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When a binding material, a fine

aggregate and water are mixed
together in suitable proportions , they
form an easily workable paste which is
termed as Mortar.

When a binding material, ( a fine & a

coarse aggregate) and water are mixed
in suitable proportions , they form an
easily workable mix which is termed as
plastic, wet or green concrete.
When this plastic concrete becomes
hard like a stone, this is termed as
hardened concrete or simply Concrete.

For preparing mortars and concretes,

cement and lime are generally used as
binding materials;
o sand and surkhi as fine aggregates
o crushed stone and crushed bricks
as coarse aggregates.
Mortars are usually named according to
the binding material used in their
They are essentially required for
masonry work, plastering and pointing


To bind together the bricks or stones

properly so as to provide strength to the
To form a homogenous mass of the
structure so as to resist all the loads
To provide a weather resisting i.e., a
durable layer between the different
courses of masonry in the structure.
To hold coarse aggregate together in
any concrete so as to form a solid
mass. The mortar used in a concrete is
termed as matrix.
To do pointing and plastering to the
structure. The mortar used for
plastering is known as plaster.
To fill up empty joints in brick and
stone masonry. The mortar used for
such purposes is a thin liquid mortar
which is termed as grout and the

The sands and the cement have to be

thoroughly mixed by hand or in a mechanical
mixer before adding any water - do not use
dirty water, or water from puddles or ponds,
as this could impair the final strength of the
Similarly, keep any sugar-containing liquids,
such as soft drinks, well away from the mix -
sugar, even in small amounts, seriously
impairs the setting ability of the cement.
When mixing by hand, the sands and cement
are heaped up on a mixing board or in a
wheelbarrow and repeatedly turned over and
over until thoroughly mixed.

The color of the dry mix will change as the

cement is distributed throughout - there
should be no 'streaking' of cement, and no
clumps of pure sand or pure cement.

Once the dry ingredients are mixed, the

water can be added.
If any additives are being used, such as a
plasticizer or a frost-proofer, they are normally
added to the water, and then mixed in, rather than
being directly added to the dry ingredients.

A "well" is formed in the centre of the mixed heap,

water added to it and then folded in.
More water is added a bit at a time and folded in
until the required consistency is attained.

This should be when the mortar is thoroughly

mixed but is able to stand in peaks, like whipped
cream; too wet and it just makes a mess, too dry
and it's almost impossible to work.
Dry sand and cement in Begin to mix sand and Mix to evenly distribute
wheelbarrow cement cement

The dry mix should be all Mix to required

Add water and plasticiser
one colour consistency
When using a mechanical mixer, add half a bucket
(2 or 3 liters) of clean cold water to the empty drum
before adding the dry ingredients in sequence.
Add 4 measures of sand then 1 of cement,
followed by 4 sand, then another cement and so on
until the required quantity is in the mixer.
This ensures a more thorough mix than adding,
say, 20 measures of sand and then 5 measures of
Again, the water is added to the revolving drum
once the dry ingredients are thoroughly blended, a
bit at a time until the required consistency is
For wide joints in paving or for stonework,
either as paving or as walling, a coarser
mortar is often preferred - replace half of the
building/soft sand with grit/sharp sand. You
will probably find that a coarse mortar such
as this requires less gauging water to achieve
a working consistency than does a
bricklaying/general purpose mortar.
Mortar for Wide Joints

2 x Building Sand plus

2 x Grit Sand plus
1 x cement

Cement mortar:
The paste is prepared by mixing cement
and sand in suitable proportions in
addition to water.
The general proportion is 1 part of
cement to 2-8 parts clean sand.
These mortars must be use within half
an hour, i.e.; before initial setting time of
the cement.
This type is used for all engineering
works where high strength is desired such
as load bearing walls, deep foundations,
Lime mortar:
The paste is prepared by mixing lime and sand
or surkhi in suitable proportions in addition to
If surkhi is to be added in lime mortar the
equal proportions of sand and surkhi should be
mixed with lime.
These mortars are inferior to cement mortars
in strength as well as water tightness.
These mortars should not be used for
underground works as they set in the presence
of carbon dioxide and break up in damp
This type is used for construction work above
ground level i.e. exposed positions.
Light weight mortar:
The paste is prepared by mixing wood
powder, wood sawing or saw dust with
cement or lime mortar.
In such mortars fibers of jute coir or
asbestos fibers can also be used.
These are generally used as fiber
plasters in sound and heat proof
Fire resistant mortar:
The paste is prepared by mixing
aluminous cement and finely crushed
fire bricks in suitable proportions in
addition to water.
The usual proportion are 1 part
aluminous cement to 2 parts of finely
crushed fire bricks.
These are generally used for lining
furnaces, ovens and fire places with fire
Mud mortar:
The paste is prepared by mixing
suitable clayey soil with water.
The soil which is used for preparing
mud mortar should be free from grass,
pebbles etc.
These are the cheapest mortars but
weakest in strength.
These mortars are used for brickwork
of ordinary buildings and for plastering
walls in rural areas.
Functions of sand:
It reduces shrinkage of the building
It prevents development of cracks in the
mortar on drying.
It helps in making mortars and concretes
of desired strength by varying its
proportions with the binding material.
A well graded sand adds to the density
of mortars and concretes.
Functions of surkhi:
It provides brick color and make the

An artificial stone resulting from

hardening of a mixture of a binding
material, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate and water in suitable
proportions is called concrete.

Cement and sand are generally used as

binding materials whereas sand,
surkhi, cinder are used as fine
aggregates, and crushed stones, gravel,
broken bricks, etc., are used as coarse
aggregates in preparing different types
A good Portland cement or lime , clean
sand and strong coarse aggregates are
necessary for making a good concrete.

The required strength of concrete can be

obtained by careful selection of its
ingredients, accurate water
measurements and adopting good
workmanship in mixing, transportation,
placing, compaction, finishing and curing
of concrete in the construction works.
1.Crushing strength: it should have
adequate crushing strength.
i. Durability: it must be durable enough
to resist the effects of weathering
ii.Impermeability: it should have
sufficient impermeability or water
iii.Resistance to abrasion: It should
be sufficiently hard and provide
enough resistance to abrasion. This
v. Resistance to fire: It should have
minimum thermal expansion so as to
provide good resistance to fire.
vi.Workability: It should have good
workability so that it can be readily
deposited in position in a uniform
layer and also adaptable for
ornamental moldings
vii. Compactness: It must be
sufficiently dense. The concrete with
greater density will be more compact.
viii. Shrinkage: It should have
minimum shrinkage when it hardens.
ix.Creep: The continuous strain with
time which the concrete undergoes
due to application of external load is
called creep, time yield or plastic
flow., this should be minimum.

x. Economy: It should be economical

for the desired strength.

xi. Appearance: It should provide the

required finish to the concrete

Concrete are classified into different

types as follows:

According to binding material used in the

preparation of concrete.

According to design of concrete.

According to purpose of concrete.

binding material:
a.Cement concrete:
The concrete consisting of cement, sand
and coarse aggregate mixed in suitable
proportions in addition to water is called
cement concrete.
Cement is used as binding material ,
where proportions of the ingredients are
1 part Portland cement: 1.5 to 8 parts
clean sand ; 3 to 16 parts coarse
Cement concrete is generally used for
buildings and other important
engineering works where strength and
b. Lime concrete:
The concrete consisting of lime, a fine
aggregate and coarse aggregate mixed
in suitable proportions in addition to
water is called lime concrete.
In this type of concrete, hydraulic lime
is generally used as a binding material;
sand, surkhi and cinder are used as
fine aggregates and broken bricks and
stones etc., as coarse aggregates.
It has less strength but is cheaper than
cement concrete.
It is generally used for the sake of
economy in foundations works, under
a.Plain cement concrete :
The cement concrete in which no
reinforcement is provided is known as
plain cement concrete.
It is commonly used for foundation work
and flooring of buildings.

b.Reinforced cement concrete

( R.C.C):
The cement concrete in which
reinforcement is embedded for taking
tensile, excessive compressive or shear
stresses is called reinforced cement
The steel reinforcement generally used
is in form of round bars.

Usual proportions of reinforced concrete

are 1 part of Portland cement: 1 to 2
parts clean sand: 2 to 4 parts shingle or
crushed stone.

It is commonly used for construction of

slabs, lintels, beams, columns and their
footings, raft or mat foundations, precast
or cast- insitu concrete piles etc.
b. Pre-stressed cement concrete
( P.C.C):
c. The cement concrete in which high
compressive stresses are artificially
induced before their actual use is
called pre- stressed cement concrete.
The high compressive strength is
induced by pre-tensioning the
reinforcement before placing the
concrete and the reinforcement is
released when final setting of the
concrete takes place.
It is used where high stresses develop
and where it is uneconomical to use
a.Vacuum concrete :

The cement concrete from which

entrained air and excess water are
removed after placing it, by suction with
the help of a vacuum pump is called
vacuum concrete.
The excess water which is added to
increase workability but not required for
hydration of cement of the concrete is
removed .
This concrete can be used for all
reinforced concrete works with better
b. Air entrained concrete :

The cement concrete prepared by

mixing aluminum in it is called air-
entrained, cellular or aerated concrete.

In this concrete, bubbles of hydrogen

gas are liberated which makes it light
weight and spongy.

It is used in lining walls and roofs for

heat and sound insulation.
c. Light weight concrete :

The concrete prepared by using coke

breeze, cinder or slag as coarse
aggregate is called light weight

It possess heat- insulating properties

and is used in making precast
structural units for partitions and wall
d. Saw dust concrete :

The concrete prepared by mixing

Portland cement with saw dust in
specified proportions in addition to
water is called saw dust concrete.

It expands when it becomes wet and

contracts when dry.

This concrete is used as a heat and

sound insulating material.
e. High early strength concrete :

The concrete in which high early

strength cement is used as a binding
material is called high early strength
This concrete sets and hardens quickly
as compared to ordinary cement
It expands when it becomes wet and
contracts when dry and is used as a
heat and sound insulating material.
It is used for construction works in cold
weather as it sets quickly.
f. White and colored concrete :

The concrete in which white cement is

used as a binding material is called
white concrete, and if colored cement
is used as a binding material along
with colored aggregate is called
colored concrete.

These concretes can be used for

decorative purposes of flooring,
skirting etc., in buildings.