, while
minimizing the size of routing tables

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Traffic Flow through the Backbone

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Traffic Flow through the Backbone


Traffic Types
CS Core :
Voice Traffic
CS Data and Fax
SIGTRAN
UDP (SIP, CSD)
PS Core :
Data Traffic

LTE,

UDP/TCP Signaling

NGN,

SIGTRAN
IMS:
UDP/TCP Signaling
IP based MM traffic
SIP access:
UDP/TCP Signaling
IP based MM traffic
VoIP

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CS Core physical connectivity

FE/GE connectivity for control plane


SIGTRAN over SCTP
H.248 over TCP

HLR

HLR

GE or SDH
connectivity
between sites

Optional backbone routers and


MPLS backbone

MSS

MSS

GE connectivity for user plane


voice over RTP/UDP/IP
FE connectivity for control plane
signaling & H.248 over SCTP/IP

MGW

Site
switches

MGW

MGW
MGW

BSC / RNC / INC

BSC / RNC / INC

ATM (STM-1, n x E1)


FE/GE connectivity
TDM (E1)

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MGW

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PS Core physical connectivity


All Internal and
external ISN
connections can
use site switch

local TDM
connections still
common on Gb
(MIGRATE TO IP)

HLR
Internet / Intranet(s)

GE or SDH
connectivity
between
sites

FISN

Corp. Customer.
Connectivity to
Internet via FW
to Site routers

SGSN

Other service
support (e.g. SBC,
LDAP / DB, or IMS
platforms)

Site
switches

Hosting

7609
7609

SGSN

MMS

FE/GE connectivity

MGW
MGW

PoC

Service Platforms
(local/remote/hosted)

ATM (STM-1, n x E1)

MGW

to BSC/ RNC / INC - TDM / ATM / IP


IP based services
via own switches
to site switch, or
directly

Gb over IP as
option for BSC
(local or remote
SGSN)

TDM (E1)

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BSC

BSC

Flat All IP Environment


Core Site

RNC

RNC
HLR

SGSN
NodeB

MSS
NodeB

NodeB

NodeB
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NodeB

MGW

NodeB
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Basic dimensioning

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Separating traffic by VLANs


Gi

AS

Gi Ga/Po Go

IMS

Hosted Aps.

Gn ISC

own Aps.
DNS

ISN

FW

Internet

NPS
SGW

IP access

DNS

CG

VPNGW

SGSN

OSC

HLR

MSS
NVS

SBC
ext. TA
(option)

Data
Gb/Iu
SIGTRAN / (SIP)
Voice

Operator Transport
IP/MPLS Backbone

CE
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PE

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MGW

Separating traffic by VLANs - Example


Vlan ID

Vlan Purpose

Used in

Protocols

Vlan ID

Vlan Purpose

Used in

Protocols

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O&M Network

MSS (OMU, ESB),


MGW (OMU,
NEMU, ESA), CPS
(xx), IMR (xx)

telnet, ssh,
ftp, http,
https

100

External

FW, SBC, SGW

ike, esp, sip,


media

110

Internal-1

FW, SBC, SGW

sip, media

111

Internal-2, for
mobile access

FW, ISN/GGSN

sip, media

112

Internal firewall
inside option

FW

113

FW/SGW sync
traffic

FW, SGW

120

INC traffic

INC

130

AS traffic

AS

radius

140

O&M Network

FW, SBC, SGW,


INC, AS,
ISN/GGSN

telnet, ssh,
ftp, http,
https

150

CS Core Control
Plane MSS

MSS (CCSU,
SIGU)

sctp, sip

151

CS Core Control
Plane MGW

MGW (ISU)

sctp, sip

152

Radio Network
optional

MSS (BSU), MGW


(ISU)

sctp

153

BDCU Network
optional

MSS (BDCU)

traffica

160

CS Core User
Plane MGW

MGW
(IPFE/IPGE/IPGO)

rtp

170

SIP Access Side

MSS/NVS (SCPU),
CPS (P-CSCF)

sip, ldap

171

SIP ISC/NNI Side

MSS/NVS (SCPU),
CPS (S/I-CSCF)

sip

180

IMS Control Plane

CPS (CSCF), IMR


(UMS)

diameter

190

LIG

CPS (CSCF)

lip

200

STU Network
optional

MSS (STU)

ftp

Charging Network

MSS (CHU), CPS


(CSCF)

210

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2 x GE, 2 x FE

2 x GE
2 x GE, 2 x FE

ftp, gtp,
diameter

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Site
VLANs

Traffic Density
IPBB combines CS, PS and access planning aspects:
Traffic Densities from different access networks
into IP Transport Core are independent

Load from each Access network is traditionally


calculated by specialists for that network

IP Backbone planning means:


Mapping traffic densities/amounts from all different
access networks to general IP traffic

Consolidate all access traffic into one IP transport


Backbone

Define Capacity and QoS Requirements for all


access networks and traffic types

CS Voice traffic and CS voice Signaling


are defined by CS planner.
IP BB Planning requires info about :

PS traffic on Gn interface is defined by


PS planner.

PS traffic on Gb/Iu interface is defined


IP BB & Transport Planning by Transmission planner
IP BB Planning requires info about :

Used Voice codecs in CS UP

amount of MGW Ports on each site

Signaling flow and no. of Subscribers

Application Traffic characteristics

CS Routing and Redundancy planning

Amount of PDP Contexts or other IP access

Access options to IP and regional traffic


distribution (for Gb/Iu)

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Traffic Direction
Core Site
For each router that connects to the IPBB:
all inbound and outbound traffic (Mbps)

MSS

destinations of outbound traffic


source of inbound traffic

HLR

type of traffic

MGW

Required for Security Config and BB Links


MPLS tunnels have direction and Bandwidth
Usually one tunnel per traffic type
Aggregation of tunnels on physical links!

PSTN/
PLMN

GW Site

GW Site

Redundancy may require Backup tunnel BW


MGW

Define CS traffic Matrix


Define PS traffic Matrix
Consolidate traffic flows over physical links

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BSC

MGW

BSC

RNC

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Consolidating PS and CS results


Mbps to
transport

Ports from
A/Iu transit
PSTN

Link
Destination

any non-Voice:
Voice
Codec
used in BB

SIGTRAN
GPRS Gb
Gn
...

total final data


through router

Document all Voice and Data/GPRS traffic for each site as shown above:
Collect PS information and traffic directions from PS IP Plan(er)
Collect amount of MGW ports to IPBB and used Codec from CS planer
Understand SIGTRAN traffic flow (amount and directions) from SGSN and MSS/MGW
Understand Signaling from external interfaces (SIP, ISUP, DNS...), O&M traffic and charging data
Define bit rate of each from packet rate and packet size
Apply bit rates to Backbones links, document in a sheet similar to the one shown above
In order to fill this above table, a traffic Matrix is needed !

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IPBB Planning Network Inputs Review


SCN:

RAN:

No. of units

No. of BTS, NodeB and eNodeB

No. of IP addresses

No. of IP addresses per device

CP bandwidth requirements Gu/Gx-IF


UP bandwidth requirements to Application Servers
PCN / EPC:

No. of RNC/BSC
No. of Iu_CS, Iu_PS, A and other RAN Interfaces

No. of IF blades and their redundancy

PHB distribution

L2 aggregation

SDM (Subscriber Data Management):

Use of routing protocols

No. of servers

No. of APN

No. of security zones

DSCP distribution (from APN QoS parameters)

No. of sites & server split


Maximum allowable delay and bandwidth
requirements for LDAP and SOAP

Router Dimensions:
Interface cards needed
Total number ports needed
Throughput in Gbps towards IPBB

Link Capacity:

Redundancy requirements

Site connectivity bandwidth needs

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Requirements/assumptions for IPBB design

IP design/site Parameters

No

Headline

Required data description

Unit

Mandatory /
Optional
(M/O)

Default value/
Sample value

TOPOLOGY

4.1

Network
topology
provided /
expected

Possible Placement of Sites, links,


equipment and limitation for it. MNO
should provide distances (in km) between
Sites and requirements in the Site (space,
power, etc.)

map, list
or table

Needed Map
with topology
specification

4.2

Existing devices
in network

List of existing devices, interfaces and


traffic supported by this devices

table

No existing
devices

4.3

Transport
technology

Description of preferred/used transport


technologies (Ethernet, ATM, MPLS, NGSDH, DWDM, etc.)

Gigabit
Ethernet

Site redundancy
level

Establish the site level of redundancy, i.e.:


- Which Site should be: Two Multilayer
Switches, One Multilayer Switch, CostOptimized Solution, Low Capacity Remote
Solution.

Two Multilayer
Switches - Site
1, 3, , k
One Multilayer
Switch - Site 2,
, m

4.4

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Site list
with one
of four
possibiliti
es

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Remarks

Requirements/assumptions for IPBB design


T R AF F I C

4.5

4.6

52

M AT R I X E S

Site traffic
internal

Amount of internal traffic switched in the Site,


provided per equipment and interface on Ethernet
switches

Site traffic
external

Amount of traffic sent from each site to all other


sites (inbound/outbound). This should be provided
as following:
Site 1 to Site 2 - xxx Mbps
...
Site 1 to Site n - xxx Mbps
...
Site n to Site 1 - xxx Mbps

Site n to Site n-1 - xxx Mbps

CN10562EN03GLA2

Mbps

Mbps

Site 1, Ethernet Switch 1,


port 1 - 250 Mbps (payload
from MGW1)
Site 1, Ethernet Switch 1,
port 2 - 30 Mbps (signaling
from MGW1)

Site 1 to Site 2 - 150 Mbps


Site 1 to Site 3 - 600 Mbps
Site 2 to Site 1 - 240 Mbps
Site 2 to Site 3 - 100 Mbps
Site 3 to Site 1 - 300 Mbps
Site 3 to Site 2 - 150 Mbps

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015

Requirements/assumptions for IPBB design


C O N F I G U R AT I O N S

4.7

Hardware
Redundancy

Establishment of hardware redundancy per


Site/equipment:
- single or duplicated Power Supply (recomm.)
- single or duplicated Supervisors
- single or duplicated switch fabrics
- single or duplicated interface cards

4.8

Other Ethernet
port in Sites

List of additional Ethernet ports needed by operator


(in format: optical/electrical, speed, and type of
transceiver module, e.g. SFP 1000LX)

list of Ethernet
interfaces per
Site

No needed

4.9

Additional
protocols/port in
Sites

List of additional protocols, which are needed to


attach to IP/MPLS Site solution

List

No needed

4.10

Needed security SBC and firewalls

The level of security, as list of needed firewalls and


SBC or Site selection where should be this
equipment

List

No needed

Assumed VPNs

The list of demanded VPNs and technologies, such


as:
- IPSEC,
- L2 VPNs,
- L3 VPNs.

L3 MPLS VPNs
for O&M,
Signaling,
Payload

4.11

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Amount

All sites
duplicated
power supply,
rest single

List

Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015