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Presentation

On
Supply Chain of
Grapes
By
Abhijit Kamble
(1502002)
Anand Kumar
(1502022)
Introduction Market Production Post-Harvest Suggestions
Scenario Management

Grape?

It is a
They can be
temperate crop
Grape is a Grapes are a crimson, black,
which has got
commercially type of fruit that dark blue,
adapted to sub-
important fruit grow in clusters yellow, green,
tropical climate
crop of India. of 15 to 300 orange, and
of peninsular
pink
India
Introduction Market Production Post-Harvest Suggestions
Scenario Management

World Scenario

Approx 71% of
75,866 square world grape
The area dedicated to
kilometers of the world production is used
vineyards is increasing by
are dedicated to grapes for wine, 27% as
about 2% per year
fresh fruit, and 2%
as dried fruit
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Scenario n Harvest
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nt

Top Grape Producers

Million tonnes
14

China is worlds India is the 10


12
largest grape th largest grape
Producer producer
10

8 Million tonnes

0
China Italy USA France Spain Turkey Chile Argentina Iran India
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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World Grape Consumption (USFDA Report)

China

India
1
2 2.5 1 European
3.1
6.5 Union

Turkey
7
Brazil
46.3
United States
8.7
Russia

South Korea
10.4
Ukraine
11.5
Peru

Other
Introduction Market Production Post-Harvest Suggestions
Scenario Management

Grape Varieties
Single Species
Wine Grapes
Table Grapes
Wine and Table
Wine Grape rootstock and
hybridisation source
Culinary/dyes

Multi-Species Hybrid
Wine
Table
Table and Wine
Rootstock
Introduction Market Production Post-Harvest Suggestions
Scenario Management

Indian Varieties

Nearly 30 varieties of grapes are cultivated in India

Fresh fruits, which include grape, have been identified by


the Ministry of Commerce, the Government of India, as one
of the extreme focus segments for export from India

Principal commercial varieties are Thompson Seedless and


its clones, Tas-e-Ganesh and Sonaka Seedless, Sharad
Seedless (Black Seedless), Flame Seedless (Red
Seedless).
Introduction Market Production Post-Harvest Suggestions
Scenario Management

Indian Scenario
Around 25 Lakh tonnes of
grapes are produced in India
every year. The top Grapes
producing states include
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and
Mizoram

The most grown variety of


grapes is Thompson Seedless
and its clones

The grapes varieties which


have been given GI protection
are Nashik Grapes and
Bangalore Blue Grapes.
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Scenario n Harvest
Manageme
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Indian Scenario The contribution of India in foreign trade of grape
and its processed products is meagre

Export of fresh grape from India is on the


increase.

The share of Indian grape in the imports of the


European countries and Asian countries is also
increasing

Seeded varieties that are demanded in USA and


Italy markets are not produced in India

To tap this potential, there is a need to increase


area under seeded varieties of grapes

The wine trade has enormous potential, with the


support of Govt. policies India can make a mark in
wine industry at global level
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Indian Scenario: Exports
Value(crores) Quantity( millionTones)

U.K.

U.A.E.

5.15 1.35
1.17 0.28 Netherland
2.76 0.51 s
1.62 0.56 5.04
1.92 24.08 0.62 Saudi
Arabia

6.36 1.35
Sri Lanka

Oman

4.83 Germany
16.9

Others
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Agro- Soil Ph value :6.5 to 7.5
climatiRequirement
Temperature: 15 to 35 degrees Celsius
s

Leveling
Land Preparation Size of plot varies with training system

Propagated through hard wood cutting


Planting Planted in pits of size between 60 to 90
cm

Training Systems Bower, Kniffing, Telephone and Head

Pruning Single Pruning, Double Pruning

Shoot Pinching To Regulate growth

Depending upon region and training


Irrigation systems
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Training Systems
In India systems like bower, kniffin, telephone, head and
slanting trellis have been tried in the past, but the bower &
telephone system are being followed on a large scale
About 80% of the vineyard area in India is on bower system
The training system and intensity of pruning recommended for
different varieties is given below
Varieties Distanceo System of No. of No. of
f Planting training canes buds per
per cane
vine
Thompson 2x3 Kniffin 16-20 8-10
Seedles
Beauty 2x2 Head 16-20 3-4
Seedles
Anab-e- 3x6 Arbour 60-80 5-6
Shahi
Perlettee 3x3 Head,Kniffin 30-40 3-4
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Analysis n Harvest
Manageme
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Training Systems

Widely used in commercial cultivation of grapes


Used for varieties with high degree of apical

Bower dominance
Only the best shoot growing vertically is allowed to
grow along the stake provided upto the bower
height.

It is suitable for training moderately vigorous


varieties having less degree of apical dominance.
Close planting of vines within a row at spacing of

Kniffin 1.80 to 2.40 m is followed keeping the row to row


distance at 3 meters.
As in the case of Bower, the vigorous and vertically
growing shoot is trained along the vertical support.

Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Analysis n Harvest
Manageme
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Training Systems

It is a mini discontinuous bower with shoots

Telephon
hanging downwards with three topped wires and T-
shaped support
The trellis looks like a telephone pole and wires

e It is as expensive as kniffin system


Suitable for moderately vigorous varieties with
slightly more apical dominance

Least expensive of all the training systems


Suitable for less vigorous varieties with less
degree of apical dominance

Head The return on investment made is less as


compared to the Bower system.
Size of the berries produced on this system is
larger as compared to that of other systems.
Incidence of diseases is much less on this system
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Scenario n Harvest
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Pruning
Double
Single
pruning
Pruning-Single
Single
cropping
cropping

Predominantly followed
Prevalent in North India in Maharashtra, north
interior Karnataka

After harvest in summer,


the vines are forced to
Grapevines are pruned
undergo rest for about a
with the onset of spring
month, during which
or during late winter
period water is withheld
(mostly January-
to help concentrate the
February)
reserves in the mature
parts of the vine..

Floral differentiation on
the current shoots and
the fruit set take place
simultaneously
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Improvement in Fruit Quality

Pruning time, Good variety


variations in bunches of Removal of distal Application of
climate during Grapes for eating end of the bunch growth regulators
the growth period should be from helps in uniform also helps in
determine the medium to big ripening of improving the
quality of the sized, seedless berries. fruit quality.
produce grains
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Scenario n Harvest
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Harvesting and Yield
In North India, plants start fruiting
after two years of planting

Berries start ripening from the end


of May in early varieties

most of the varieties are harvested


after they have changed colour near
the tip and have become sweet

A day prior to picking, the broken,


decayed, deformed, under-sized
berries are removed
The clusters are usually harvested
during the early hours of the day
before the temperature rises above
200C

Yield varies according to variety and


climatic conditions etc

Average yield of 20-25 tonnes/ha. is


considered good
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Grading
Grading is mainly done based on the
size and colour of the grapes to
maintain uniformity of berries in a
package
While grading, size of the berry is the
criterion but not the size or shape of the
bunch
Pre-Cooling

Pre-cooling is done to reduce the field
heat, moisture loss and subsequently
increase the storability of grapes.
Fruit needs to be pre-cooled to a
temperature below 4.40C within six
hours after harvesting in cold rooms,
forced air coolers, refrigerator cars and
tunnels.
Cooling of grapes is generally carried
out in special rooms attached to the cold
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Storage
The shelf life of grapes is only one week at
room temperature
The storage life of grapes can be increased
by employing suitable means to reduce
desiccation, decay due to growth of fungi
Pre-cooled grapes are packed in
corrugated boxes in 4.5/5/9 kgs and kept
in cold storage
Boxes are specially designedwith
perforations to allow cool air to pass
through
The boxes are palletized to facilitate easy
handling
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Packaging
Table grapes meant for local market are
picked and packed directly in containers in
the field
Table grapes meant for long distance
markets and those for overseas markets
are packed differently in the packing shed
Raisin, juice and wine grapes are
subjected to suitable treatments and
processed
Different types of containers are used for
packing grapes in India
For the European market, bunches of
grapes of approx. 300 to 700 gms. are
packed in food grade plastic pouches
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Scenario n Harvest
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Packaging Types

Type Diameter Base(cm) Height(cm Capacity(K


at the ) g)
Top(cm)
Bucket 36 20 25 5
Shaped Box

Rectangular 40 25 25 5-8
Wooden box
Corrugated 37.5 25.5 11.5 4-6
Fibre Board
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Scenario n Harvest
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Transportation
Table grapes are mostly transported
through roadways for local, short
distance or long distance markets
About 5 % of the produce is
transported by rail and the quality of
produce transported through air cargo
is almost negligible
The cold chain for grapes is
maintained meticulously right from
pre-cooling state to selling of the same
The produce for international market is
sent through refrigerated vans by road
upto the sea port and then again by
sea in refrigerated containers in the
ships to their respective destination
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Export
Container filling
The 40ft. reefer containers are pre-cooled to 2
degrees C
and then are filled with the packed produce
under supervision of an Central Excise &
Customs supervisor
Containers are then sealed at the site by Central
Excise & Customs inspector
Dispatch to Destinations

The filled containers are then transported


and shipped tovarious destinations as per
the directives
Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
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Introduction Market Productio Post- Suggestions
Scenario n Harvest
Manageme
nt

Facilitate
productio
Domestic
Infrastructur n of new
sale could
e varieties
Acquisitio significant
developmen through
n of new ly
t can be tie-ups
packaging increase
supported with
Training technolog with a
by providing foreign
of y such as shift from
soft loans and
packaging MAP bags street
and domestic
practices and more sellers to
subsidies for research
effective organised
pre-cooling centres.
cardboard retailers
and cold R&D
packaging coming in
storage required
the
facilities to
market
improve
grapes
Thank You