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Vehicle Registration Plates
A vehicle registration plate is a metal or a

plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle for

official identification purposes.
The license plates are placed on the front and

back of the vehicle.

Automatic Number Plate

Recognition System(ANPR)
ANPR is an image processing technology

which is used to identify vehicles by their

number plates using Optical Character

This technology is used in various security and

traffic applications such as access-control


Various names of this technology are:
License Plate Recognition
Car Registration System
Intelligent Transport System

While the vehicle approaches the gate ,the
ANPR unit automatically reads the license
plate registration number, compares to a
predefined list and opens the gate if there is a

ANPR equipment incorporates all the hardware

and the software necessary to capture the

images of the vehicles and to recognize the
number plates.
ANPR system consists of:
ANPR hardware
ANPR software

It comprises of:
Camera system
Frame Grabber

Camera System
The camera system takes a snapshot of the

trespassing vehicle.
It uses an IR light spectrum and illuminator

which produces an illumination.

The illumination used is Infra-Red(IR) because

it is invisible to the driver.

Below we can see the picture of a car with

headlamps on; on the left there is a picture of

a car taken by an ordinary camera whereas on
the right there is the same car photographed
using IR filter and IR illuminator.

The computer is normally a PC running

It runs the ANPR applications which
Controls the system
Reads the images
Analyzes and identifies the plate and
Interfaces with other applications and systems.

Frame Grabber
Frame Grabber is an interface between the

camera and the PC

It is a computer module that provides
digitalization of pictures in case analog
camera is used.
Most commonly used frame grabber is FXVD4

Trigger is used by ANPR systems to know that
came to the control spot so that the camera can

When a vehicle approaches the camera, the

ANPR software takes a series of snapshots and

stores them in a file.
When the number plate is of sufficient size, it

is scanned, the registration number is

converted into ASCII code and held in a list.

This process continues for a series of images

depending upon the speed and the position of

the vehicle.

Upon the completion of the process , an

accurate result is selected from the stored list.

The ANPR process is divided into three steps:
Detection of vehicle
Capture of images
Process of recognition

The next few slides show how a typical

access-control system works

Detection Of Vehicles
The vehicle approaches the secured area and

the process starts when the vehicle steps over

a magnetic loop detector.
The loop detector senses the car and its
presence is signaled to the ANPR unit.

Capture of Images
The ANPR unit activates the illumination and

takes pictures of the front and rear plates

using ANPR camera.
The images of the vehicle is read by the ANPR
units image processing hardware or the
frame grabber.

Process of Recognition
The ANPR unit analyzes the image with

different image processing software.

The ANPR unit checks if the vehicle appears
on a predefined list of authorized cars and if
found it signals to open the gate by activating
its relay.

Process of Recognition(contd)
The authorized vehicle enters the secured

area and after passing the gate its detector

closes the gate.
The system waits for the next vehicle to
approach the secured area.


Traffic Control
Traffic control systems use ANPR units which

provide details about the movement and flow

of vehicles around the road network.
These details can highlight the problem areas

and help to make incident management


Electronic Toll Collection

ANPR can be used for electronic toll collection

on smart highways and roads. This process

does not require cars to stop at the toll booth
but instead uses Radio Frequency
Identification to deduct toll charges.

Electronic Toll Collection(contd)

One smart road in operation is the E-Z pass in

New York. In this system a computer reads an

electronic tag mounted inside the cars
windshield and automatically deducts the toll
from a pre-established account.

ANPR systems make use of registration plates

that all cars already have, so there is no need

to add transmitters or special signs to vehicles
which results in saving towards the
implementation of the system.

The photograph of the car and the driver can

be stored and retrieved if there is a need for

evidence in disputes or crime situations.

The various applications are:
Border control

The plate number is used to automatically

enter pre-paid members and calculate parking

fee for non-members (by comparing the exit
and entry times).

A gate automatically opens for authorized
members in a
secured area, thus replacing or assisting the
guard. The events are logged on a database
and could be
used to search the history of events.

The car number is used to calculate the travel
fee in a
toll-road, or used to double-check the ticket.

Border Control
This installation covers the borders of the

entire Country.

Each vehicle is registered into a central

database and linked to additional information

such as the passport data. This is used to
track all border crossings.

Security Features On Registration Plates

Electronic vehicle identification
A potential to provide an accurate vehicle

Means for Personal identification to be

checked in the system

Security Features On
Registration Plates(contd)
Minimize evasion of Tax and Insurance.
Unambiguously links a car with a person.

There is an immediate need of such kind of

Automatic Number Plate Recognition system

in India as there are problems of traffic,
stealing cars etc.

Government should take some interest in

developing this system as this system is very

economical and eco-friendly, if applied
effectively .

It is still not being used in our country but will

be prove to be effective.

This change will help in the progress of the