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Kinematics

Chapter 2 Kinematics

2.1

2.2

2.3

Graphs of Motion

2.4

Learning Outcome

At the end of this section, you should be able to:

understand and distinguish between scalar and

vector quantities.

Scalars and Vectors

Scalars and vectors are two types of physical

quantities.

Scalar quantities

Have only magnitude

Vector quantities

Have both magnitude and

direction

Examples include

Examples include distance,

displacement, velocity,

speed, mass, energy and time

acceleration and force

from displacement?

Distance versus Displacement

Distance

Total length covered by moving object,

along the path taken

Direction of motion does not matter

SI unit: metre (m)

What is the

distance

travelled from A

to B?

5 km

either 7 km

or 10 km

7 km

10 km

Displacement

Straight-line distance covered by

moving object, regardless of path

taken

Direction needs to be specified,

relative to a reference point

SI unit: metre (m)

B

N

What is the

displacement?

Displacement of car:

5 km (due east of A)

What if the object moves back to A along the same path? (i.e. A B

A)

Distance

Total length covered by moving

object, along the path taken

Direction of motion does not matter

SI unit: metre (m)

Displacement

Straight-line distance covered by

moving object, regardless of path

taken

Direction needs to be specified,

relative to reference point

SI unit: metre (m)

5 km 5 km

distance?

Distance travelled by car:

either 14 km

or 20 km

7 km + 7 km

10 km + 10 km

displacement?

Displacement of car:

0 km (back at A)

Question

1m

1m

distance travelled

from A to F?

A

displacement from

A to F?

What is negative

displacement?

Positive and Negative Displacement

For an object moving in a straight line, assign one

direction from the reference point as positive.

The opposite direction is then negative.

Positivenegative directions are assigned for convenience.

Example

C

2 km

5 km 5 km

Displacement of car

= 2 km (or 2 km due west of A)

Chapter 2 Kinematics

2.1

2.2

2.3

Graphs of Motion

2.4

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this section, you should be able to:

distinguish between speed and velocity;

find average speed using distance travelled ;

time taken

state what uniform acceleration is;

calculate the value of an acceleration using

change in velocity

;

time taken

interpret examples of non-uniform acceleration.

What is Speed?

time taken

SI unit: metre per second (m s1)

The term speed that we use is usually the average

speed, which assumes that the object travels at the

same speed throughout the entire distance.

Average speed = total distance travelled

total time taken

In reality, the speed may change from moment to

moment, throughout the distance travelled.

This simple method will help you to remember the

relationship between speed (v), distance (d) and time (t).

d

v

This simple method will help you to remember the

relationship between speed (v), distance (d) and time (t).

d = vt

d

v

This simple method will help you to remember the

relationship between speed (v), distance (d) and time (t).

d = vt

d

v

v= d

t

This simple method will help you to remember the

relationship between speed (v), distance (d) and time (t).

d = vt

d

v

v= d

t

t

t= d

v

Worked Example

A bike travels at a constant speed of 10.0 m s1. It takes

2000 s to travel from Jurong to East Coast. Determine the

distance between the two locations.

Jurong

Solution

Speed v = 10 m s1

Time t = 2000 s

Distance d = vt

= (10 m s1)(2000 s)

= 20 000 m or 20 km

East Coast

Worked Example

Tom travels 105 km in 2.5 hours before stopping for a half-hour

lunch. He then continues another 55 km for an hour. What was

the average speed of his journey in

(a) km h1?

(b) m s1?

Solution

total distance

total time

= (105 + 55) km = 40 km h1

(2.5 + 0.5 + 1) h

(b) 40 km h1 = 40 km

1h

3

= (40)(10 ) m = 11.1 m s1

(1)(60)(60) s

What is Velocity?

Velocity = displacement (linear distance)

time taken

SI unit: metre per second (m s1)

URL

What is the

difference between

speed and velocity?

Remember displacement

is also a vector quantity?

Velocity has both magnitude and direction.

Velocity measures speed in a specified direction.

Constant speed in same direction = constant velocity

Constant speed, direction changed = velocity changed

Example

N

Speed : 5 m s1

Direction: East

Velocity : 5 m s1 east

Speed : 5 m s1

Direction: North

Velocity : 5 m s1 north

Average Velocity

It is the average rate of change of displacement

for any time interval.

Average velocity = total displacement

total time taken

Worked Example

A car takes half an hour to travel 7

km from A to B. What is its

(a) average speed in km h1?

(b) average velocity in km h1?

5 km

7 km

Solution

(a) Average speed

=

=

=

total time taken

d

t

7 km

= 14 km h1

0.5 h

positive, average velocity

=

=

=

total displacement

total time taken

s

t

5 km

= 10 km h1

0.5 h

(Part 1/3)

Worked Example

The car takes another half an hour

to move back to A along the same A

path. What is its

(a) new average speed?

(b) new average velocity?

5 km 5 km

7 km + 7 km

+

Solution

(a) Average speed

=

=

=

total time taken

d

t

14 km

= 14 km h1

1h

positive, average velocity

=

=

=

total displacement

total time taken

s

t

0 km

= 0 km h1

1h

(Part 2/3)

Worked Example

The car takes another 15 minutes to reach point C. What is

its average velocity?

C

2 km

5 km 5 km

Solution

Taking due east of point A as positive,

average velocity

total displacement

total time taken

= s

t

Remember, velocity

can be negative!

= 2 km

1.25 h

= 1.6 km h1

Can we have

negative speed too?

(Part 3/3)

Question

A truck makes a delivery trip from town A to town B

in 15 minutes, and then from town B to town C in

45 minutes. The distances between the towns are

shown on the map. Determine the average velocity

for the entire journey (from towns A to C).

A

30 km

B

50 km

40 km

What is Acceleration?

Acceleration = change in velocity = v

time taken

SI unit: metre per second per second (m s2)

What is Acceleration?

An object accelerates when its velocity changes.

Example

N

Speed

: 5 m s1

Direction: East

Velocity : 5 m s1 east

Change in speed

Change in direction

Speed

Speed

: 10 m s1

: 5 m s1

direction

Direction: East

Direction: North

Speed

Velocity : 10 m s1 east

Velocity : 5 m s1 north

Direction: North

: 10 m s1

Velocity : 10 m s1 north

Acceleration versus Deceleration

Acceleration

Occurs when

Deceleration

Refers only to when

velocity decreases

velocity increases

(i.e. positive acceleration), Also called retardation

or

velocity decreases

(i.e. negative acceleration)

Uniform Acceleration

Uniform acceleration is the constant rate of change

of velocity.

Acceleration a = v u = v

tv tu

t

where u = initial velocity;

v = final velocity;

tu = time at which an object is at initial velocity u;

tv = time at which an object is at final velocity v;

v = change in velocity;

t = time interval between tu and tv.

Uniform Acceleration

Uniform acceleration occurs when the change (increase

or decrease) in velocity per unit time is the same.

Positive, uniform

acceleration

Velocity

increases at

constant rate

Negative, uniform

acceleration

Velocity

decreases at

constant rate

+20 m s1

0 m s1

+20 m s1

40 m s1

20 m s1

Velocity

Change

+20 m s1

60 m s1

Velocity

Time/s

20 m s1

60 m s1

20 m s1

40 m s1

Velocity

Change

20 m s1

20 m s1

0 m s1

Velocity

Time/s

Worked Example

The velocity of a car changes from 15 m s1 to 10 m s1

in 1.2 s. Determine its acceleration.

Solution

Acceleration a = v

t

vu

=

tv t u

=

= 4.2 m s2

(10 15) m s1

1.2 s

The car is slowing down, so

acceleration should be negative.

Worked Example

A stationary truck accelerates with an acceleration of

1 m s2 for 15 seconds. Determine the final velocity.

Solution

Given: initial velocity u = 0 m s1

acceleration a = 1 m s2

time taken t = 15 s

a = v = v u

t

t

v = at + u

= (1 m s2)(15 s) + 0 m s1

= 15 m s1

Non-uniform Acceleration

Non-uniform acceleration occurs when the change (increase

or decrease) in velocity per unit time is not the same.

+30 m s1

0 m s1

+20 m s1

30 m s1

20 m s1

60 m s1

50 m s1

10 m s1

40 m s1

Velocity

Change

+10 m s1

60 m s1

Velocity

Change

30 m s1

30 m s1

Velocity

Time/

s

0 m s1

Velocity

Time/

s

Question

Describe the motion of the car below, in terms of its

speed and acceleration.

+30 m s1

10 m s1

20 m s1

40 m s1

Velocity

Change

+40 m s1

20 m s1

60 m s1

Velocity

Time/

s

Chapter 2 Kinematics

2.1

2.2

2.3

Graphs of Motion

2.4

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this section, you should be able to:

plot and interpret a displacementtime graph;

plot and interpret a velocitytime graph;

deduce information about motion from the shape of a

displacementtime graph;

deduce information about motion from the shape of a

velocitytime graph;

determine displacement by calculating the area under

a velocitytime graph.

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Object at Rest)

Displacement/m

Time/s

Displacement/m

75

75

75

75

75

75

Velocity/m s1

s

Starting

point O

Displacement is constant for every second

Time/s

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Object at Uniform (Constant) Velocity)

Displacement/m

Time/s

Displacement/m

Velocity/m s

25

50

75

100

125

25

25

25

25

25

Time/s

Displacement increases by 25 m every second

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Object at Increasing (Non-uniform) Velocity)

Displacement/m

Time/s

Displacement/m

Velocity/m s

20

45

80

125

10

15

20

25

Time/s

Velocity increases

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Object at Decreasing (Non-uniform) Velocity)

Displacement/m

Displacement/m

45

80

105

120

125

45

40

35

30

25

Velocity/m s1

Time/s

Time/s

Velocity decreases

DisplacementTime Graphs

Velocity is given by the gradient of a

displacementtime graph.

Displacement/m

s

t

Time/s

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Instantaneous Velocity of Object)

Displacement/m

Instantaneous velocity

t2

d1

6

d2

10 11

12

t1

At t = 5 s, instantaneous velocity is

s1

(100 0) m

1

=

=

20

m

s

t1

(7.5 2.5) s

object is at a particular

time;

Time/s tangent, at a specific time

on the displacementtime

graph.

At t = 10 s, instantaneous velocity is

s2

= (290 125) m = 41.25 m s1

t2

(12 8) s

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Instantaneous Velocity versus Average Velocity)

Displacement/m

(220,10.3)

(80,6.7)

At a specific

time

Time/s

0

s

t

=

(220 80) m

(10.3 6.7) s

38.89 m s1

8 8.5 9

10 11

12

For a time

interval

<v> = total displacement

total time taken

150 m

=

= 17.65 m s1

8.5 s

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Deducing the Motion of an Object)

For a car moving on straight road, assign

- its direction: taking due east of X as

positive.

The gradient of the tangent at each point

on graph gives the instantaneous velocity.

Displacement/m

- Positive gradient = displacement and

velocity towards the right

- Negative gradient = displacement and

velocity towards the left

Time/s

DisplacementTime Graphs

(Deducing the Motion of an Object)

Region

Characteristics

Horizontal straight

line (Zero

(zero gradient)

Stationary at 40 m to

the right of X

Positive gradient

gradient,

straight line

Straight

Moving right

east (positive

direction away from X)

with uniform velocity

gradient

Zero instantaneous

velocity (stationary) at

100 m to the right of X

C

C

C to

to

F

F

Region with

with

Region

negative gradient

gradient

negative

D,

D, E,

E,

F

F

G

G

Gradient decreases

Gradient

decreases

from

D to E from

to F D

to E to F

Horizontal straight

Horizontal straight

line

line

Deduction

Moving left

west(negative

(negative

Moving

direction towards

towards X)

X)

direction

with changing velocity

Velocity decreasing

decreasing

Velocity

from D

D to

to E

E to

to F

F

from

Stationary at 20 m to

Stationary at 20 m to

the right

right of

of X

X

the

Displacement/m

C

B

D

E

G

Time/s

N

X

0

20

40

60

Displacement/m

80

100

VelocityTime Graphs

(Object at Rest)

Time/s

Displacement/m

20

20

20

20

20

20

Velocity/m s1

Displacement/m

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

the object is at rest, 20 m from the starting

point, from t = 0 s to t = 5 s.

The velocitytime graph shows

a horizontal, straight line on the x-axis;

zero acceleration.

Time/s

VelocityTime Graphs

(Object at Uniform Velocity)

Time/s

Displacement/m

10

20

30

40

50

Velocity/m s1

10

10

10

10

10

10

Displacement/m

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

object moving at uniform velocity.

The velocitytime graph shows

a horizontal, straight line;

zero acceleration.

Time/s

VelocityTime Graphs

(Uniform Acceleration)

Time/s

Displacement/m

20

45

80

125

Velocity/m s1

10

20

30

40

50

Displacement/m

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

object moving with increasing velocity.

The velocitytime graph shows

that velocity increases by 10 m s1 every

second;

a positive and constant gradient

(constant acceleration).

Time/s

VelocityTime Graphs

(Uniform Deceleration)

Time/s

Displacement/m

45

80

105

120

125

Velocity/m s1

50

40

30

20

10

object moving with decreasing velocity.

Displacement/m

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

that velocity decreases by 10 m s1

every second;

a negative and constant gradient

(constant deceleration).

Time/s

VelocityTime Graphs

(Increasing Acceleration)

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

18

32

50

Velocity/m s1

that the increase in velocity increases

with time;

a positive and increasing gradient;

increasing acceleration.

Time/s

VelocityTime Graphs

(Decreasing Acceleration)

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

18

32

42

48

50

Velocity/m s1

that the increase in velocity decreases

with time;

a positive and decreasing gradient;

decreasing acceleration.

Time/s

VelocityTime Graphs

(Instantaneous Acceleration)

Velocity/m s1

Instantaneous acceleration

at t = 3 s is

v = (30 5) m s1

t

(4 2) s

(4,30)

v

t

(2,5)

= 12.5 m s2

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

Displacement

= area under graph

= 1 (5 s)(50 m s1)

2

= 125 m

VelocityTime Graphs

(Area under Graph)

To find the displacement, calculate

the area under a velocitytime graph

over the time period.

C

Time/s

Velocity/m s1

Velocity/m s1

Displacement

= area under graph

= (0 m s1)(5 s)

=0m

Velocity/m s1

Displacement

= area under graph

= (10 m s1)(5 s)

= 50 m

Displacement

= area under graph

= 1 (5 s)(50 m s1)

2

= 125 m

D

A

Time/s

Time/s

Time/s

SpeedTime Graphs versus VelocityTime Graphs

B

Speed/m s1

A

A1

B

t1

t = t1

v=0

Velocity/m s1

u

h

A2

t2

Time/s

+

A

= total area under graph

= A1 + A2

=h+h

= 2h

t=0

v=u

t = t2

v = u

upwards

Falls freely, negligible air

resistance

Assign upward direction

from ground as positive

A

A3

B

t1

t2

A4

Time/s

Total displacement

= total area under graph

= A3 + A4

= h + (h)

=0

Chapter 2 Kinematics

2.1

2.2

2.3

Graphs of Motion

2.4

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this section, you should be able to:

state that the acceleration of free fall near to the

Earths surface is approximately 10 m s2;

describe the motion of free-falling bodies with and

without air resistance;

apply the term terminal velocity when describing

the motion of falling bodies.

If we drop a heavy object and a light object

from the same height at the same time,

which will hit the ground first?

Contrary to the widely accepted claim made by

Aristotle that a heavier object falls faster than a

lighter object,

I discovered that all objects, regardless of mass or

size, fall at the same acceleration due to the Earths

gravity.

Galileos Discovery

For objects close to the Earths surface,

g = 9.8 m s2.

g is approximately 10 m s2.

Galileo Galilei

(15641642)

Objects Falling without Air Resistance

To put Galileos discovery to the test, watch

these two videos:

URL 1

URL 2

Objects Falling without Air Resistance

Free fall happens only in vacuum (no air resistance).

The only force acting on a free-falling object is its weight.

The direction of force and motion is downward (towards

the centre of the Earth).

Objects falling without air resistance experience a

constant increase in velocity under Earths gravity.

Acceleration due to gravity g is a constant.

The velocitytime graph has a constant gradient.

Acceleration is not dependent on the mass or size of an

object.

constant gradient = constant

acceleration

v/m s1

40

30

20

10

0

0s

1s

2s

3s

4s

t/s

Time

interval

At rest

Wh

Wf

Wf

10 m s1

Wf 20 m s1

Wf

Wf

30 m s1

40 m s1

Forces

involved

Type of motion

Wh

0s

to

1s

Velocity increases:

Wf (feather)

zero to 10 m s1

Wh (hammer) v = 10 m s1

Wh

1s

to

2s

Velocity increases:

Wf (feather)

10 to 20 m s1

Wh (hammer) v = 10 m s1

Wh

2s

to

3s

Velocity increases:

Wf (feather)

20 to 30 m s1

Wh (hammer) v = 10 m s1

Wh

3s

to

4s

Velocity increases:

Wf (feather)

30 to 40 m s1

Wh (hammer) v = 10 m s1

Acceleration

10 m s2

10 m s2

(constant

acceleration)

10 m s2

(constant

acceleration)

10 m s2

(constant

acceleration)

Activity (Group)

Objective

Observe two objects falling without air resistance.

(The two objects should be dropped from the same

height, at the same time, and they should reach the

ground at the same time.)

Instructions

1.Choose two objects.

2.Drop them from the same height and at the same

time.

3.Observe as the objects hit the ground.

Objects Falling with Air Resistance

Air resistance

is a frictional force;

is due to the object moving through the atmosphere;

always opposes the motion of the moving object.

Objects Falling with Air Resistance

Air resistance increases with the

density of air.

air resistance when falling? What characteristic(s)

of these objects increase their air resistance?

Terminal

velocity

v/m s1

v4 = v3

v2

v1

A1

0

0s

1s

A4

A3

A2

W

R1

W

At rest

v1

R2

2s

W

v2

R3

W

3s

R4

v3

4s

t/s

v4

Time

interval

Forces

involved

0s

to

1s

W > R1

1s

to

2s

W > R2 > R1

2s

to

3s

3s

to

4s

Type of motion

Velocity increases:

zero to v1

v = v1 0

Velocity increases:

v1 to v2

v smaller:

(v2 v1) > (v1 0)

W > R3 > R 2

Velocity increases:

v2 to v3

v smaller:

(v3 v2) > (v2 v1)

W = R4 = R3

Velocity constant:

v4 = v3

= terminal velocity

v = 0

Displacement

Acceleration (area under

graph)

Yes

Yes

(but lower than

from 0 s to 1 s)

Yes

(but lower than

from 1 s to 2 s)

Zero

A1

A2 > A1

A3 > A2

A4 > A3

(slightly larger)

Terminal Velocity

When the air resistance acting against an object

equals its weight, the object travels at a constant

velocity known as terminal velocity.

If an object falls through a short distance, it may not

have time to reach terminal velocity before hitting

the ground.

Is the terminal velocity always the same?

How can we change it?

Question

A parachutist jumps from an aircraft and falls through the air.

After some time, the parachute opens. At which point do you

think the parachute opens?

Velocity/m s1

50

40

30

20

10

0

A

2

10 12 14 16 18

Time/s

Chapter 2 Kinematics

Kinematics

Magnitud

e

Distance

(SI unit:

m)

Scalar

quantities

have

only

Speed

(SI unit: m

s1)

Vector

quantities

Displacem

ent

(SI

unit: m)

Speed =distance

time

taken

total distance

Average =

total time

speed

taken

Area under

velocitytime

graph

displacement

Velocity displacement

=

time taken

Gradient of displacementtime

graph

velocity

Velocity

(SI unit:

m s1)

have both

Magnitud

e

Direction

Accelerati

on

(SI

unit: m s2)

Acceleration = change in

velocity

time taken

Gradient of velocitytime

graph

acceleration

Acceleration due to gravity g

- Without air resistance,

object falls with constant

acceleration

- With air resistance, object

falls with decreasing

acceleration and may reach

terminal velocity

Chapter 2 Kinematics

The URLs are valid as at 15 October 2012.

Acknowledgements

(slides 173) skydiver Joggiebotma | Dreamstime.com

(slide 62)

Galileo Galilei Justus Sustermans | Wikimedia

Commons | Public Domain

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