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Chapter-2 Air Conditioning Systems 1

Chapter-2

Air Conditioning Systems

Chapter-2 Air Conditioning Systems 1

HVAC systems

Have common basic elements;

Categorized by the way they distribute energy and ventilation;

How they are controlled;

By their equipment arrangement.

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HVAC systems will be chosen based on:

Building type;

Heating/cooling load;

Local building codes;

Economics;

etc.

Basics of HVAC

Basics of HVAC 5

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All Air Sys.

All Air Sys. 6

Single Duct Const. Volume Single Zone Sys.

Single Duct Const. Volume Single Zone Sys. 7

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Single Duct Variable Air Volume Multiple Zone Sys.

Single Duct Variable Air Volume Multiple Zone Sys. 8

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Dual Duct Const. Volume Multiple Zone System

Dual Duct Const. Volume Multiple Zone System 9

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All-air HVAC system

All-air HVAC system  No Water Pipe Connections 10
 No Water Pipe Connections
 No Water Pipe
Connections

All-air HVAC system

All-air HVAC system  Location of AHU will be chosen based on:  Duct length (if

Location of AHU will be chosen based on:

Duct length (if the AHU in the center, it will be in the same) Architectural drawing (if the AHU in center, more space needed) Noise (the AHU should not place in the main room)

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All-air HVAC system

 Good choice for small areas, like apartments!
 Good choice for
small areas, like
apartments!

All-air HVAC system

All-air systems transfer cooled or heated air from a central plant via ducting, distributing air through a series of grilles or diffusers to the room or rooms being served. It normally comprises the cheapest equipment cost, but is not necessarily easy or cheap to install in a building due to the size of ducting required and the cost to install.

Buildings that need individual control of condition and having multi-zones: like, office buildings, schools, universities, laboratories, hospital, stores, hotels,… ..

And control of humidity an temperature together: like, classrooms,

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Central plant design

Determination of individual zone

Type and location of HVAC unit

Mechanical room

Zone  A conditioned space under the control of one thermostat .  Because conditions vary

Zone

A conditioned space under the control of one thermostat.

Because conditions vary in most typical zones, it is important that the thermostat be in a location free from local disturbances or sunlight and where the temperature is most nearly the average over the occupied space. Spaces with stringent requirements for cleanliness, humidity, temperature control, and/or air distribution are usually isolated as separate zones within the larger building and served by separate systems and furnished with precision controls. For applications requiring close aseptic or contamination control of the environment, such as surgical operating rooms, all-air systems generally are used to provide adequate dilution of the air in the controlled space.

Mechanical Rooms

Most of HVAC equipment is located in one or more mechanical rooms. The energy and moisture addition or removal, the ventilation, and the removal of pollutants can be accomplished by the equipment in the mechanical room. Normally mechanical rooms are outside the conditioned area, in a basement, on the roof, or in a service area at the core of the building. Mechanical rooms reduce the noise, spills, and mechanical maintenance that might otherwise occur in the occupied spaces. Equipment normally found in the central mechanical room includes:

Fans or air handlers for moving air with associated dampers and filters Pumps for moving heated or chilled water and appropriate control valves Heat exchangers for transferring energy from one fluid stream to another Flow measuring and control devices Chillers and furnace or boiler equipment

Energy should be released somewhere (heat sink)

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HVAC system types (Comp.)

• Fans • Heating cooling load • Filters • Humidifier • Controlling dampers

HVAC system types (Comp.) • Fans • Heating cooling load • Filters • Humidifier • Controlling
HVAC system types (Comp.) • Fans • Heating cooling load • Filters • Humidifier • Controlling

All-air HVAC system

All-air HVAC system 18

Single Zone HVAC sys.

Single Zone HVAC sys. • Operate with or without ducts • Only one set of condition

Operate with or without ducts

Only one set of condition

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Single Zone HVAC sys.

Single Zone HVAC sys. 20

Single Zone, Reheating

The reheat system is a modification of the single-zone constant-volume system. Its purpose is to permit zone or space control for areas of unequal loading, or to provide heating or cooling of perimeter areas with different exposures.

Single Zone, Reheating  The reheat system is a modification of the single-zone constant-volume system. Its

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Single Zone, Reheating

Single Zone, Reheating 22

Single Zone, VAV box

Single Zone, VAV box 23
Single Zone, VAV box 23
Single Zone, VAV box 23

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Single Zone, VAV box

Single Zone, VAV box 24

VAV box advantages

• Low initial and operation cost; • Single run of ducts, better control on air distribution; • Zone load decreases; • Significant fan power saving vs. air circulation; • Good for zones with large internal cooling load.

Multi-Zones

The multi-zone central units provide a single supply duct for each zone and obtain zone control by mixing hot and cold air at the central unit in response to room or zone thermostats.

Multi-Zones  The multi-zone central units provide a single supply duct for each zone and obtain

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Multi-Zones (direction)

Multi-Zones (direction) 27

Multi-Zones

The main benefits of residential zoning are:

Comfort - meets the specific temperature and airflow requirements of one area, without affecting other areas Efficiency - a well designed zoning system can save you hundreds of dollars in energy costs each year Control - divides the building into multiple areas with adjustable comfort levels Quiet Performance - delivers peak performance and efficiency without continually operating at peak capacity; less noise generated at lower speeds

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Multi-Zone

Multi-Zone  Parameters effects zoning:  Orientation of the building  Application 29

Parameters effects zoning:

Orientation of the building Application

Multi-Zones

Multi-Zones  All-air System  Having VAV box for each room 30

All-air System Having VAV box for each room

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Multi-Zones

Multi-Zones 31

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Dual Duct System

Dual Duct System 32

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Dual Duct System

Dual Duct System 33

Dual Duct System

Dual Duct System 34

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All Air systems Advantages

1. All-air systems offer the greatest potential for energy conservation by utilizing the outdoor air effectively.

  • 2. By using high-quality controls it is possible to maintain high

precision in the temperature and relative humidity of the conditioned

space.

  • 3. Using dual duct systems, it is possible to provide simultaneous

cooling and heating. Changeover from cooling to heating and vice

versa is relatively simple in all air systems.

All Air systems Advantages

  • 4. It is possible to provide good room air distribution and ventilation

under all conditions of load.

  • 5. Building pressurization can be achieved easily.

  • 6. The complete air conditioning plant including the supply and return

air fans can be located away from the conditioned space. Due to this it is possible to use a wide variety of air filters and avoid noise in the conditioned space.

All Air systems disadvantages

They occupy more space and thus reduce the available floor space in the buildings. It could be difficult to provide air conditioning in high-rise buildings with the plant on the ground floor or basement due to space constraints.

Air-Water or All-Water Sys.

 Best Place for installing the thermostat is close to the return air!
 Best Place for installing the thermostat
is close to the return air!

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Complete HVAC system

Complete HVAC system 39

Chiller

Chiller  A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-
Chiller  A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-

A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor- compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This liquid can then be circulated through a heat exchanger to cool air or equipment as required.

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Cooling Tower

Air supply Cooling down by evaporation

Cooling Tower  Air supply  Cooling down by evaporation  A cooling tower is a
Cooling Tower  Air supply  Cooling down by evaporation  A cooling tower is a
Cooling Tower  Air supply  Cooling down by evaporation  A cooling tower is a

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.

Air cooled condensing unit

Air cooled condensing unit 42
Air cooled condensing unit 42

Steam Boiler

Steam Boiler  A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is
Steam Boiler  A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is
Steam Boiler  A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.

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Air-water systems

Air-and-Water HVAC is primarily used in perimeter building spaces with high sensible heating and cooling loads: Office buildings, schools, hospitals, libraries and others where the systems can meet and comply with the design criteria.

Air-water systems  Air-and-Water HVAC is primarily used in perimeter building spaces with high sensible heating

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Air-water systems

Air-water systems Air-and-Water HVAC 45
Air-water systems Air-and-Water HVAC 45

Air-and-Water

HVAC

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Air-water systems Air-and-Water HVAC Central Plant 46
Air-water systems
Air-and-Water
HVAC
Central Plant
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Multi-Zone Air-Water Sys.

 Air-water systems configuration:
 Air-water systems configuration:

Chilled water for cooling (chiller) NO Hot water, NO boiler Heated Air Or Vice Versa

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Air-Water Sys. Advantages

1. Larges c p of water than air;

  • 2. Less space for piping rather than ducting;

  • 3. Better and higher velocity of air distribution;

  • 4. Pumping horsepower is less;

  • 5. Less installation and operational costs;

  • 6. Very good for high rise buildings.

  • 7. Individual zone control is possible in an economic manner using room thermostats, which control either the secondary water flow rate or the secondary air (in fan coil units) or both.

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Air-water systems

8. It is possible to provide simultaneous cooling and heating using primary air and secondary water. 9. Space requirement is reduced, as the amount of primary supplied is less than that of an all air systems. 10. Since no latent heat transfer is required in the cooling coil kept in the conditioned space, the coil operates dry and its life thereby increases and problems related to odors or fungal growth in conditioned space is avoided.

Air-water systems

11. The conditioned space can sometimes be heated with the help of the heating coil and secondary air, thus avoiding supply of primary air during winter. 12. Service of indoor units is relatively simpler compared to all water systems.

Air-Water Sys. disadvantage

1. Operation and control are complicated due to the need for handling and controlling both primary air and secondary water.

  • 2. In general these systems are limited to perimeter zones.

  • 3. The secondary water coils in the conditioned space can become

dirty if the quality of filters used in the room units is not good.

  • 4. Since a constant amount of primary air is supplied to conditioned

space, and room control is only through the control of room

cooling/heating coils, shutting down the supply of primary air to unoccupied spaces is not possible.

  • 5. Initial cost could be high compared to all air systems.

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Multi-Zones-2 pipe-All water

 Hot & Cold Water  Supply & Return
 Hot & Cold Water
 Supply & Return

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All Water Sys. Advantages

1. The thermal distribution system requires very less space compared

to all air systems. Thus there is no penalty in terms of conditioned floor space. Also the plant size will be small due to the absence of large supply air fans.

  • 2. Individual room control is possible, and at the same time the system offers all the benefits of a large central system.

  • 3. Since the temperature of hot water required for space heating is small, it is possible to use solar or waste heat for winter heating.

  • 4. Simultaneous cooling and heating is possible with 4-pipe systems.

All Water Sys. disadvantage

1. Requires higher maintenance compared to all air systems,

particularly in the conditioned space.

  • 2. Draining of condensate water can be messy and may also create health problems if water stagnates in the drain tray.

  • 3. If ventilation is provided by opening windows or wall opening, then, it is difficult to ensure positive ventilation under all circumstances, as this depends on wind and stack effects.

  • 4. Control of humidity, particularly during summer is difficult using chilled water control valves.

Direct Refrigerant

Direct Refrigerant 55

Direct Refrigerant Systems

Direct Refrigerant Systems  No chiller, No boiler, everything in one box includes the control system!

No chiller, No boiler, everything in one box includes the control system!

Direct Refrigerant Systems  No chiller, No boiler, everything in one box includes the control system!

Direct Refrigerant

Direct Refrigeration also know as DX(direct expansion) system; System in which the cooling effect is obtained from the expansion of liquid refrigerant into vapor; The refrigerant is used to directly transport heat from the space to be cooled to the space where heat is released; The heat from the cooling object is taken up in the evaporator and released in the condenser.

Fan Coil Conditioner

Fan Coil Conditioner 58
Fan Coil Conditioner 58
Fan Coil Conditioner 58

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Rooftop units

Rooftop units 59

Rooftop units

Rooftop units 60

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Direct Refrg. Sys. Advantages

1. Individual room control is simple and inexpensive.

  • 2. Each conditioned space has individual air distribution with simple adjustment by the occupants.

  • 3. Performance of the system is guaranteed by the manufacturer.

  • 4. System installation is simple and takes very less time.

  • 5. Operation of the system is simple and there is no need for a trained operator.

  • 6. Initial cost is normally low compared to central systems.

  • 7. Retrofitting is easy as the required floor space is small.

Direct Refrg. Sys. disadvantage

1. As the components are selected and matched by the manufacturer, the system is less flexible in terms of air flow rate, condenser and evaporator sizes.

  • 2. Power consumption per Ton Refrg. could be higher compared to central systems.

  • 3. Close control of space humidity is generally difficult.

  • 4. Noise level in the conditioned space could be higher.

  • 5. Limited ventilation capabilities.

  • 6. Systems are generally designed to meet the appliance standards, rather than the building standards.

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Direct Refrg. Sys. disadvantage

  • 7. May not be appealing aesthetically.

  • 8. The space temperature may experience a swing if on-off control

  • 9. Limited options for controlling room air distribution.

10. Equipment life is relatively short.

Summary 64

Summary

Summary 64

HVAC design: selecting air conditioning systems

The benchmark for comfort, safety, health and indoor air quality varies depending on the building use such as:

1. Commercial: Office buildings, supermarkets, shopping malls, restaurants etc.

  • 2. Institutional: Recreation centers, theaters, indoor stadia, schools, museums etc.

  • 3. Residential: Hotels, private homes, low or high rise residential buildings

  • 4. Health Care Facilities: Hospitals, nursing homes etc.

HVAC design: selecting air conditioning systems

Though the design criteria for the above spaces show slight variations, the basic design principle remains as follows:

1. Consideration of air conditioning fundamentals

  • 2. Cooling load calculations

  • 3. Consideration of thermal distribution requirements

  • 4. Concepts of equipment selection

HVAC design: selecting air conditioning systems

A closer classification of these systems as:

1. All-air systems: In this system, air is the energy transfer medium from the conditioned space to the plant room and from the plant room back to the conditioned space. 2. Air and water systems: In this system, two fluids (air and water) are used to convey energy between the conditioned space and the air condition plant room. The basic components of this system include a central plant for producing secondary water, a central plant for producing primary air, a room terminal (a fan coil unit, an induction unit or radiant panel), water pipes, pumps, air ducts and controls. 67

HVAC design: selecting air conditioning systems

3. All water systems: The all-water system uses water as fluid for the thermal distribution system. Since water is the only fluid transported between the air conditioning plant and the conditioned space, separate provision must be made for supplying the required amount of treated outdoor air to meet ventilation requirements. As in all systems that use water as energy transfer fluid, the all-water systems can be classified into 2-pipe and 4-pipe systems. A 2-pipe system can be used for either cooling only or heating only application. The 2-pipe system cannot be used simultaneously for cooling and heating. Instead the 4-pipe system is used.

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HVAC design: selecting air conditioning systems

4. Direct refrigerant systems: The direct refrigerant systems consist of air conditioning units with individual refrigeration systems. These systems are factory assembled and are available in the form of packaged units of varying capacities (cooling equipment capacity is often rated in tons of refrigeration, TR).

The END