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Solar Energy system in

Building

Major components of Solar Energy systems in


buildings
There are a few major components of any solar energy
system in buildings:

Photovoltaic
Panels)
Inverter
Switchboard
Appliances
Remote monitor

Modules

(Solar

Photovoltaic Modules (Solar Panels)

When the sun shines


on the solar panels
on your roof they
generate
DC
electricity. The power
generation begins as
soon as the early
morning sun hits the
panels and continues
all day until the last
ray of sun disappears
in the late afternoon.

Inverter
This is the heart of the system
and is critical to the safe and
efficient operation of your Solar
System. The DC electricity
produced by the solar
panels is transferred into
the inverter which converts
it to 120V AC electricity for
use in your home.
Switchboard
Electricity from the inverter is
fed into your switchboard where
it is distributed to appliances in
your home.

Appliances
Fridge,
television,
washing
machine, lights and other power
using devices can all be run
using solar power generated on
your roof.

Remote monitor
Remote monitoring equipment
can be connected to your
inverter so that you can keep
track of how much electricity
you are producing.

Excess electricity

Excess electricity is fed back into the


grid for your neighbors to use.
The benefits are:
less power needs to be generated by
coal fired power stations (reducing Co2
emissions).
Less load on the grid infrastructure

Solar Panel Roof Orientation in Building


It is estimated that shading and improper
roof orientation eliminate from using this
clean, renewable energy source in a building.
Direction:
South east to
south west Solar
thermal
can
typically
be
installed
within
45o of south with
only
marginal
performance
losses.

Solar Panel Roof Orientation in Building


Slope
The slope of the
solar collector when
it is installed should
roughly match your
latitude. Changes of
as much as 15o will
not
affect
the
systems
performance
No roof need be ruled out due to its slope
significantly.

because roof racks are available to adjust the


angle of the solar collectors. Some collector
designs have minimal slope requirements of 20o

Solar Panel Roof Orientation in Building

Space on the Roof


Typically flat plate
solar collectors are
1.2m x 2.4m or
1.2m x 3m (4x8 or
4x10) and are
usually
installed
with the short edge
parallel
to
the
roofs eaves.
There
should be a minimum of 0.5m of space
left between all sides of the collectors and the
roof edge to allow for maintenance and safe
access from ladders to the roof for roof

Solar Panel Roof Orientation in Building

Shading
Solar energy systems need full sunshine to
operate at peak performance. A visual
inspection of the roofs solar potential must
take into account that the sun is much lower in
the winter than in the summer and trees can
grow 0.5m per year.
Solar Sky Space

Installation of Solar Power


Systems in buildings
It involves the following major steps:
Civil Foundation Job
Assembly and fixing of support structure
Mounting of Solar Modules on the Support
Structure
Installation of Battery Bank
Interconnection of SPV panel in series &
parallel
configuration, Charge Control Unit and FJB
Connection of Battery Bank and Load
Earthing of Lightning Protection Unit

Percentage Savings, fd
To determine the percentage savings fd, in annual use of artificial
lighting due to implementing day lighting using day lighting
controls in office buildings, found that the following equation can be
used

where
Aw/Ap - Window to Perimeter Floor Area (good indicator of the window size relative to the daylight floor area)
Ap/Af - Perimeter to Total Floor Area. (daylight area relative to the total building floor area)
If whole building can benefit from day lighting, Ap/Af=1

a and b 24.5 & 56.6


w - Theoretically varies between 0 and 1,
Double pane windows - 0.30
Triple-pane windows - 0.70

Problem on
Design

Load = 800 Watts


Inverters Rating =?
Required Backup time for batteries = 3 Hours
Required No of Solar Panel =?
No of batteries =?

Solution:
Inverter should be greater 25% than the total Load
Safe Load = 800 x (25/100) = 200
Total Load = 800+200 = 1000 Watts
This is the rating of the UPS (Inverter)

Now the required Back up Time in Hours = 3 Hours

Suppose we are going to install 100Ah, 12 V batteries,


12V x 100Ah = 1200 Wh
Now for One Battery

(i.e. the Backup time of one battery)

1200 Wh / 800 W = 1.5 Hours


But our required Backup time is 3 Hours.
Therefore, 3/1.5 = 2

i.e. we will now connect two (2) batteries each of 100Ah, 12V.

If the number of batteries given, and you want to know the Backup Time for these given batteries, then Use this
formula.
1200 Wh x 2 Batteries = 2400 Wh
2400 Wh / 800 W = 3 hours.
Sothis is a 12 V inverter system,

Now we will install two (2) batteries (each of 12V, 100 Ah) in Parallel.

Sothis is a 12 V inverter system,

Now we will install two (2) batteries (each of 12V, 100 Ah) in

Parallel.

For The above system if we connect these batteries in series instead of parallel,
then

The rating of batteries become V1+V2 = 24V while the current


rating would be same i.e.100Ah.
We will now connect 2 batteries in parallel (each of 100Ah, 12V)
Therefore for 2 Batteries,
200 Ah 12V,
Now Required Charging Current for these two batteries.
(Charging current should be 1/10 of batteries Ah)
200Ah x (1/10) = 20A

Now the required No of Solar Panels


P = VI
P = 12V x 20 A
P = 240Watts
This is our required watts for solar panel (only for
battery charging, and then battery will supply power
to the load)
Now
240W/60W = 4 Solar panels
Therefore, we will connect 4 Solar Panels (each of
60W,12V,5A) in parallel

Energy
Energy audits are the first step to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and industrial
Audit
facilities.

Generally, four types of energy audits can be distinguished as briefly described below
Walk-Through Audit:

That consists typically of a short on-site visit of the facility to

identify areas where simple and inexpensive actions (typically operating and maintenance
measures) can provide immediate energy use and/or operating cost savings.
Utility Cost Analysis:

That includes a careful evaluation of metered energy uses and

operating costs of the facility.


Standard Energy Audit:

That consists of a comprehensive energy analysis for the

energy systems of the facility. In particular, the standard energy audit includes the
development of a baseline for the energy use of the facility and the evaluation of the
energy savings and the cost effectiveness of appropriately selected energy conservation
measures.
Detailed Energy Audit: Specifically, the detailed energy audit include the use of
instruments to measure energy use for the whole building and/or for some energy systems
within the building.

Step 1: Facility and Utility Data Analysis


Collect at least three years of utility data
Identify the fuel types used
Determine the patterns of fuel use by fuel type
Understand utility rate structure
Analyze the effect of weather on fuel consumption
Perform utility energy use analysis by building type and size
to implement the energy conservation measures
Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of each energy conservation
measure using an economical analysis method.

Step 2: Walk-through Survey

Identify the customer concerns and needs

Check the current operating and maintenance


procedures

Determine the existing operating conditions of


major energy use
equipment

Estimate the occupancy, equipment, and lighting


(energy use density and hours of operation)

Step 3: Baseline for Building Energy Use


Obtain and review architectural, mechanical,
electrical, and control drawings
Inspect, test, and evaluate building equipment
for
efficiency, performance, and reliability
Obtain all occupancy and operating schedules
for
equipment.
Develop a baseline model for building energy
use
Calibrate the baseline model using the utility
data
and/or metered data.

Step 4: Evaluation of Energy Savings


Measures

Prepare

comprehensive

list

of

energy

conservation measures (using the information


collected in the walk-through survey)

Determine the energy savings due to the


various energy conservation measures pertinent
to the building using the baseline energy use
simulation model developed in phase 3

Estimate the initial costs required

Wind energy Generation


Wind results from the movement of air due to atmospheric
pressure gradients.
Wind flows from regions of higher pressure to regions of
lower pressure.
The larger is the pressure gradient, the higher is the wind
speed and thus the greater the wind power.
The most important factors causing generation of wind are,
Uneven heating of the earths surface
effect due to the earths rotation
Local geographical conditions

Power in the wind


The power in moving air is the flow
rate of kinetic energy per second.
Therefore:

P = mechanical power in the moving air


= air density, kg/m3
A = area swept by the rotor blades, m2
V = velocity of the air, m/s

How much power a wind turbine with 50 meters long blade can
generate with a wind speed of 12 m/s? The site of the
installation is about 1000 feet above sea level. Assume 40%
efficiency ()

Air density is lower at higher elevation.


For 1000 feet above sea level, is about 1.16
kg/m3
Power = ()(A)(V)3 ()
= 0.5(1.16)(p502)(12)3(0.4)
= 3.15 x 106 Watt = 3.15 MW
where we assumed the turbine efficiency is 40%.

Betz limit
The theoretical maximum amount of
energy in the wind that can be
collected by a wind turbine's rotor is
approximately 59.3%. This value is
known as the Betz limit.
In practice, the collection efficiency
of a rotor is not as high as 59%. A
more typical efficiency is 35% to
45%.

Various components of Wind energy Conversion


System

Rotor:
Gear box
Generator
Tower
Blades

Biomass
It is largely composed of organic material
and water. However, significant
quantities of soil, shell or other
extraneous material may be present in
commercial supplies. It is essential that
biomass is clearly assessed as either wet
or dry matter mass.
Three classification are as follows:
Thermochemical, heat
Biochemical
Agrochemical

Types of biogas plants and their


applications

Household batch unit for the tropics


Indian Gobar gas system
Chinese Dome type Digester
Accelerated rate Digester
Balloon type Digester

Household batch unit for the


tropics
This is the simplest method, comprising an upturned
metal cylinder in another larger tank, e.g. a 200-litre
oil drum with the top removed.
The biogas is trapped in the top cylinder to be piped
to the household for cooking and lighting.
The tank has to be filled for each batch with fresh
animal manure, seeded if possible with anaerobic
bacteria from a previous batch.
Systems like this are messy and usually do not last
for more than a brief period of enthusiasm. Such
batch treatment does not give a constant yield, so a
continuous process is preferable.

Features of Sustainable Building


Materials

Pollution Prevention Measures in Manufacturing


Waste Reduction Measures in Manufacturing
Recycled Content
Embodied Energy Reduction
Use of Natural Materials
Reduction of Construction Waste
Local Materials
Energy Efficiency
Water Treatment and Conservation
Use of Non-Toxic or Less-Toxic Materials
Renewable Energy Systems
Longer Life
Reusability
Recyclability
Biodegradability

Embodied Energy Reduction

The embodied energy of a material


refers to the total energy required to
produce that material, including the
collection of raw materials.
This includes the energy of the fuel
used to power the mining equipment,
the processing equipment, and the
transportation devices that move raw
material to a processing facility

Usage of Natural Materials as


sustainable materials
Natural materials are generally lower in
embodied energy and toxicity than manmade materials.
They require less processing and are less
damaging to the environment.
Many, like wood, are theoretically
renewable.
When natural materials are incorporated
into building products, the products
become more sustainable.

Energy efficiency
Energy efficiency is an important
feature in making a building material
environmentally sustainable. The
ultimate goal in using energyefficient materials is to reduce the
amount of generated energy that
must be brought to a building site

Depending on type, the energy-efficiency of building


materials can be measured using factors such as

R-value
Shading coefficient
Luminous efficiency or fuel efficiency

R-value
Building envelopes are generally rated by
their insulating value, known as the R-value.
Materials with higher R-values are better
insulators; materials with lower R-values
must be used in thicker layers to achieve
the same insulation value.
R-values can be measured for individual materials
(e.g., insulation, siding, wood paneling, brick) or
calculated for composite structural elements
(e.g., roofing, walls, floors, windows)

Shading co-efficient
The shading coefficient (SC) is a ratio
of the solar heat gain of a buildings
particular fenestration to that of a
standard sheet of double-strength
glass of the same area.

System efficiency
Electrical and mechanical systems
are responsible for more than 50% of
a buildings annual energy costs.
Heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) systems should
be selected for the greatest
efficiency at the most commonly
experienced temperatures.