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particularly troublesome. Many take a long time to
settle in their seats after the afternoon recess,
have trouble paying attention when he is giving
instruction, and often punch out at other students
for apparently no reason. The girls in the class
never seem to stop talking. Mr. Cruz is becoming
very concerned, as a lot of valuable class time is
taken up by his so-far-unsuccessful attempts to
deal with these problems. Of special concern is
that he feels his students are learning only a small
amount of what they could were he able to
maintain a more orderly class.
What might Mr. Cruz do in this situation?
Action research, is an ideal methodology that he
might employ.
Classroom teachers, supervisors, and administrators
can help provide some answers to these (and other)
important questions by engaging in action research.
Such studies, taken individually, are seriously limited
in generalizability. If, however, several teachers in
different schools within the same district, for
example, were to investigate the same question in
their classrooms (thereby replicating the research of
their peers), they could create a base of ideas that
could generalize to policy or practice.
Action research often does not require complete
mastery of the major types of research.
The steps involved in action research are actually
pretty straightforward. The important thing to
remember is that such studies are rooted in the
interests and needs of teachers.
Action research is conducted by one or more
individuals or groups for the purpose of
solving a problem or obtaining information in
order to inform local practice.
Those involved in action research generally
want to solve some kind of day-to-day
immediate problem, such as how to decrease
absenteeism or incidents of vandalism among
the student body, motivate apathetic
students, figure out ways to use technology
to improve the teaching of mathematics, or
increase funding.
There are many kinds of questions that lend teacher to action research in
What kinds of methods, for example, work best with what kinds of
How can teachers encourage students to think about important issues?
How can content, teaching strategies, and learning activities be varied to
help students of differing ages, gender, ethnicity, and ability learn more
How can subject matter be presented so as to maximize understanding?
What can teachers and administrators do to increase the interest of
students in schooling?
What can other educational professionals do?
How can parents become more involved?
Practical action research is intended to address a
specific problem within a classroom, school, or other
community. It can be carried out in a variety of
settings, such as educational, social service, or
business locations. Its primary purpose is to improve
practice in the short term as well as to inform larger
issues. It can be carried out by individuals, teams, or
even larger groups, provided the focus remains clear
and specific.
Participatory action research, while sharing the focus on
a specific local issue and on using the findings to
implement action, differs in important ways from
practical action research. The first difference is that it
has two additional purposes: to empower individuals and
groups to improve their lives and to bring about social
change at some levelschool, community, or society.
Accordingly, it deliberately involves a sizable group of
people representing diverse experiences and viewpoints,
all of whom are focused on the same problem. The intent
is to have intensive involvement of all these stakeholders
, who function as equal partners.
Participatory action research is often referred to as
collaborative research.
Steps in Action Research
Action research involves four basic stages:
(1) identifying the research problem or question,
(2) Obtaining the necessary information to answer the
(3) analyzing and interpreting the information that
been gathered, and
(4) developing a plan of action.
The first stage in action research is clarifying the problem
of concern. An individual or group needs to carefully examine
the situation and identify the problem.
Action research is most appropriate when teachers or others
involved in education wish to make something better, improve
their practice, deal with a troublesome issue, or correct
something that is not working.An important thing to remember
is that for an action research project to be successful, it must
be manageable. Thus, large-scale, complex issues are probably
best left to professional researchers.
Action research projects are (usually) quite narrow in
scope. However,if a group of teachers, students,
administrators, and so on, have decided to work
together on some type of long-term project, the
research can be more extensive.
Thus, a problem like What might be a better way to
teach fractions? is more suitable than Is inquiry
teaching more appropriate than more traditional
teaching? While quite important, the latter is too
broad for easy resolution with a single classroom or
Once a problem has been identified, the next step is to decide
what sorts of data are needed and how to collect them. Any of
the methodologies can be used (although usually in a
somewhat simplified and less sophisticated form) in action
research. Experiments, surveys, causal-comparative studies,
observations, interviews, analysis of documents,
ethnographiesall are possible methodologies to consider.
Teachers can be either active participants (e.g.,observing the
computer strategies used by ones students while instructing
them in computer usage) or nonparticipants (e.g., observing
how students interact with one another during classroom study
Whichever is chosen, it is a good idea to record as much
as possible during the observationsin short, to take
field notes to describe what was seen and heard. In
addition to observing, a second major category of data
collection involves interviewing students or other
individuals from whom information is desired.
Data collected through observations often can suggest
questions to follow up on through interviews or the
administration of questionnaires. In fact, administering
questionnaires and interviewing the participants in a
study can be a valid and productive way to assess the
accuracy of observations. As is true of other aspects of
action research, interviews tend to be less formal and
often a bit more unstructured than in more formal
A third category of data collection involves the
examination and analysis of documents. This method
is perhaps the least time-consuming of the three and
the easiest to commence. Attendance records,
minutes of faculty meetings, counselor records,
school newspaper accounts, student journals, lesson
plans, administrative logs, suspension lists, seating
charts, photographs of class and school activities,
student portfoliosall are grist for the action
researchers mill.
Action research allows for the use of all of the types
of instruments questionnaires, interview schedules,
checklists, rating scales, attitudinal measures, and so
forth. However, often the teachers or administrators,
involved (sometimes even students) develop their
own instrument(s) in order to make them locally
appropriate. And they are usually shorter, simpler,
and less formal than the instruments used in more
traditional research studies.
Some action research uses more than one instrument
or other forms of triangulation. Thus, asking students
to respond to carefully prepared interview questions
might be supplemented by video recordings;data
obtained through the use of observational checklists
might be checked against audio recordings of
classroom discussions; and so forth. What method(s)
to use is dictated, as in any research investigation, by
the nature of the research question.
Action researchers must avoid collecting merely
anecdotal datathat is, just the opinions of people as
to how the problem might be addressed. Although
anecdotal data are often valuable, experts believe
strongly that more substantive evidence of some sort
(e.g., audiotape recordings, videotapes, observations,
written replies to questionnaires, and so forth) should
be obtained.
Ms. Gonzales, is interested in the following question:
Does using drama improve students understanding
of basic science concepts?
How might Ms. Gonzales proceed? Although it could be
investigated in a number of ways, this question lends
itself particularly well to a comparison-group experiment.
Ms. Gonzales could randomly assign students to classes
in which some teachers use dramatics and some teachers
do not. She could compare the effects of these
contrasting methods by testing the students in these
classes at specified intervals with an instrument designed
to measure conceptual understanding.
The average score of the different classes on the test (the
dependent variable) would give Ms. Gonzales some idea
of the effectiveness
of the methods being compared.
Of course, Ms. Gonzales wants to have as much
control as possible over the assignment of
individuals to the various treatment groups. In
most schools, the random assignment of students
to treatment groups (classes) would be very
difficult to accomplish. Should this be the case,
comparison still would be possible using a quasi-
experimental design.
Ms. Gonzales might, for example, compare student
achievement in two or more intact classes in which
some teachers agree to use the drama approach.
Because the students in these classes would not have
been assigned randomly, the design could not be
considered a true experiment; but if the differences
between the classes in terms of what is being
measured are quite large, and if students have been
matched on pertinent variables (including a pretest of
conceptual understanding), the results could still be
useful in showing how the two methods compare.


Problem Identification. This provides information about the results of

the achievement test, difficulty to comprehend, cannot answer questions,
and other academic problems that need instructional intervention in the

Analysis of the Problem. This is the researchers observation and

experience with the students prompted to conclude instructional
intervention due to the reasons of lack of mastery and comprehension,
lack of Interest and concentration, lack of interesting visual aids, low
comprehension ability, low parental guidance and others.

Alternative Courses of Action. The researcher decides to conduct

instructional strategy as an intervention to solve the problems in the class
that will enhance and improve the study habits. concentration and
attention, understanding the concepts of the topics, and improve other
academic skills.

Examples of action researches in Mathematics

After a thorough study of the results of the achievement test,
the researcher found out that most of the students that took
the test got the low score in problem solving. ( Javinollo , 2003)
Lack of mastery in problem solving
Lack of comprehension and inability to transform the word
problem into mathematics operation
Inability to perform the operation and limited use of
instructional material especially activity card.
To remedy these difficulties, the following alternative course of
action: giving more exercises to solve the problem,
mastery of the four fundamental operations, mastery of
the steps solving problem; and using the activity card.
From these alternative cause of actions, the researcher decided
to use activity cards as an intervention.
The third year students specifically of the lower sections
demonstrated the lowest achievement rate in Mathematics
during the third year grading period as compared to the
results of the test during the first year grading periods.
With this observation, the researcher considered the
following probable causes: (Loresto, 2003)
Irregular attendance and cutting classes

Classes interruption due to activities like athletic meets,

Science/Math Month.
Lack of students interest in Mathematics due teacher
weak strategy.
Lack of parents involvement in education.
Given these probable causes, the researcher believes
that any of the following alternative courses of action
can be done.
Mathematics achievement can be improved by
suiting the class with a appropriate strategy like the
use of flash cards, concrete materials and
other tangible objects which students can
Giving incentives can motivate students interest
to get high scores.
Assignment sheets for every lesson should be
prepared by the teacher daily, to be checked, scored
and to be returned to the students before presenting
the new lesson. Parents signature should be affixed
Improving Mathematics Achievement Through
The Use Of Assignment Sheets
Examples of action researches in Science
1.The students can recall and identify specific facts on
people, materials and energy. Energy. However, they
are found to have difficulty in comprehending basic
science concepts. (Mati,2003)
With this observation the researcher considered the
following as probable causes:
lack of interest
poor intellectual ability
poor study habits and learning styles
lack of exposure to science concepts and information
low comprehension
training at home
courses of action can be done:
Science interest should be improved by using a
more interesting teaching strategy like cooperative
learning, discovery approach or
Study habits and learning styles can be enhanced
through independent learning or self-study
Comprehension can be better when the learners are
given the chance to construct their experience.
Self-Learning can be possible with the use of
modular instruction

Improving Science Comprehension with the Use

of Modular Instruction
With the desire of the researcher to improve science
comprehension ability of the students, the selected
intervention is modular instruction with the belief that
self-learning can be more challenging. However, the
independence in learning can develop leaners to become
more responsible and more motivating.

2.The students can identify specific facts on people and

materials. However, they are found to have difficulty in
comprehending basic science concepts. ( Tabila,2003)
With this observation, the researcher considered the
following probable causes :
Poor study habits
Lack of knowledge on basic science concepts.
Lack of concentration and attention on science.

any of the following alternative courses of action can be

done :
Science habits and learning styles can be enhanced
through independent and self-study techniques.
Science interest can be improved by using a more
interesting teaching strategy like the POE method
( Prediction, Observation and Explanation)
Comprehension in Science can be better when the
learner are given the chance to construct their own
Attention and concentration of learners in Science can be
enhanced through the use of instructional devices.
The researcher is eager to improve the understanding of
Science among the students and POE ( Prediction,
Observation and Explanation is the selected alternative
with the belief that self-learning can be more challenging.
Improving the Understanding of
Basic Science Concepts through the
Use of POE Method ( Prediction,
Observation and Explanation

Examples of action research in Filipino
1.It is observed that there is a low achievement
in Filipino among our students. This points out a
need to develop instructional strategies that can
improve students cognitive, affective as well as
behavioral learning outcomes. (Julio,2003)
During the launching of the Basic Education
Curriculum (BEC), cooperative learning one of the
approaches being emphasized and developed.
The cooperative learning is one of the
instructional method which has been proven
effective in improving students achievement and
attitude in all subject at all levels. Hence, it can
also be effective in teaching Filipino.
With the desire of the researcher to improve
the students performance in Filipino, the
selected alternative is to use the cooperative
Examples of action research in English
The students can identify pictures, read words, and sentences.
However, they are found to have difficulty in reading comprehension,
particularly getting the main idea of a selection read.
With this observation, the researcher considered the following a
probably causes:
lack of Interest
lack of concentration
lack of reading interest
limited vocabulary
poor study habits and learning styles
low comprehension ability
low parental guidance
lack of interesting visual materials

of the following causes of action can be done:

Motivation can sustain interest.
Home visitation and dialogue with parents.
Improving study habits and learning styles through
independent learning styles through independent
learning and self-study
Remedial teaching
Use of instructional devices specifically use of comic

With the desire of the researcher to improve the ability

in getting the main idea of a selection read of the students,
the selected alternative is to use comic strips with the belief
that this can be more challenging, and thus interest to the

Use Of Activity Cards In

Improving The Ability Of Grade
V Pupils In Solving 1-Step
Action Research Title Instruction Hypothesis Problem Analysis of Statement of
al Identificatio the the Problem
Strategies n Problem
1. Use Of Activity Cards Use Of Significant Low score in Lack of Level of
In Improving The Activity Difference problem mastery and Performance
Ability Of Grade V Cards in between the solving comprehensi before and after
Pupils In Solving 1- Solving 1- level of on
Step Problem Step Proficiency Inability to
Problem perform the

Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

The mean value of pretest was 21, this means that the performance of the pupils in
solving 1 step problem is poor
The mean value of the posttest was 69, it implies that there was an improvement with a
standard deviation of 8.28.
The difference between the two mean yielded aa t-value of 32.65 which is significant
higher than the mean of the pretest.
There was significant improvement in the pupils ability in solving 1 step problem when
activity is very effective because it requires mental alertness of the pupils.
Action Research Instructio Hypothesis Problem Analysis Statement of
Title nal Identificatio of the the Problem
Strategies n Problem
Improving Use of Significant The third year Irregular What is the level
Mathematics Assignment difference in students classes of achievement
Achievement Sheets the specifically of with and without
Through The Use Of mathematics the lower Lack of the use of
Assignment Sheets achievement of sections students assignment
third year demonstrated interest sheets?
students with the lowest
and without achievement Follow up Is there a
the use of rate in lesson at significant
assignment Mathematics home is difference of the
sheets during the neglected mathematics
third grading achievement of
period as Classes the third year
compared to interruption students with
Findings/Conclusion and Recommendations the results of and without the
The level of the two groups were poor, III Ilang-ilang, the
tests group has a higher
use ofmean of 45
% and III-Rosal, the control group has 28%. The standard deviation
during of 17 for III-Rosal and
the first 11 for III
Ilang-ilang showed that the control group, was composed two of a more heterogeneous class.
grading sheets?
The computed t-value of 5.31 is higher than the critical value of 2.023 shows a significant difference
between the performance of the control group and the experimental group. Thus the use of
assignment sheets is effective in teaching mathematics.

These are selected instructional strategies presented by

Kelly and Kelly (2013) that can be employed in the probable
causes of action in the conduct of Action Researches:

1. Active Learning
Any approach that engages learners by matching instruction to
the learner's interests, understanding, and developmental level.
Often includes hands-on and authentic activities.

2. Adaptive Learning Environments Model (ALEM)

Combination of individual and whole class approach which helps
to integrate students with special needs into the classroom.
by the students. Usually included : preparation
(students read and generate questions), review, quiz,
and evaluation.

4. Buddy System
Pairing students during the first week of class to create
pairs who are responsible to help each other get
missing assignments due to absence, or watch out for
each other during field trips.

5. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)

Students learn at own pace with interactive computer
most commonly used is to describe activities designed to
help students understand characters in their fictional
reading. The second meaning is analysis of the student's
own character with regard to ethics and values.

7.Cloze Procedure
An activity created by the teacher to give students
practice with language usage. The teacher selects a
passage of text, marks out some of the words, then rewrites
the text with blank lines where the marked out words were.
The result is a "fill in the blank" that should be enjoyable for
the student while at the same time giving the teacher
information about the student's language skills.
Any kind of work that involves two or more

9. Collective Notebook
A notebook maintained by a group in which each
member of the group is expected to add an idea or
observation during a specified time period (typically
each day or each week). The contents of the notebook
are regularly shared or published and discussed

10. Comic Books

Useful for engaging visual learners and encouraging
a wide variety of students to become involved in
discussions of literature and the wide range of social,
scientific, and historical topics covered in comic books.
11. Completed Work Chart
Make and publicly post a chart that lists all assignments
along the top and students' names vertically along the left.
When a student finishes an assignment, the teacher marks out
the box for that assignment on the chart so students can
quickly see if they are missing any work. In this approach,
grades are never publicly posted, and if work is so late it will
no longer be accepted, the box is also marked out. The chart is
used only as a reporting mechanism to let students know
about work they need to do that will still be accepted for

12. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition

13. Cooperative Learning Model
In this approach, students share knowledge with other students
through a variety of structures. Cooperative Learning, as a phrase,
originated in the 1960's with the work of David and Roger Johnson. True
cooperative learning includes five essential elements: positive
interdependence, face-to-face interactions, individual accountability,
some structured activity, and team-building (group processing) skills.
Similar to the "Social Learning Model.

14. Discussion Groups

In the classroom, a discussion group is formed when a discussion is
carried out by only a part of the class. Outside the classroom, discussion
groups are composed of individuals with similar interests. These groups
meet regularly to discuss a variety of literary or social issues.

15.Discussion Web
A form of discussion that starts out with individual students
formulating a response, then each student pairs with one other, then the
pairs pair to form groups of four. Finally, when the groups have refined
their answers, they share their thoughts with the whole class.
16. Dissections Experimental Inquiry
As a Meaningful Use Task it includes observation,
analysis, prediction, testing, and re-evaluation. As a variation
of inquiry, experimental inquiry involves generating and
testing hypotheses to explain phenomena.

17. Discovery Teaching

A constructivist approach. Students begin learning with
an activity designed to lead them to particular concepts or
conclusions. Students acquire basic and advanced knowledge
in random order.

18. Dramatizing
Students can illustrate text they have read, draw diagrams of
problems they have heard, or simply draw to stimulate creativity.

20. Dream Diary

Useful creativity technique in art and writing classes.
Students keep a diary of their dreams, then can use the images
and ideas in their compositions.

21. Error Analysis

Error analysis takes two basic forms in the classroom. In the
most common form, teachers analyze the errors students make (in
mathematical computation, grammar, language, literature
interpretation, and so on) and use that analysis to guide further
instruction. In science classroom, some teachers teach students to
analyze experimental errors to improve critical thinking skills.
An instructional approach in which objectives are
presented to learners beginning with general principles
and proceeding to specific concepts. Compare to:
Chronological, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part,
Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-
Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part

23. Generative Learning Model

A four phase method (preliminary, focus,
challenge, and application) that encourages students
to "do something" with information. This constructivist
approach allows students to construct (or generate)
meaning through their active use of information.
A four phase method (preliminary, focus, challenge, and
application) that encourages students to "do something" with
information. This constructivist approach allows students to
construct (or generate) meaning through their active use of

25. Graphic Organizer

Graphic organizers are visual frameworks to help the
learner make connections between concepts. Some forms of
graphic organizers are used before learning and help remind
the learner of what they already know about a subject. Other
graphic organizers are designed to be used during learning to
act as cues to what to look for in the structure of the resources
or information. Still other graphic organizers are used during
review activities and help to remind students of the number
and variety of components they should be remembering.
The class is divided into teams. Teams select topics to
investigate, gather information, prepare a report, then
assemble to present their findings to the entire class.

27. Independent Practice

Practice done without intervention by the teacher. This
approach includes many activities done with a computer.

28. Independent Reading Programs

Programs in which students proceed at their own pace
through reading and take assessments when they feel
prepared. Accelerated Reading is one example of an
Independent Reading Program. In some programs, students
may choose their books from a pre-selected pool of books. In
other cases, the reading is ordered and students read the
books in a particular sequence.

concepts and categories. The matrix is filled in at the beginning

of a lesson and as students learn more, they correct and update
the matrix to reflect new knowledge.
30. Inductive Inquiry
Teaching that follows the cycle used in scientific inquiry.
Steps usually include: searching the literature, making
observations, generating hypotheses, designing and carrying
out experiments, then analysis of results and restarting the
31. Inductive Thinking
Analyzing individual observations to come to general
conclusions. Proceeding from facts to the "big picture."
Inferential Strategy Like DR-TA but occurs only before and after
32. Inside-Outside Circle
Review technique. Inside and outside circles of students face
each other. Within each pair of facing students, students quiz each
other with questions they have written. Outside circle moves to create
new pairs. Repeat.

33. Jumbled Summary

Teacher presents randomly ordered key words and phrases from a
lesson to students. Students put the terms and phrases in a logical
order to show understanding.

34. Nutshelling
A form of summary. It usually involves asking a student to examine
synthesize a brief statement that captures the essence of all that has
been written or stated to that point. Often used in writing classes to
help students find the key points in their own writing.

The process of recording information presented by a

teacher for the purpose of improving recall or understanding by
the student. Notes typically include a combination of direct
quotes of what a teacher says, diagrams, and additions by the
student to add emphasis or to indicate areas where outside
study may be required.

44. Open Discussion

Open discussion is the least structured form of discussion.
The teacher sets the boundaries by describing the general topic
for the discussion, but the direction of the discussion follows
student interests within that topic.

45. Open Text Recitation

A form of recitation in which students can use their books,
notes, or other texts to support their answers.

the purpose of altering classroom structure.

47. Paired Comparisons

A structured method for comparing many objects or ideas
that involves creating a matrix, comparing each pair
individually, then using the paired comparisons to generate a
ranked list.

48. Scripted Cooperative Dyads

Pairs both read complex material, then alternate in roles
of recaller (who summarizes and explains what was read) and
listener (who listens, then corrects or adds to what was said by
Making connections between words based on meaning
and context.

50. Semantic Feature Analysis

Chart or grid where students explore their existing
knowledge about relations between concepts.

51. Spiral Sequencing

An instructional approach in which objectives are
presented to learners beginning with simple concepts and
then periodically revisiting the concepts and expanding on
the concepts as is appropriate for the learner's cognitive
level. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-
to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-
to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known,