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# Chapter 5

## Water is the most abundant substance on earth.

Like any other substances, water has its own
unique characteristics.

## Physical Characteristics of water

Effects of impurities on the physical
characteristics of water

a. Solid

b. Liquid

c. Gas

a. colourless,
b. odourless and
c. tasteless.

## 3. Water can change from one state to another.

4. The changes in the state of water occur at specific temperature.
5. The temperature of a substances remains constant, that is it
does not rise or
drop, during the change of state.
6. The density of water is 1 g per cm3. 1 cm3 of water has a mass
of 1 gram.
For example, 50 cm3 of water has a mass of 50 g.
7. Water is a poor conductor of heat

## The relationship between the freezing and

boiling points of
water and the Kinetic Theory
1. When water is cooled, the particles lose kinetic energy (heat
is released). The particles move more slowly.
2. At freezing point, liquid particles cannot move freely
anymore.
3. Liquid particles are pulled together by strong forces of
attraction between particles.
4. This is why solid particles cannot move freely. A liquid
changes into a solid at freezing point.
5. When heat energy is supplied to a liquid, the liquid particles
obtain a lot of
kinetic energy and they vibrate faster.
6. At boiling point, the energy obtained enables the liquid
particles to
overcome and break the forces of attraction
between the particles.
7. Boiling is the physical process in which water changes into
steam.
8. Liquid particles are feed and change into gas at boiling point

## Freezing Point of Water

liquid
solid
1.Water changes from liquid to solid at its freezing
point.
Freezing point of water is the temperature at
which water freezes into ice.

## 3. The temperature remains constant at 0oC until water

freezes completely.

## When the temperature drops, the water

particles move slower.

## Therefore, the forces of attraction among the

particles grow stronger.

## At 0 oC, the forces of attraction are so great

that the water particles are held in fixed

## Boiling Point of Water

liquid
gases
1. Water boils at its boiling point.
Boiling point of water is the temperature at
which water boils and becomes steam.

## 3. The temperature remains constant at 100 oC until

water boils completely.

## When the temperature rises, the water particles

move faster and further apart.

## Therefore, the forces of attraction among the

particles grow weaker.

## At 100 oC, water particles move so fast that

they overcome the forces of attraction and
leave the liquids surface.

## B. Effects of Impurities on the Physical

Characteristics of Water
1. Impurities in water can change the
physical characteristics of water. Sometimes
the change is noticeable and sometimes it is not.

Physical
characteristic

Example

Taste

Odour

unpleasant
smell.

Colour

Density

Electrical
conductivity

electricity.

Freezingpoint

temperature.

Boilingpoint

temperature.

## 5.2 Composition of Water

Composition of Water

elements.
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Water

## 2. Water can be broken down to its elements

through electrolysis.

## A method to break down a compound by passing

an electric current through its liquid or solution

## 3. The volume of hydrogen released is always

twice
released.is
Oxygen
is the volume of oxygenHydrogen
released at the
anode

released at the
cathode

4.

hydrogen.

Hydrogen atoms
Oxygen atom

## 5. Therefore, scientists represent water with the

following formula:

H2 O
H Represents the hydrogen atom
2 Shows that there are two atoms of hydrogen
O Represents the oxygen atom

## Applying the principle of water evaporation

In our daily life.
1. To drying clothes
2. To drying hair
3. To drying agricultural produce
4. To drying fish and prawn
5. To cooling the body
6. To producing the common salt

## 5.4 Solution and Solubility

1. What is a solution?

A solute is the
substance that dissolves.
A solvent is the
substance that the solute
dissolves in.

## 2. Depending on the amount of solutes in

solutions, there are three types of solutions.

Dilute solution
Contains a little
dissolved solute
Can dissolve a lot
more solute

Solution

Concentrated solution
Contains a lot of
dissolved solute

Saturated solution
Contains the maximum
amount of dissolved solute

more solute
solute

## 5.4 Solution and Solubility

1. What is a suspension?
A suspension is a mixture containing insoluble
substances.
2. There are many suspensions around us.
Muddy water, fruit juices, chocolate drink, blood

## 5.4 Solution and Solubility

1. What is solubility?
The solubility of a solute is the maximum amount of solute in
grams that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given
temperature.
For example, the solubility of sodium chloride is 38 g per 100
g of water at 20 oC.
This means that you can dissolve not more than 38 g of sodium
chloride in 100 g of water at 20 oC.

## 2. Factors Affecting the Solubility of a Solute

a. The nature of the solvent
b. The nature of the solute
c. The temperature of the solvent

## i. The nature of the solvent

- The solubility of a solute differs in
different solvents.
Example:
Only a little iodine can dissolve in water. Iodine can
dissolve very well in alcohol.

## ii. The nature of the solute

Different solutes have different solubility
in the same solvent.

Example:
At the same temperature, sodium chloride has a
lower solubility in water compared to copper chloride.

## 1. What are the factors affecting the rate

of dissolving a solute?
a. Temperature
b. Rate of stirring
c. Size of solute particles

## 5.4 Solution and Solubility

i. Temperature
The higher the temperature of the solvent, the higher the
rate of dissolving.

:
We use hot water to make
tea. One reason for this is
that hot water increases
the rate of dissolving of
certain substances in the

## ii. Rate of stirring

The higher the rate of stirring, the higher the rate of
dissolving.

:
The faster you stir the
soup, the faster the salt
dissolves in it.

## iii. Size of solute particles

The smaller the size of the solute particles, the higher the
rate of dissolving.

## Smaller pieces of palm

sugar can dissolve in water
faster than a big piece of
it.

## Water is a good solvent. Almost everything can dissolve in it to

produce solutions. Therefore, water is also known as the
universal solvent.
Water acts as a medium in many chemical reactions in
our body.
Water dissolves and transports many substances in our
body such as digested food and waste products.
Water dissolves cleaning agents such as soap powder,
dishwasher liquid and toilet cleaner.

## Water dissolves various substances. This enables us to

use water in cooking and making drinks.

medicines.

## Some substances cannot dissolve in water but they can

dissolve in organic solvents.

Alcohol

Turpentine

Acetone

## 1. We use many organic solvents in various products.

To produce lacquers and varnishes
Alcohol

## To produce various types of ink

To prepare iodine solution (as an antiseptic)
To produce perfume

To produce paints
To remove paint stains
Turpentine
To produce nail polish

## a. They are volatile. Therefore, products such as

paints, lacquers,
varnishes and inks become dry in a
short period of time.
b. They can dissolve many solutes that do not dissolve
in water.
3. However, products containing organic solvents
should be
handled carefully.
a. They are flammable and should be stored away
from heat.
b. They are toxic and carcinogenic (likely to cause
cancer).

1.

## An acid is a substance that has a hydrogen

atom, which can be replaced by a metal
or ammonium.

## Acid can be divided into two groups and

differences are shown below
2.

ACID
Organic acid

Example
Acetic acid
Formic acid
Lactic acid
Malic acid
Citric acid
Tannic acid
Tartaric acid

Inorganic acid

Example
Sulphuric acid
Nitric acid
Hydrochloric acid
Carbonic acid

## 3.An acid exist in three state which are

a. solid tartaric acid
b. liquid ethanoic acid
c. gas hydrogen chloric

## 4. The properties of acids

a. Taste sour
b. Are corrosive
c. Change blue litmus paper to red
d. Have pH values of less than 7
e. React with carbonates to release carbon dioxide
acid + cabonates
salt + water + carbon dioxide
and form salt and water

f.

salt.
acid + metal

salt + hydrogen

acid + alkali

salt + water

1.

2.

## An alkalis is hydroxide or metal oxide that

dissolves in water.

## Example: potassium hydroxide, sodium

hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonium
hydroxide solutions.

## Alkalis have the following properties:

1. taste bitter
2. feel slippery like soap when touched with the fingers
3. are corrosive
4. change red litmus paper to blue
5. have pH values of more than 7
6. react with ammonium salts to release ammonia when heated.
7. react with acids to form salt and water (neutralisation process)

12 3

Acidity increases
neutral

8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Alkalinity increases

## 5.5 Acid and Alkali

Neutralisation

+ alkali is
+ water
acid Neutralization
salt where
a process
Note: Where acid reacts with alkali, salt and water are formed.
Different kinds of acids and alkalis will form different types of salt.

## Natural Sources of Water

From Ocean
Salty
Not suitable for
human consumption

## From lakes, streams,

rivers, ground water
(well) and rain
Fresh Water
But not pure, need to be purified

a. Most pure
b. Has very little dissolved substances and a
little dust

a. Not clean
b. Has a lot of dissolved substances and dirt
such as microorganisms and silt

## a. Has microorganisms and dissolved

substances
b. Cleaner than river

## a. Has the most substances of salt

b. Has the most of dirt.

Usage of Water

Usage of Water

Domestic Use
of Water

Drinking
Washing
Watering
Plants

## Agricultural Use Direct Use of

Rivers and
of Water
Streams

Irrigation
Aquaculture

Industrial Use
of Water

Cooling
Generate
Washing
Hydroelectric

Disposal
Power
of Waste
Recreation
Transportation

METHOD OF PURIFICATION

Chlorination

Chlorine solution

Filtration

Muddy water

Fine sand
Coarse sand

Pebbles

Gravel
filtrate

Boiling

filtrate

Distillation

Water
out

Liebig
condenser
Muddy
Water
Water in

Distilled
water

## 1. Water from natural sources have various

impurities such as microorganisms, dissolved gases,
mineral salts and silt.
2. Water from natural sources must be purified so that it
save to drink and use.
water purification.

Waterpurificationmetho
d

a. Filtration
Only

removes
Impurities tha tare
Coarse such as
Suspended substances.
Sand filters are
Commonly used

Water

is clear
And free
suspended
Particles only

Water

still has
microorganisms
And dissolved
substances
(such as
Mineral salts)

Water is free
b. Distillation
Prepares pure or from all
suspended
distilled water
substances,
microorganisms
and dissolved
substances.

Water

does
not make
good
drinking
because it
does not
contain
dissolved
mineral
with our
body need.

c. Boiling and
chlorination

Only kills
microorganisms in
water

dangerous
microorganisms

dissolved
substances and
suspended
substances.

Alum and
Magnesium
Carbonate

## PRESERVATION OF WATER QUALITY

Water pollutants
1. There are various water pollutants:
a. Domestic waste such as rubbish, animal
carcasses and
faeces.
b. Industrial waste such as chemical residual
(acid and
c. Chemical substances in agriculture such as
pesticides,
chemical fertilisers and agriculture waste (latex
and oil
palm)
d. Mud and silt caused by the construction
industries and
Logging.

## he effect of water pollution on living things.

the equilibrium in nature.
2. the effects of water pollution on living things
include:
a. polluted water cannot be used for drinking or
bathing.
Polluted water causes diseases such
as skin diseases and
cholera.
b. Aquatic like such as fish, prawn will die. This
reduces the
fishermans catch and the
human food supply.
c. Aquatic life that are poisoned by chemicals