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Chapter 3

Maturity concept of concrete

Fibre reinforced concrete
Self compacting concrete
Hot & cold weathering concrete
Prefabricated structures

Fiber-reinforced concrete(FRC)
FRC can be defined as a composite
material consisting of mixtures of cement
mortar or concrete and discontinuous,
discrete, uniformly dispersed suitable
fibres. Also it improves the static and
dynamic property of concrete.
Fibers include


Why FRC?
Plain concrete possess a
Very low tensile strength
Limited ductility
Little resistance to cracking

Volume fraction & Aspect

The amount of fibers added to a
concrete mix is expressed as a
percentage of the total volume of the
composite (concrete and fibers),
termed "volume fraction" (Vf).
Vftypically ranges from 0.1 to 3%.
The aspect ratio (l/d) is calculated
by dividing fiber length (l) by its
diameter (d). It ranges from 30-150

Factors affecting the properties of FRC

Relative fibre matrix stiffness

Volume of fibres
Segregation & harshness of concrete and mortar

Aspect ratio of fibres

Orientation of fibres
Direction parallel to the load
Direction perpendicular to the load
Randomly distributed

Workability & compaction of concrete

Size of coarse aggregates (10 mm)
Mixing of Fibres with concrete
Balling of fibres


Relative fibre matrix stiffness

Interfacial bond between the matrix
and fibres also determine the
effectiveness of stress transfer from
the matrix-fibre
Larger area of contact
Improve the frictional properties
Adding NAOH or Acetone

Aspect ratio of fibres

Self compacting concrete

SCC is characterized by a low yield
stress, high deformability, and
moderateviscositynecessary to
ensure uniform suspension of solid
particles during transportation,
placement (without external
compaction), and thereafter until the

To get SCC

Advantages of SCC
SCC can be used for casting heavily
Places where there can be no access to
vibratorsfor compaction
Complex shapes of formwork
It is far superior surface than
conventional concrete.
It is economical, so it is used in precast industry.

Hot weather concreting

is used during hot weather which is ,
"any combination of the following conditions
that tends to impair the quality of freshly
mixed or hardened concrete by accelerating
the rate of moisture loss and the rate of
cement hydration or otherwise causing
detrimental results
high ambient temperature
high concrete temperature
low relative humidity
wind speed
and solar radiation.

Cold weather concreting

is used during cold weather which is ,
"a period when, for more than 3
consecutive days, the following
conditions exist:
1) the average daily air temperature is
less than 40F and
2) the air temperature is not greater
than 50F for more than one-half of any
24-hour period."

Effect of High Concrete Temperature

As concrete temperature increases

there is a loss in slump
At higher temperatures a greater
amount of water is required to hold
slump constant than is needed at
lower temperatures.

Difference between Load bearing

structure & Framed structure
orbearingwall is a wall
that bears
aloadresting upon it by
conducting its weight to
a foundationstructure.
The materials most
often used to
constructloadbearingwalls in large
buildings are concrete,
block, or brick.

structuresare the
structures having the
combination of beam,
column and slab to
resist the lateral and
gravity loads. These
structures are usually
used to overcome the
large moments
developing due to the
applied loading.

Prefabricated Structure
Prefabricationis the method of
astructurein a manufacturing or
transportingcomplete assemblies or
partial assemblies to the site where
the structure is to be located.

Two stages of Prefabricated

Manufacturing at factory condition
Components at the required location
casted with controlled cement
concrete in moulds
This requires certain stages of
preparation. They areCasting, Curing,
Transportation and erection.

Advantages of Prefabricated Structure:

Prefab Column to Beam Connection

Saving in cost, material, time & manpower.
Shuttering andscaffoldingis not necessary.
Installation of building services and finishes can be done
Independent of weather condition.
Components produced at close supervision .so quality is
Clean and dry work at site.
Possibility of alterations and reuse
Correct shape and dimensions and sharp edges are
Very thin sections can be entirely precast with precision.