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Instructor Materials:

Routing & Switching


Essentials - Bridging
Content

CCNA Routing & Switching 6.0 Bridging

Presentation_ID 2016 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
RSE Bridging 2.0:
Module Overview

CCNA Routing & Switching 6.0 Bridging

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RSE Bridging - Sections & Objectives
2.1 Configure Static and Default Routes
Explain the purpose of host routes.

2.2 Device Discovery


Use CDP and LLDP to perform device discovery.

2.3 Device Management


Implement NTP on an ISR.

2.4 Device Maintenance


Perform password recovery on a Cisco IOS router.

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RSE Bridging 2.1:
Configure Static and
Default Routes

CCNA Routing & Switching 6.0 Bridging

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Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Automatically Installed Local Host Routes
A host route is where the destination address is a specific device IP with
a subnet mask of /32 for IPv4 or /128 for IPv6.

There are three ways to create a host route:


Automatically installed when an IP address is configured on the router
Configured as a static host route
Host route automatically obtained through other methods

Cisco IOS automatically installs a host route, also known as a local host
route, when an interface address is configured on the router:
A host route allows for a more efficient process for packets that are directed to the
router itself, rather than for packet forwarding.
This is in addition to the connected route, designated with a C in the routing table for
the network address of the interface.

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Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Automatically Installed Local Host Routes

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Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Manually Configured IPv4 Host Routes
A host route can be a manually
configured static route to direct
traffic to a specific destination
device.
The static route uses a destination IP
address and a 255.255.255.255 (/32)
mask for IPv4 host routes and a /128
prefix length for IPv6 host routes.
Static routes are marked with S in the
output of the routing table.

For IPv6 static routes, the next-


hop address can be the link-local
address of the adjacent router.
You must specify an interface type and
an interface number when using a link-
local address as the next hop.

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RSE Bridging 2.2:
Device Discovery

CCNA Routing & Switching 6.0 Bridging

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Device Discovery with CDP
CDP Overview
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a Cisco proprietary Layer 2 protocol that is
used to gather information about Cisco devices which share the same data link.
CDP is media and protocol independent and runs on all Cisco devices.

The device sends periodic CDP advertisements to connected devices.


Advertisements share information about the type of device that is discovered, the
name of the devices, and the number and type of the interfaces.

CDP can assist in network design decisions, troubleshooting, and making


changes to equipment.

To enable CDP, use the following commands:


Globally enabled - Use the cdp run global configuration command.
Enabled / disabled on an interface - Use the cdp enable interface configuration command..

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Device Discovery with CDP
Configure and Verify CDP
Various commands are used
to verify CDP output.

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Device Discovery with LLDP
LLDP Overview
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is a vendor neutral neighbor discovery
protocol similar to CDP that can also run on Cisco devices.
This protocol advertises its identity and capabilities to other devices and receives
the information from a physically connected Layer 2 device.
To enable LLDP, use the following commands:
Globally enabled - Use the lldp run global configuration command.
Enabled / disabled on an interface - Use the lldp enable interface configuration command.

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Device Discovery with LLDP
Configure and Verify LLDP

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RSE Bridging 2.3:
Device Management

CCNA Routing & Switching 6.0 Bridging

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NTP
Setting the System Clock
The software clock on a router or switch starts when the system boots.
This is the primary source of time for the system. Time should be
synchronized across all devices on the network.
The date and time settings on a router or switch can be set using the
clock set command.

This method does not scale beyond one device. A better solution is to
configure the Network Time Protocol (NTP).

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NTP
NTP Operation
NTP enables routers to synchronize time settings with an NTP server:
NTP uses UDP port 123 and is documented in RFC 1305.
NTP can be set up to synchronize to a private master clock or it can synchronize to a
publicly available NTP server on the Internet.

NTP networks use a hierarchical


system of time sources with each level
called a stratum.
The stratum level is defined as the number
of hop counts from the authoritative source.
Stratum 0 is the authoritative time source.
Stratum 1 is directly connected to the time
source.
Stratum 2 is connected to a stratum 1
device.
Stratum 3 gets its time source from a
stratum 2 device.

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NTP
Configure and Verify NTP
The show clock detail
displays the current time and
time source.

The ntp server ip-addresss


global config command
identifies the time source. It
may take a few minutes for
synchronization to occur.

The show ntp associations


and show ntp status
commands are used to verify
the NTP configuration.

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NTP
Configure and Verify NTP
Next, S1 is configured for
NTP.

Notice how the clock on S1 is


now synchronized with R1 at
192.168.1.1 via NTP.

R1 is a stratum 2 device and


NTP server to S1.

Now S1 is a stratum 3 device


that can provide NTP service
to other devices in the
network, such as end devices.

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RSE Bridging 2.4:
Device Maintenance

CCNA Routing & Switching 6.0 Bridging

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Router and Switch File Maintenance
Password Recovery
If the enable secret password is lost or unknown, then password recovery
must be performed to access privileged EXEC mode. This process varies
between devices (e.g., router and switch recovery procedures are
different.)

This procedure cannot be done remotely as you must have physical


access and console access to the device.

On a Cisco IOS ISR router:


Step 1. Enter the ROMMON mode.
Step 2. Change the configuration register to 0x2142 to ignore the startup config file.
Step 3. Make necessary changes to the original startup config file.
Step 4. Save the new configuration and reload the device.

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Router and Switch File Maintenance
Enter the ROMMON mode
ROMMON mode is the basic file system of the ISR.

To enter ROMMON mode, you must issue a break sequence during the
boot up process (within 30 seconds)
To do so, you must power off and then power on the device.
Within 30 seconds, press the break sequence (e.g., PuTTY = Ctrl+Break, Tera Term =
Alt-B).
The ROMMON prompt should eventually be displayed

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Router and Switch File Maintenance
Change the Configuration Register to 0x2142
The ROMMON software supports some basic commands, such as
confreg which is used to control basic device configuration settings.

Specifically, the confreg 0x2142 ROMMON command allows the


configure the router to ignore the startup config file during startup.
The startup config file is where the forgotten passwords are stored.
Next, type reset at the prompt to restart the device.

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Router and Switch File Maintenance
Make Necessary Changes to the Startup Config
After the device has finished reloading, copy the startup-config to running-
config.
copy startup-config running-config
Enter global config mode and change the enable secret password
Reset the configuration register to normal bootup using the confreg 0x2102 command.
Reload the ISR.

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