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2.

Active & Passive Solar Design


Outcomes covered
Explain passive design of buildings in Oman for minimal use of conventional non-renewable
sources of energy.
Demonstrate application of solar energy in buildings;
Explain different types of solar thermal systems available in Oman.
Orientation and operation of solar panels, PV systems in buildings and other structures.
Evaluate and compare the utilization of conventional energy and solar energy, bring out
comparison in the form of energy audit.

Why Renewables?
Do not deplete natural resources
Global warming has hit the public
Effective method to reduce CO2
emissions
Guarantee Energy security for
countries deploying it

Solar Energy
Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into
thermal or electrical energy.
Solar

energy

is

the

cleanest

and

most

abundant

renewable energy source available


Modern technology can harness this energy for a variety
of uses, including generating electricity, providing light
or a comfortable interior environment, and heating water
for domestic, commercial, or industrial use.

ActiveSolar & Passive Solar Systems


Activesolar systems :

which use mechanical or electrical


devices that convert the sun's heat or
light to another form of usable energy.
Solar Thermal technology
(heating & cooling)
Solar Photovoltic Technology
(also called solar electric)
concentrating solar power
(typically built at utility-scale)

Passive solar systems.

Passivesolar buildings are designed


and oriented to collect, store, and
distribute the heat energy from
sunlight to maintain the comfort of
the occupants without the use of
moving parts or electronics.

Active Solar Systems

Solar Thermal Technology


(Heating & Cooling)

Solar thermal technologiesinvolve harnessing


solar energy for thermal energy (heat).
Solar thermal technologies
comprise flat or parabollic
collectors (low and medium
temperatures
and
high
temperature
collectors)
concentrating sunlight mainly
using mirrors and lenses.

Solar
heating
is
the
utilisation of solar energy to
provide
process
heat,
especially in crop drying,
water heating, cooking or
space heating and cooling.

Solar Photovoltaic Technology


(also called solar electric)

Photovoltaic solar technology, which directly converts sunlight


intoelectricity using panels made of semiconductor cells.

Photovoltaics are best


known as a method for
generating electric power
by using solar cells to
convert energy from the
sun
into
a
flow
of
electrons.
Thephotovoltaic effect
refers to photons of light
exciting electrons into a
higher state of energy,

Concentrated Solar Power


Concentrated solar power(also called concentrating solar
power,concentrated solarthermal, and CSP) systems
Using
generate solar powerby using
mirrors or reflective
lenses to
concentratea large area of sunlight,
thermal
materialsorsolar
like mirrors
energy, onto a small area.
and
lenses,these
systems
concentrate
sunlight
to
generate
thermal energy, which is
in turn used to generate
electricity.
Similar to traditional
power plants, many CSP
plants are hundreds of
megawatts (MW) in size
and some can continue
to provide power after

Solar Thermal Technology


Solar Water Heating

How does it work?

Solar Thermal Technology


Solar Water Heating. How does it work?
Solar Water Heater
Water Heating and Air Heating for,
Domestic applications such as bathing, washing cooking
Industrial applications of hot water in various processes also
air heaters have applications typically as dryers.
Concentrating the solar energy in the form of heat.

Needs basically three components:


Absorber : Absorber generally is black colored surface as it
absorbs all visible rays and associated energy.
Conductor: Good conductor of heat is required to conduct
the heat absorbed by absorber to heat some fluid.
Fluid: Its the material such as Water or Air which is heated
based on the application.

Solar Photovoltic Technology(also


called solar electric)

Solar Photovoltaic Technology


Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert light
energy directly into electricity.
Commonly known as solar cells
The simplest systems power the small
calculators we use every day. More
complicated systems will provide a large
portion of the electricity in the near
future.
PV represents one of the most promising
means of maintaining our energy
intensive standard of living while not
contributing to global warming and
pollution.

How Does it Work?

How Does it Work?


Sunlight is composed of
photons, or bundles of
radiant
energy.
When
photons strike a PV cell,
they may be reflected or
absorbed
(transmitted
through the cell). Only the
absorbed
photons
generate electricity. When
the photons are absorbed,
the energy of the photons
is transferred to electrons
in the atoms of the solar
cell.

How Does it Work?


Solar cells are usually made of two thin pieces of
silicon, the substance that makes up sand and the
second most common substance on earth.
One piece of silicon has a small amount of boron
added to it, which gives it a tendency to attract
electrons. It is called the

p-layer because of its

positive tendency.
The other piece of silicon has a small amount of
phosphorous added to it, giving it an excess of free
electrons. This is called the n-layer because it has a

Solar Photovoltaic Technology


How Does it Work?

Concentrated Solar Power


Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants use mirrors to
concentrate the energy from the sun to drive
traditional steam turbines or engines that create
electricity. The thermal energy concentrated in a CSP
plant can be stored and used to produce electricity
when it is needed, day or night.
Parabolic Trough

Compact Linear Fresnel


Reflector

Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough


Power Plant How it works?
Solar trough collectors concentrate and reflect the
energy to the receivers.
Mineral oil is typically circulated through the glass
coated receiver pipes to absorb the concentrated
heat energy.
Solar Tracking system rotates the troughs to
maximize collection of energy.
Hot mineral oil boils water and generates high
pressure and temperature steam.
The steam drives the steam turbines.
Steam turbine drives generators to generate clean
energy.

Schematic Diagram of a Solar Thermal Power


Plant

Concentrated Solar Power


Power Tower

DishEngine

Passive Solar Systems

What is Passive Solar design?


Passive solar technologies use sunlight to get
energy without the use of active mechanical
systems.
Passive solar systems convert sunlight into
usable heat and cause air-movement for
ventilation.
As contrasted to active solar systems, which use
a significant amount of conventional energy to
power pumps or fans, passive systems tend to us
a small amount of conventional energy for the
use of controlling dampers, shutters, or other
devices which enhance the solar energy
collection, storage, and use.
Some passive solar homes are heated almost
entirely by the sun, while others are designed
with south-facing windows which provide some
fraction of the heating load.
The design of a passive solar home is what
distinguishes it from a conventional home.

Heat-Movement Physics
As a fundamental law, heat moves from warmer
materials to cooler ones until there is no longer a
temperature difference between the two.
A passive solar building makes use of this law through
three
heat
movement
mechanismsconduction,
convection,
and
radiationto
distribute
heat
throughout the living space.

Five Elements of Passive Solar


Design
the aperture
(or collector)
the absorber
thermal mass
the distribution
the control

Aperture (Collector):
The large glass (window) area through which sunlight
enters the building.
Typically, the aperture(s) should face within 30 degrees
of true south and should not be shaded by other
buildings or trees from
9 a.m. to 3 p.m. each day
during the heating season.

Absorber:
The hard, darkened surface of the storage element.
This surface - which could be that of a masonry wall,
floor, or partition (phase change material), or that of a
water container - sits in the direct path of sunlight.
Sunlight hits the surface and is absorbed as heat.

Thermal mass:
The materials that retain or store the heat produced by
sunlight.
The difference between the absorber and thermal mass,
although they often form the same wall or floor, is that

Distribution:
The method by which solar heat circulates from the
collection and storage points to different areas of
the house.
A strictly passive design will use the three natural
heat transfer modesconduction, convection, and
radiationexclusively.
In some applications, however, fans, ducts, and
blowers may help with the distribution of heat
through the house.

Control:
Roof overhangs can be used to shade the aperture
area during summer months.
Other elements that control under - and/or
overheating include: electronic sensing devices,
such as a differential thermostat that signals a fan
to turn on; operable vents and dampers that allow

Types of Passive Solar Design


Direct gain
Direct gain is solar radiation that
directly penetrates and is stored in
the living space.
Indirect gain
Indirect gain collects, stores, and
distributes solar radiation using some
thermal
storage
material
(e.g.,
Tromb wall). Conduction, radiation,
or convection then transfers the
energy indoors.
Isolated gain
Isolated
gain
systems
(e.g.,
sunspace) collect solar radiation in an
area that can be selectively closed off
or opened to the rest of the house.

Direct gain
Direct gain is the simplest
passive design technique .
Sunlight enters the house
through
the
aperture
(collector)usually
southfacing
windows
with
a
glazing material made of
transparent or translucent
glass.
The sunlight then strikes
masonry floors and/or walls,
which absorb and store the
solar heat.
The
surfaces
of
these
masonry floors and walls are
typically
a
dark
color
because dark colors usually
absorb more heat than light

DIRECT GAIN PASSIVE SOLAR


DESIGN TECHNIQUES
Cutting Losses. A passive solar home
should start out well sealed and well
insulated. By reducing heat loss and gain,
remaining energy loads can be effectively
met with passive solar techniques.
Site Orientation. The buildings southern
exposure must be clear of large obstacles
(e.g., tall buildings, tall trees) that block the
sunlight. Although a true southern exposure
is optimal to maximize solar contribution, it
is neither mandatory nor always possible.

Shading.
The summer sun rises higher overhead than the
winter sun. Properly sized window overhangs or
awnings are an effective option to optimize
southerly solar heat gain and shading.
Mature deciduous trees permit most winter
sunlight (60 percent or more) to pass through
while providing dappled shade throughout
summer.

Heat Storage. Thermal mass, or materials used


to store heat, is an integral part of most passive
solar design. Materials such as concrete, masonry,
wallboard, and even water absorb heat during sunlit
days and slowly release it as temperatures drop.

Window Selection. Heating with solar


energy is easy: just let the sun shine in
through
the
windows.
The
natural
properties of glass let sunlight through but
trap long-wave heat radiation, keeping the
house war.
Suntempering. In cold climates, a
strategy termed suntempering orients
most of the homes glazing toward the
southa glazing area of up to 7 percent of
the building floor area.

Natural Cooling.
The use of outdoor air often can cool a home
without need for mechanical cooling, especially
when effective shading, insulation, window
selection, and other means already reduce the
cooling load.
Exhausting naturally rising warmer air through
upper-level openings (stack effect; e.g., clerestory
windows) or fans (e.g., whole-house fan)
encourages lower-level openings to admit cooler,
refreshing, replacement air.

Natural Lighting. Sometimes called day


lighting, natural lighting refers to reliance on
sunlight for daytime interior lighting. Glazing
characteristics include high-VT glazing on the
east, west, and north facades combined with

Dappled shade

clerestory windows

whole-house fan

Indirect Gain
An indirect-gain passive
solar
home
has
its
thermal storage between
the south-facing wind
Using a Trombe wall is the
most common indirectgain approach. The wall
consists of an 8 to 16
inch-thick masonry wall
on the south side of a
house .
A single or double layer of
glass is mounted about 1
inch or less in front of the
walls surface. Solar heat
is absorbed by the walls
dark-colored
outside

INDIRECT GAIN PASSIVE SOLAR


DESIGN TECHNIQUES

Isolated Gain Sunspace


A
sunspace
also
known as a solar room
or
solarium
is
a
versatile approach to
passive solar heating.

A sunspace can be
built as part of a new
home or as an addition
to an existing one.

1. Isolated gain involves utilizing solar energy to

ISOLATED
GAIN PASSIVE SOLAR
passively move heat from or to the living space using
DESIGN
a fluid, suchTECHNIQUES
as water or air, by natural convection or
forced convection.
2. The most common example of isolated-gain
passive-solar home design is a sunspace, also known
as a solar room or solarium.
Simple and reliable sunspaces have vertical windows
with no overhead glazing.
3. Temperature fluctuations, caused by an overabundance of glazing, can be moderated through the
incorporation of thermal masses, such as masonry
floors, masonry walls or water containers.
4. Also, the sunspace is typically separated with doors
or windows from the rest of the building so that it isnt
overly affected by temperature fluctuations.
5. To prevent unwanted solar gain during the
summer, overhangs, earth cooling tubes, and other
passive cooling techniques can be integrated into the

RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS IN OMAN


RAECO (Rural Areas Electricity Company) agreed to
implement some renewable energy projects. These include
4700 kilowatts (kW) of wind power projects in Masirah, and
Sharqia and Saih Al Khairiat in the Dhofar region.
The AER (Authority For Electricity Regulation) has
confirmed a shortlist of six renewable energy pilot projects
of which four are solar projects as follows:
100 kW PV solar project in Hiji
292 kW solar project in Al Mazyonah
1500 kW project at location to be confirmed
28 kW solar project in Al Mathfa incorporating battery
storage capability
500 kW wind project in Masirah Island
4200 kW wind project in Saih Al Khairat, Wilyiat of
Thumrait.

Miraah Solar Thermal Project,


Amal, Oman

Miraah, a proposed 1,021MW solar thermal facility to be located in


South Oman, is expected to be one ofthe world's biggest solar
plants. Construction of the plant is scheduled to start in late
2015, while operations are scheduled to begin in 2017.
The thermal energy produced by the facility will produce steam
that will be used for thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to
extract heavy and viscous oil at the Amal oilfield.
Thermal EOR, which is touted to boost well productivity by up to
300%, uses high-pressure steam, which is injected into the oilfield
reservoirs to make the oil easier to be pumped to the surface.