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I- API 570: SCOPE,

TERMS AND
DEFINITION

Training center
Skills for oil and gas

II- PIPING
Centre de formation agr sous le 11/1532/1 INSPECTION
numro/ 6

III- PIPING
API 570 : Piping Inspector MATERIALS

Course
Sculpt Your Skills for the Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Rerating
of Oil & Gas In-Service Piping Systems!
IV-Fitness- For
-Service (FFS)
assessment

22st - 24th November 2016 | Tunisia,


1
2/9/17
PRSENTATION DE LINTERVENANT
Mr JALLALI Salah, Ingnieur diplm en Gnie Industriel de lENIT en 2006, ayant occup
plusieurs postes comme tant Ingnieur QA/QC ENI , Inspecteur en soudage SAIPEM, Expert en
corrosion, et actuellement Directeur Gnral CIM.

Plus que 10 ans dexprience dans le domaine ptrolier


Inspection selon API 653 Plus que 102 rservoirs de stockage dhydrocarbure
Inspection selon API 510,ASME IIIX Div1,2 Plus que 300 appareils sous pression

Expert Agr du ministre de lindustrie tunisienne:

A2: les appareils pression de gaz, A3: les ouvrage de transport de gaz combustible
par canalisations, B4:les ouvrage de transport dhydrocarbure liquide par
canalisations.
Auditeur interne certifi en ISO 9001 ,ISO 17020, ISO 14001,ISO18001
ASNT UT,MT,PT,RT,RMT,VIT,ECT level II

Ingnieur expert API 510, API 570, API 653

Ingnieur expert en Corrosion et Revtement CSWIP 2/3

NS-2/DS-1 drill pipe and Rigs senior inspector


I- PIPING INSPECTION CODE: API 570

2/9/17 API 570 : Piping Inspector Course 3


4
Piping Inspection, based on API RP 570?

Three-days course covering a comprehensive introduction to the in-service


inspection of metallic piping systems based on the requirements of
API/ASME standards.
Course content:
Extensive overview of API 570 Body of Knowledge, corrosion
allowances, inspection intervals, joint efficiencies, pressure testing,
impact testing, preheating and heat treatment requirements, remaining life
calculations, degradation mechanisms, ASME welding and NDE
requirements.
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PIPING INSPECTION CODE: API 570

In-service Inspection

Rating

Repair

Alteration of Piping Systems

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PIPING INSPECTION CODE: API 570

Scope

Terms & definitions

Inspection plans

Interval / frequency & extent of inspection

Inspection data evaluation, analysis & recording

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S C O P E COVERS INSPECTION. . .

Rating, repair, alteration procedures for metallic &


fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) piping systems and their
associated pressure relieving devices that have been placed
in- service

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S C O P E - INTENT

Specify the in-service inspection and condition

Monitoring program that is needed to determine the integrity of piping.

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SCOPE - INCLUDED FLUID SERVICES

Applies to piping systems for:

Process fluids

Hydrocarbons

Similar flammable or toxic fluid services

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SCOPE

OPTIONAL PIPING SYSTEMS & FLUID SERVICES

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SCOPE - FITNESS FOR SERVICE & RISK BASED
INSPECTION (RBI)

API 579 Provides detailed assessment procedures for specific types of damage that are referenced in this

code.

The inspection code recognizes RBI concepts for determining inspection intervals.

API 580 provides guidelines for conducting a risk based assessment.

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TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Authorized Piping Inspector: is an employee of an authorized inspection agency who is qualified and

certified to perform the function specified in API 570. An NDE examiner is not required to be an authorized

piping inspector

Condition Monitoring Locations CMLs: Designated areas on piping systems where periodic

examinations are conducted


Corrosion Rate: The rate of metal loss due to erosion erosion/corrosion or the chemical reaction(s)

with the environment, either internal and /or external.


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TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Damage Mechanism: Any type of deterioration that can affect the


integrity of piping (e.g. corrosion, cracking, erosion, dents, and other
mechanical, physical or chemical impacts). See API 571 for a
comprehensive list and description of damage mechanisms.

Deadlegs: Components of piping system that normally have no


significant flow.

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TERMS & DEFINITIONS

External Inspection: A visual inspection performed from the outside of


a piping system to find conditions that could impact the piping systems
ability to maintain pressure integrity or conditions that compromise the
integrity of the coating and insulation covering, the supporting structures
and attachments
Fitness For Service Evaluation: A methodology whereby flaws and
other deterioration/damage contained within piping systems are assessed in
order to determine the structural integrity of the piping for continued
service.
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TERMS & DEFINITIONS

General Corrosion: Corrosion that is distributed more or less uniformly


over the surface of the piping, as opposed to being localized in nature.

In Service Inspection: All inspection activities associated with piping


after it has been initially placed in service

Inspection: The external, internal, or on-stream evaluation (or any


combination of the three) of piping condition conducted by the authorized
inspector or his/her designee.
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TERMS & DEFINITIONS
Inspection Plan: A documented plan for detailing the scope, methods
and timing of the inspection activities for piping systems, which may
include recommended repair, and/or maintenance.
Localized Corrosion: Deterioration, e.g. corrosion that is confined to a
limited area of the metal surface.
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP): The maximum internal
pressure permitted in the piping system for continued operation at the most severe
condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or
maximum) expected during service.
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TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Minimum Required Thickness: The thickness without corrosion


allowance for each component of a piping system based on the appropriate
design code calculations and code allowable stress that consider pressure,
mechanical and structural loadings.

On Stream Inspection: An inspection performed from the outside of


piping systems while they are on-stream using NDE procedures to establish
the suitability of the pressure boundary for continued operation.
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TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Risk Based Inspection (RBI): A risk assessment and risk management process that is focused on

inspection planning for piping systems for loss of containment in processing facilities, which considers both

the probability of failure and consequence of failure due to material deterioration.

Soil-To-Air Interface: An area in which external corrosion may occur on partially buried pipe.

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TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Structural Minimum Thickness: Minimum thickness without corrosion


allowance, based on structural and other loadings.

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INSPECTION PLANS

Development of an Inspection Plan

An inspection plan shall be established for all piping systems within the
scope of this code.
The inspection plan is developed from the analysis of several sources of
data.

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INSPECTION PLANS

Minimum Contents of an Inspection Plan

Define the type(s) of inspection needed, e.g. internal, external, on-stream


Identify the next inspection date for each inspection type
Describe the inspection methods and NDE techniques
Describe the extent and locations of inspection and NDE at CMLs

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RBI

RBI can be used to determine inspection intervals and the type and extent of future
inspection/examinations.

Probability Assessment

The probability assessment shall be in accordance with API 580 and shall be
based on all forms of damage that could reasonably be expected to affect
equipment in any particular service.
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RBI

Consequence Assessment
The consequence of a release is dependent on type and amount of process
fluid contained in the equipment
Frequency of RBI Assessment

The assessment shall be updated after each equipment inspection as


defined in API 580. The RBI assessment shall also be updated each time
process or hardware changes are made or after any event occurs that could
significantly affect damage rates or damage mechanisms.
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INSPECTION PLANS

Inspection for Types & Locations

of Damage Modes of Deterioration &

Failure

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INSPECTION PLANS
Equipment Damage Types
Damage Type Damage Mechanism
General and local metal loss Sulfidation
Oxidation
Microbiologically influenced corrosion Organic acid corrosion
Erosion/erosion-corrosion
Galvanic corrosion
CUI

Surface connected cracking Fatigue


Caustic stress corrosion cracking
Sulfide stress cracking
Chloride stress corrosion cracking
Polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking Other forms of environmental cracking

Subsurface cracking Hydrogen induced cracking


Metallurgical changes Graphitization
Temper embrittlement
Blistering Hydrogen blistering
Material properties changes Brittle fracture
NOTE API 571 has a much more complete listing and description of damage mechanisms experienced in the refining and petrochemical industry.

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INSPECTION PLANS
Areas of Deterioration For Piping Systems

Injection points and mix points


Deadlegs
CUI
Soil to Air Interfaces
Service Specific & Localized Corrosion
Erosion, Corrosion, & Erosion/Corrosion
Fatigue Cracking
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INSPECTION PLANS

General Types of Inspection & Surveillance

Internal Visual Inspection CUI Inspection


On-Stream Inspection Vibrating Piping Inspection
Thickness Measurement Inspection Supplemental Inspection
External Visual Inspection Injection Point Inspection

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INSPECTION PLANS

CMLs
CMLs are specific areas along the piping circuit where inspections are to be made.
The minimum thickness at each CML can be located by ultrasonic scanning or radiography.
The rate of corrosion/ damage shall be determined from successive measurements and the next inspection
interval appropriately established.
CMLs should be marked on inspection drawings and on the piping system to allow repetitive measurements
at the same CMLs. This recording procedure provides data for more accurate corrosion rate determination.
Careful identification of CMLs and examination points are necessary to enhance the accuracy and
repeatability of the data.

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INSPECTION PLANS

Condition Monitoring Methods


UT and RT

As a general rule, each of the NDE techniques will have practical limits with
respect to accuracy .

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INSPECTION PLANS
Other NDE Techniques for Piping Systems

Magnetic Particle
Liquid Penetrant
Flux Leakage
Eddy Current
Acoustic Emission
Thermography
Long Range UT (GUL Guided Ultrasonic Longwave)
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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT OF
INSPECTION

General
To ensure equipment integrity, all piping systems and
pressure-relieving devices shall be inspected at the
intervals/ frequencies provided in this section.

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Inspection Intervals

If RBI is not being used, the interval between piping inspections shall be
established and maintained using the following criteria:
Corrosion rate and remaining life calculations
Piping service classification
Applicable jurisdictional requirements
Based on operating conditions, previous inspection history, current
inspection results, and conditions that may warrant supplemental inspections.
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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT OF INSPECTION
Inspection Intervals

The owner/user or the inspector shall establish inspection intervals for


thickness measurements and external visual inspections and, where applicable,
for internal and supplemental inspections.

Thickness measurements should be scheduled at intervals that do not exceed


the lesser of one half the remaining life determined from corrosion rates
indicated or the maximum intervals recommended in Table 2. Shorter
intervals may be appropriate under certain circumstances.
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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT OF 34
INSPECTION

Piping Service Classes

All process piping systems shall be categorized into


different piping classes.

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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT OF INSPECTION

Class 1

Services with the highest potential of resulting in an immediate emergency if a leak were to occur are in Class 1 .
Class 2
Services not included in other classes are in Class 2. This classification includes the majority of unit process
piping and selected off-site piping.
Class 3
Services that are flammable but do not significantly vaporize when they leak and are not located in high-
activity areas.
Class 4

Services that are essentially nonflammable and nontoxic .


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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT OF INSPECTION

Extent of Visual External & CUI Inspections

External visual inspections, including inspections for CUI, should be


conducted at maximum intervals listed in Table 2 to evaluate items such as
those in API 574.

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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT OF INSPECTION

Extent of Thickness Measurement Inspection

To satisfy inspection interval requirements, each thickness


measurement inspection should obtain thickness readings on a
representative sampling of CMLs on each circuit.

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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT OF INSPECTION

Recommended Maximum Inspection Intervals


Type of Circuit Thickness Measurements Visual External
Class 1 Five years Five years
Class 2 10 years Five years
Class 3 10 years 10 years
Class 4 Optional Optional
Injection points a Three years By class
S/A b By class
NOTE Thickness measurements apply to systems for which CMLs have been established in accordance with 5.6.
a Inspection intervals for potentially corrosive injection/mix points can also be established by a valid RBI analysis in
accordance with API 580.
b
See API RP 574 for more information on S/A interfaces.

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INTERVAL / FREQUENCY & EXTENT 39

OF INSPECTION

Recommended Maximum Inspection Intervals

Pipe Class Approximate Amount of Follow-up Examination Approximate Amount of CUI Inspection by
with NDE or Insulation Removal at Areas with NDE at Suspect Areas on Piping Systems
Damaged Insulation within Susceptible Temperature Ranges as
indicated in API 574

1 75% 50%

2 50% 33%

3 25% 10%

4 Optional Optional
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INSPECTION DATA EVALUATION,
ANALYSIS & RECORDING
Corrosion Rate Determination
Remaining Life Calculation

Long Term Corrosion Rate

Short Term Corrosion Rate

Long term and short term corrosion rates should be compared to see which
results in the shortest remaining life as part of the data assessment.
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INSPECTION DATA EVALUATION,
ANALYSIS & RECORDING

MAWP Determination

The wall thickness used in these computations shall be the actual thickness as

determined by inspection minus twice the estimated corrosion loss before the

date of the next inspection

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INSPECTION DATA EVALUATION, ANALYSIS
& RECORDING
Required Thickness Determination

The required thickness of a pipe shall be the greater of the pressure design
thickness or the structural minimum thickness.
Assessment of Inspection Findings

Pressure containing components found to have degradation that could affect


their load carrying capability shall be evaluated for continued service.
Fitness-For-Service techniques may be used for this evaluation.
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INSPECTION DATA EVALUATION, ANALYSIS &
RECORDING

Types of Piping Records

Fabrication, Construction & Design Information

Inspection History

Repair, Alteration & Re-rating Information

Fitness-For-Service Assessment

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Questions?

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II- PIPING INSPECTION

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API 570 COVERS IN-SERVICE


INSPECTION OF PIPING

To fit in with the philosophy of ANSI B31.3


DESIGN CODE FOR PROCESS PIPING

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The scope of API 570

Mandatory: Almost any Optional:


Water,steam and condensate
metallic piping system: Piping related to mechanical
Raw and finished oil products equipment
Raw and finished chemical (pumps/compressors etc)
products Pressure vessels
Hydrogen/fuel/flare gas systems
Domestic sewers etc
Sour/waste systems etc
Everything< in dia
Non-metallic piping

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API 570 inspection
Practices
Checks are needed for specific types of corrosion and cracking:
1. Injection points
2. Dead legs
3. CUI
4. Soil /Air(S/A) interfaces
5. Erosion and erosion/corrosion
6. Corrosion under linings Well look at some of
7. Fatigue cracking these in more detail
8. Creep cracking
9. Brittle fracture
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INJECTION POINTS

Why is particular inspection attention (and TMLs)


needed at injection points ?

.and what are TMLs anyway


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INJECTION POINT
INSPECTION AREAS

12in or 3D upstream
2nd change of
flow
direction
This area is
known as: The downstream (or 7.6m
IPC(injection after the first change)
point circuit)

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API 570 INSPECTION METHODS

TMLs
External (4
visual quadrants))

Intern
al
visual
s API 570 : Piping Inspector Course
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DEADLEGS

Corrosion rates are


higher
around deadlegs

Deadleg
Redundant deadlegs
should be removed

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CORROSION UNDER
INSULATION (CUI)

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CORROSION UNDER
INSULATION (CUI)

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CORROSION UNDER
INSULATION (CUI)

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CORROSION UNDER
INSULATION (CUI)

Almost total wastage of


bolts

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CORROSION UNDER
INSULATION (CUI)
API identifies the areas that are most
susceptible to CUI

Near steam vents


and deluge systems

Mist from
Acid vapours
cooling towers

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CORROSION UNDER
INSULATION (CUI)
All LCS pipework operating continually at 4<t<120 deg C

LCS pipework operating> 120 deg C BUT INTERMITTENTLY

Austenitic Stainless steel at 65-205 Deg C (for SCC)

Piping systems that vibrate a lot (insulation becomes damaged)

Piping systems with damaged wrappings


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CORROSION UNDER FIXED LININGS

In general ,API does not require


removal of linings for inspections
AS LONG AS THE LINING IS IN
GOOD CONDITION

BUT
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SOIL/AIR INTERFACES

All interfaces without cathodic protection

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CORROSION UNDER
INSULATION (CUI)

The API 570 rule is that you should inspect areas for CUI where the
insulation is damaged
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RECOMMENDED EXTENT OF
CUI EXAMINATION(BY CLASS)
% NDT on % NDT on
Type of areas with suspect areas
circuit damaged within CUI
insulation temperature
range
Class 1 75% 50%

Class 2 50% 33%

Class 3 25% 10%

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EROSION AND EROSION-CORROSION


LOCATIONS

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TMLS FOR 64
EROSION/CORROSION
Downstream of ..

Control valves (especially when there is flash-off


Orifice plate
Pump discharges
Elbows
Pipe features that produce turbulence
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EROSION/CORROSION

An
example

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EROSION/CORROSION

Erosion/Corrosion
after flow-restriction
features

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STRESS CORROSION
CRACKING (SCC)

Rule:
In most circumstances,SCC is due to

Chlorides attacking stainless steel

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STRESS CORROSION
CRACKING (SCC)

SCC ON A GAS PIPELINE COMPONENT

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STRESS CORROSION
CRACKING (SCC)

SCC ON A GAS PIPELINE

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What is this? 70

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API 570 GUIDE ON REPAIR
PATCHES

25mm min radii


Repair patch D

Max D/2
Not permitted

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API 570 GUIDE ON REPAIR
PATCHES
Requires a full repair sleeve

Min 2D

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API 570 INSPECTION INTERVALS

The maximum permitted interval


depends on pipe class

Class 1::Highest risk/consequence


Class 2 : Medium risk
Class 3: Low risk

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MAXIMUM API INSPECTION
INTERVALS (BY CLASS)
Type of circuit Thickness External visual
measurements
Class 1 5 years 5 years

Class 2 10 years 5 years

Class 3 10 years 10 years

Injection points 3 years By class

S/A interfaces - By class


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API 570 PIPING CLASSES

Class 1
Flammable services/flash-off leading to brittle fracture
Explosive vapours after flash-off
H2S gaseous
Hydrofluoric acid
Piping over public roads

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API 570 PIPING CLASSES

Class 2
Most other process piping
On-site hydrocarbons
H2, fuel gas and natural gas
On-site acid and caustics

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API 570 PIPING CLASSES

Class 3
Fluids that will not flash off (even if they are flammable)
Distillate/product storage/loading lines
Off-site acids and caustics

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API 570 SUMMARY

API 570 specifies the main points to look for

Remember the pipe classes (and their inspection periods)

Simple wall thickness determination

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Questions?

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III- PIPING MATERIAL

2/9/17 API 570 : Piping Inspector Course 80


PIPING
PIPING MATERIALS
MATERIALS
Definition
Definition::

piping components:
mechanical elements suitable for joining
or assembly into pressure tight fluid-
containing piping systems include
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:

piping components includes:


Pipe & tube
Flange
gaskets, bolting
valves
Fittings (e.g. elbows, reducers, branch, connections, etc.)
Special items such as expansion joints
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:pipe
pipe&&tube
tubeclassification
classification

Tube:
Specify by two of
Outside diameter
Wall thickness:

Pipe :
Specify by two of
NPS (Nominal Pipe Size)
Wall Thickness (Schedule)

Tube : Heat conduction


Pipe : Fluid transferring
Material Spec. Services Max. Temp. Classifications

L&I Temp. 427 C


A53, AI06 Carbon Steel
L&I Press. (800F)

High Temp. 648 C Low & Intermediate


A335, A691
I&H Press. (1200F) Alloy Steel

Corrosive
648 C Stainless Steels
A213, A312 Media, Purity
(1200F) (High Alloy Steel) Ferrous
Maintenance
Material
High Temp
815C Stainless Steels for
A312 (above 1200
(1500F ') High Temperature
OF)

Low Temp &


204C
A48, A395 Press., Cast Iron
(400F)
Civil

L&I Temp,
343 C Nickel & High Nickel
B161, B167 Corrosive
(650F) Alloys
Media

Sea Water for


427C Copper & Copper Non
.B466 etc Low Temp &
(800F) Alloys
Press. Ferrous
Material
204 C Aluminum &
.B21O etc Light Weight
(400F) Aluminum Alloys Material

315C Titanium & Titanium


etc 8337 Light Weight
(600F) Alloys

Low Temp & 426C


.D1527 etc Thermoplastic
Press (800F)

Laminated
Low Temp & 149C
.C582 etc Reinforced
Press (300F)
Thermosetting Resin

Filament-Wound
Low Temp & 110C
D2996 etc Thermosetting Resin
Press (230F)
(GRP)
Non
U/G Piping
Metallic
AWWA for Low 93C
Concrete
C300 etc. Temp & (200F)
Press

Low Temp &


Press, 121C
NR, NBR etc Rubber
Corrosive (250F)
Media

230 C
.C599 etc High Purity Maintenance Glass
(450F)
Material
Material Specification
Specification
List
List
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:pipe
pipe&&tube
tubeclassification
classification

Pipe:
NPS:
, , 1, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18,
20, 24, 28, 30, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48 52, 56, 60
NPS < 12, OD > NPS
NPS 14, OD = NPS

NPS 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 not used

Pipe is supplied in
Random length (17 to 25 ft)
Double random length (38 to 48 ft)

Pipe end:
BE (bevel end)
PE (plain end)
TE or SC
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:pipe
pipe&&tube
tubeclassification
classification
Required Wall Thickness for Internal Pressure of Straight Pipe
IN
ASME B31.3

t = Required thickness for internal pressure, mm


D= Nominal outside diameter of pipe, mm
P = Internal design pressure, psig
S = Allowable stress in tension from appendix A table
A-1, psi
E = Longitudinal-joint quality factor from appendix A,
table A-1B
Y = stress-temperature compensating
tm = Total minimum required wall thickness, mm
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:pipe
pipe&&tube
tubeclassification
classification

Pipe classification:
Iron pipe size (approximate internal dia.)
Manufacturers weight: NPS +
STD
XS
XXS
Schedule number: NPS +
5, 5s, 10, 10s, 20, 20s, 30, 40, 40s, 60, 80, 80s, 100, 120,
140, 160 Show
SCH 1000 P/S
NPS 10, SCH 40 = STD
NPS 8, SCH 80 = XS
Light wall = light gage = 5, 5s, 10, 10s
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Pipe
Pipe&&tube
tubemanufacturing
manufacturing

Seamless

Welded:
Longitudinal seam
Single seam
Double seam (NPS 36)

Helical (spiral) seam


NPS 4
0.8 OD Skelp width 3.0 OD
Submerged arc welding
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Pipe
Pipe&&tube
tubemanufacturing
manufacturing::other
otherpipe
pipe
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:pipe
pipe&&tube
tubeJointing
Jointing

Method of joining pipe:


Butt weld
Socket weld
Threaded
Quick coupling
Flange
Special item
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

ASME B16.9
Used in most piping systems NPS 2
Use generally not restricted
Difficult in small sizes, especially for thin wall
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Size frequently limited to NPS 1 (ASME B16.11)


Not used in severe cyclic conditions and in
services where corrosion is accelerated in crevices
No weld metal can enter bore, easier alignment on
small line than butt-weld
Tack is unnecessary
Have not any leakage
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(threaded
(threaded==screwed)
screwed)

Common materials
Gray iron (ASME B16.4)
Malleable iron (ASME B16.3)
Steel (ASME B16.11)
Non-toxic, non-flammable, Generally not used where leaks
cannot be tolerated
NPS 1 , pressure rating < 600, temperature < 625
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Flange used for


Mate to equipment, vessels, valve,
When need periodic cleaning
Flanges are normally used for pipe sizes above
NPS 1.
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Flange Rating Class:


pressure/temperature combinations
Seven classes (150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500,
2,500)
Flange strength increases with class number
The material specifications are grouped within
Material Group Numbers.
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Pressure - Temperature Ratings

Material and design temperature combinations


that do not have a pressure indicated are not
acceptable.
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Flange Rating Class


Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Flange Rating Class


Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Type of flange end:


Weld Neck Flanges
Socket-Welded Flanges
Threaded Flanges
Slip-On Flanges
Lapped Flanges
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Flange Facing Types


Flat Faced
Raised Face
Ring Joint
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Welding neck flange


Regular
Long (used for vessel & equipment nozzle, rarely for
pipe
Suitable where
Extreme temperature
Shear
Impact and vibration
Stress apply
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Socket welding flange


Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Threaded flange
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Slip-on flange
Internal welds is slightly more subject to corrosion
than the butt-weld (0 1/16)
Poor resistance to shock and vibration
Cheaper to buy, costlier to assemble
Strength under internal pressure 1/3 of corresponding
welding neck flange
Easier to align than the welding neck flange
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Reducing flange
Specify by size of smaller pipe and outside diameter
of flange to be mate
Ex/ RED FLG 4 11
Should not be used if abrupt transition would create
undesirable turbulence as at pump
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Expander flange
Reducer + welding neck flange
Increase pipe size to first or second large size
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Lap joint (van stone) flange


If stub and flange are of the same material they will
be more expensive than a welding neck flange
Economical for different material of stub and flange
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(special
(specialitem)
item)

Spectacle blind
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Flange
Flange

Blind flange
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Gasket
Gasket/ /Bolt
Bolt&&Not
Not

Gasket:
Resilient material
Inserted between flanges
Compressed by bolts to create seal
Commonly used types
Sheet
Spiral wound
Solid metal ring
Insulation gasket
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)

Sheet
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)

Sheet
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)

Spiral wound
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)

Spiral wound
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)

Spiral wound
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)

Solid metal ring


Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)

Insulation gasket
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(bolt)
(bolt)

Bolt type:
Stud bolt
Easily remove if corroded
Material can be readily made
Machine bolt
Has to be strong enough to seat the gasket
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(bolt)
(bolt)

Tightening arrangement
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve

Valves
Valves
Valve are use for
Controlling process and utility service
Isolating equipment or instrument for
maintenances
Discharge gas, vapor or liquid
Draining piping and equipment on
shutdown
Emergency shutdown
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve

Classify valves according to functions:


Block flow (On / Off)
Regulating (Throttle flow)
Checking (Prevent flow reversal)
Switching
Discharging (pressure relive valve)

Classify valves according to operating device:


Manual
Hydraulic
Motor (electric and air operated)
Solenoid
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(result)
(result)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve

Type of valves:
Ball valves
Gate valves
Globe valves
Check Valves
Plug valve
Butterfly valves
Pinch valve
Needle valves
Relief Valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(ball
(ballvalve)
valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(ball
(ballvalve)
valve)

Used for isolation (quick on / off)


Soft-sealed ball valves are not normally used for
throttling service because the soft-seats are subject
to erosion or distortion/displacement caused by fluid
flow when the valve is in the partially open position.
ADV: Low pressure drop, fast operating, bubble-tight
shut off, can be throttled Check Valves
DISADV: Expensive, heavy, poor throttling
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(gate
(gatevalve)
valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(gate
(gatevalve)
valve)

About 75% of all valves in process plants


an optimum engineering and economic choice for on
or off service. (cutout or isolation valves)
ADV: small pressure drop across valve
DISADV: poor throttling characteristics
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(globe
(globevalve)
valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(globe
(globevalve)
valve)

Most economic for throttling flow and used for flow


control
Can be hand-controlled
Provides tight shutoff
Not suitable for scraping or rodding
Too costly for on/off block operations
ADV: excellent throttling characteristics
DISADV: large pressure drop across the valve due to
the flow restriction (thus more pumping power is
required to move the fluid through the system.)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(globe
(globevalve)
valve)
Gate Vlv disk

Globe vlv disk/seat


Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve
valve/ /swing
swingcheck
checkvalve)
valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve
valve/ /swing
swingcheck
checkvalve)
valve)

Simple design
Allows flow in one direction
Can not be used as an isolation valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve
valve/ /ball
ballcheck
checkvalve)
valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve
valve/ /ball
ballcheck
checkvalve)
valve)

Their low cost usually makes them the first


choice valves sized NPS 2 and smaller (available
in sizes NPS through 2)
Used when pressure drop is not a concern.
The basic types are the straight-through- and
globe-type (90 change in direction)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve)
valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve
valve/ /lift
liftcheck
checkvalve)
valve)

are available in sizes from NPS through 2 plants.


They are most commonly used in the higher ASME
B16.5 ratings (Class 300 and greater) where tighter
shutoff is required.
Valves of this type should only be used in clean
services.
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve)
valve)

Wafer
Wafer Check
Check Valve
Valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve
valve/ /wafer
wafercheck
checkvalve)
valve)

Valves of this type are placed between pipe flanges


and held in place by the compressive force between
the flanges and transmitted through the gaskets.
Tilting Check Arc Valve (Automatic Recirculation Valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:(check
(checkvalve)
valve)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(plug
(plugvalve)
valve)

Plug
Plug Valve
Valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(butterfly
(butterflyvalve)
valve)

Butterfly
Butterfly Valve
Valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(butterfly
(butterflyvalve)
valve)

used as cutout/isolation valves


ADV: quick-acting low pressure drop across the valve,
has adequate throttling characteristics
DISADV: only used for low press/low temp systems
due to force involved in valve operation
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(pinch
(pinchvalve)
valve)

Pinch
Pinch Valve
Valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve(needle
(needlevalve)
valve)

Needle
Needle Valve
Valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:valve
valve

Relief
Relief Valve
Valve
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting

Fitting produce change in geometry and include:

Change in direction of piping

Alter pipe diameter

Terminate pipe

Bring pipes together


(made branch from main pipe run)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Elbow (90, 45)


Long reduce
Curvature = 1 NPS
Long tangent: straight
extension at one end
Short reduce
curvature = NPS

Reducing elbow:
90
curvature = 1 NPS larger end
Bend Ovality Buckling Tolerance
(limit 8% internal press) (PFI ES-24)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Return:
Curvature = 1 NPS
Uses in:
Vent on tanks

Bend:
Curvature = 4 - 6 NPS
Made from seamless and ERW straight
pipe
Two methods used to making bend
Hot
Cold
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Miter
2 piece (pressure drop 4-6 LR elbow)
3 piece (pressure drop 2 LR elbow)
Low pressure line, NPS > 10 & pressure drop not important
90
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Reducer
Eccentric
Suction & discharge of pump
support
concentric
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Sewage :
connect butt-welded piping to smaller socket-weld or
screwed
Abrupt change of line size in butt-weld Type:
Eccentric
Concentric
Venturi: Allows smoother flow
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Tee
Straight (branch to the same size as the run)
Reducing
Branch smaller than the run
Bullhead tee have branch larger than run &
seldom used and made to special order
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Cross
Straight (branch to the same size as the run)
Reducing (rarely used)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Lateral (manufacture in factory)


Run inlet run outlet branch angle respect
to outlet (6 6 4 45)

Shape nipple (use template)


Manufacture at shop
Rarely use
90, 45

45
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Stub-in
Welded directly in the side of the main pipe run
Least expensive
NPS 2
Cab be reinforced
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Weldolet
Make a closer manifold that Tee
Full size
Reducing
Flat
Are available for connecting to pipe caps and
pressure vessel
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Elbolet: reducing tangent branch on elbow


Latrolet : reducing, 45
Sweepolet
Good flow pattern and optimum stress
distribution
90 reducing from the main pipe
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(butt-weld)
(butt-weld)

Closure
Cap
Flat closure
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Elbow (90, 45)


Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Return:
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Reducer
Reducer insert
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Sewage :
Abrupt change of line size in butt-weld
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Full coupling
Half coupling
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Union
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Tee
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Cross
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Lateral
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Sockolet
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Socket welding Elbolet


Socket welding latrolet
Nippolet
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(socket)
(socket)

Cap
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Elbow (90, 45)


Reducing elbow
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Reducer
Reducer insert
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Sewage nipple
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Full coupling
Half coupling
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Tee
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Nipple
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

cross
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

lateral
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Union
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Hexagon bushing
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Threadolet
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Threaded elbolet
Threaded latrolet
Threaded nippolet
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(thread)
(thread)

Closure
Cap
plug
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(special
(specialitem)
item)

Expansion joint (Bellows)


Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(special
(specialitem)
item)

Expansion joint
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(special
(specialitem)
item)

strainer
Cone type
:Strainer and Filter
Strainer (start up)

Basket type
strainer

Filter

Wye type
strainer
(Steam Trap)

Ball Float
Ball Float
Inverted Bucket

Bimetallic

Balanced Pressure

Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(piping
(pipingspecification)
specification)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(gasket)
(gasket)
Piping
Pipingcomponents:
components:Fitting
Fitting(branch
(branchconnection
connectionchart)
chart)
20
Questions? 1

Scurit des appareils et canalisations sous


pression 2/9/17
IV-Fitness- For -Service (FFS) assessment

Scurit des appareils et canalisations sous


2/9/17 202
pression
API 579 Example 4.11

Pressure Vessel Information:

Design Conditions = 300 psig


@ 350 OF
Inside (new) Diameter = 48 inches
D
Nominal Thickness = 0.75 inches

Uniform Metal Loss = 0 inches (no general


corrosion)
Future Corrosion Allowance = 0.10 inches
FCA
Material = SA 516 Grade 70

Joint Efficiency = 0.85


PERFORM THE INITIAL CALCULATIONS

CALCULATE THE MINIMUM REQUIRED


THICKNESS:
Using the ASME VIII, Division 1
Code
In the Circumferential (hoop) Direction
P x ( R + FCA
tCmin )
= SE 0.60 x
P
300 x ( 24 + 0.10 )
= 0.492
= 17500 x 0.85 0.60 x inches
300
In the Longitudinal ( axial ) Direction
P x ( R + FCA )
tLmin
= 2SE + 0.40 x P

300 x ( 24 + 0.10 )
= 0.242
= 2 x 17500 x 0.85 + 0.40 x 300 inches
tmin = Max ( tCmin, tLmin) = 0.492
inches
WE NOW KNOW THE REQUIRED MINIMUM
THICKNESS
This thickness which is tmin = 0.492 inches

WE MUST NOW CONSIDER THE ACTUAL CURRENT CONDITION


OF THE VESSEL WALL TO ASSESS ITS FUTURE USE

DURING A ROUTINE INSPECTION, AN AREA OF CORROSION IS


FOUND
WHAT DO WE DO NOW ?

1 WE DETERMINE THE AREA OF THIS CORROSION

2 WE MEASURE THE VARIOUS THICKNESSES IN THIS AREA

3 LET US NOW SEE HOW WE DO THIS


SURVEY METHOD
1 Find the corrosion area Identify it
2 Overlay a Grid with nodes at the intersections 1.5 inches
pitch
3 Label the grid Circumferential and Longitudinal
Gridlines
4 Measure thicknesses at every NODE tabulate the
results C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7
NOW TABULATE THE VALUES
1 Set out the table of node thicknesses
2 Find the CTP for the Circumference
Thicknesses
3 Find the CTP for the Longitudinal
Thicknesses
4 Complete the CTP values
5 Determine minimum thickness tmm = 0.36
inches

0.75
0.48
0.55

0.36
0.48
049
0.75

0.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.7


5 8 7 5 6 8 9 5
WE NOW HAVE THE COMPLETED CTP
TABLE

0.75
0.48
0.55
0.36
0.48
049
0.75
0.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.7
5 8 7 5 6 8 9 5

Minimum measured thickness tmm = 0.36


CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION

Find the Remaining Thickness Ratio (Rt):


tmm -
Rt = 0.36 - 0.10 = 0.528
FCAtmi 0.49
=
n
Allowable Remaining 2
Strength Factor (RSFa):

Section 2.4.2.2(d) states: Recommended


value for RSFa is 0.90 which is
conservative..
RSFa = 0,90
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION

Remaing Thickness Ratio Rt =


0.528
Allowable Remaining Strength Factor RSFa =
0,90
Calculate the Q factor (or read from Table 4.4):

1 - Rt
Q = 1.123 [1(- Rt / RSFa )2 - 1
]0.5
1 - 0.528
= 1.123 [1( - 0.528 / 0.90 )2 - 1 ]0.5

= 0.619
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION

Remaing Thickness Ratio R =


0.528
Allowable Remaining Strength Factor RSFa =
0,90
Factor Q
= 0.619
Calculate Length for thickness averaging (L):

L=Q D x tmin

= 0.619 48 x 0.492

= 3.0 inches
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION
Remaing Thickness Ratio R =
0.528
Allowable Remaining Strength Factor RSFa =
0,90
Factor Q =
0.619
Length for thickness averaging L = 3.0
inches
Longitudinal Critical Thickness Profile
CTP
FCA

tmin = 0.492
L

s = flaw
Flaw dimension s = 8.71 inches
dimension
L is considered for the 3 thinnest points (see
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION

Remaing Thickness Ratio R =


0.528
Allowable Remaining Strength Factor RSFa =
0,90
Factor Q =
0.619
Length for thickness averaging L = 3.011
inches
Flaw dimension s = 8.71
inches
We need not consider the Longitudinal CTP
becausetLmin < tmm -
FCA
0.242 < 0.36 - 0.10 ( =
0.26)
We are now only concerned with the profile within
the flaw distance L taking the three thinnest
adjacent points
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION

Length for thickness averaging L = 3.0


inches
Divide into equal slices using the Grid Pitch
Dimension the L length and pitches

Longitudinal Critical Thickness Profile (CTP) within length


L 0.49
0.55 tmm 0.48
0.47 0.36

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5



L = 3.0
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION
Longitudinal Critical Thickness Profile (CTP) within length
L 0.49
0.55 tmm 0.48
0.47 0.36

1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5



L = 3.0
Calculate the Average Thickness (tam) over
length L
This is done by taking the area and dividing by
L: (0.55 + 0.36 + 0.36 + 0.48) x
tam = 0.438
1.5
= 2 x L ( = 3.0) inches
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION
Per paragraph
4.4.2.1.f.1:
tam - FCA = 0.438 - 0.10 = 0.338
inches
tCmin =
0.492
tam inches
- FCA > tCmin is
FALSE
Per paragraph
4.4.2.1.f.2:
tmm - FCA = 0.36 - 0.10 = 0.26
inches
Max(-.5tmin, 0.10) = Max(0.246, 0.10) = 0.246
inches
tmm - FCA > Max(0.246, 0.10) is
TRUE
BECAUSE ONE CONDITION IS FALSE, LEVEL 1
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA ARE NOT SATISFIED !
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION
BECAUSE ONE CONDITION IS FALSE, LEVEL 1
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA ARE NOT SATISFIED !
We can derate the MAWP based on Level 1
assessment
Using the formula in ASME for pressure:

Set t = tam - FCA in the equation = 0.338


inches
SEt
MAWP =
Rc +
0.60.t
17500 x 0.85 x 0.338
= 24.10 + 0.60 x 0.338
= 207 psi

Therefore MAWP is derated from 300 psi down to


207 psi
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION
Therefore MAWP is derated from 300 psi down to
207 psi
This is based upon the LEVEL 1 assessment !

WE CAN PERFORM A LEVEL 2 ASSESSMENT


TO PERFORM A MORE DETAILED ANALYSIS

Per paragraph
4.4.3.2.1.a.1:
tam - FCA = 0.438 - 0.10 = 0.338
inches
RSFa x tCmin = 0.90 x 0.492 = 0.443
inches
tam - FCA > RSFa x tCmin is FALSE
Per paragraph
4.4.3.2.1.b:
tamm - FCA = 0.36 - 0.10 = 0.260
inches
Max(0.5.tmin, 0,1) = Max(0.246, 0.1) = 0.246
inches
tamm - FCA > Max(0.5.tmin,0.1) is
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION

Because LEVEL 2 assessment criteria are not met,


we must re-evaluate the MAWP according to
LEVEL 2 requirements.
CONTINUE WITH THE CALCULATION
We can derate the MAWP based on Level 2
assessment
Using the formula in ASME for pressure:

Set tc = (tam - FCA) / RSFa in the


equation
= (0.438 - 0.10) / 0.90 =
0.376 inchesSEt
MAWP =
Rcc+ 0.60.tc
17500 x 0.85 x 0.376
= 24.10 + 0.60 x 0.376
= 230 psi
Therefore MAWP is derated from 300 psi down to
230 psi
2/9/17 API 570 : Piping Inspector Course 242