Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 120

PUMPS

Theory and application


What is a pump?
WHAT IS A PUMP?

Defined as:
..a machine to transfer a fluid
WHAT ARE THE TYPES?
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

Diaphragm

Flexible Vane
WHAT ARE THE TYPES?
CENTRIFUGAL
CENTRIGUAL PUMP MAIN COMPONENTS

Casing Seal Shaft


Impeller
Motor
Centrifugal Impeller Types
Submersible Impeller Types

Channel
Grinder

Vortex
Terminology
General Terms Liquid Properties
Density
Viscosity
Solution
All must be known
Mixture
to make a correct
pump selection
Suspension
Vapour Pressure
Ph
Temperature
VISCOSITY

Viscosity is the measure of the internal friction


of the liquid or its resistance to flow
SPECIFIC GRAVITY

1 m3 of water 1 m3 of sulphuric
= s.g. of 1 acid = s.g. of 1.8

This is the ratio of the mass of a given volume to the


mass of an equal volume of water at a temperature of
4C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa absolute. The
density of water at these conditions is 1000.02 kg/m.
VAPOUR PRESSURE
This is the pressure corresponding to a temperature at
which the liquid will convert into a vapour.
Example
Water at 20C = 0.02337 bar
Water at 100C = 1.0133 bar

Ph VALUE
Concentration of hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution is a
measure of the acidity of the solution.
Exercises
1.What generally determines the type of
submersible pump?
2. Is the solid diameter the only
consideration?

Answer:
1. Size of the solids
2. No, the type of solid material
i.e. is it tissue, hair etc.
TERMS TO KNOW In a Pumping System
Suction lift
Suction head
Capacity (Flow Rate)
Static Head
All must be known to
Dynamic Head
make a correct
pump selection
System Curve
Total Dynamic Head
The Pump hydraulics
Head
NPSH
Pumping Systems
PUMPING
SYSTEMS
FUEL

PUMP
PIPE

A pumping system consists of:


all of the piping
vessels
and other types of equipment (valves, meters, elbows, etc.)
Examples of Suction Lift
System
PUMPING SYSTEMS SUCTION LIFT 6m
Example 1

DN 80 Pipe PUMP 4.5 m To


Loading
6m 6m
Rack
0.6 m

1.2 m

Suction lift implies that the liquid level is


2.4 m
below the inlet of the pump
Suction lift arrangements generally require a
self-priming pump
Examples of Flooded
Suction Systems
ITT

PUMPING SYSTEMS Flooded Suction


Example 2
6m

6m
PUMP 4.5 m To
DN 80 (3) Pipe
Loading
6m 6m
Rack
0.6 m

Flooded suction implies that the liquid level is above the inlet of the pump
Flooded suction arrangements usually use standard centrifugal pump
Self-priming pumps are often used to handle liquids with high vapour pressures to avoid vapour lock
or ancillary equipment
is installed
PUMPING SYSTEMS
CAPACITY

The amount of liquid


flowing through a
pumping system is
known as the capacity or
flow rate
PUMPING SYSTEMS
CAPACITY

Typical units used:


m3/h or m3/s
l/s or l/min
g.p.m.
us g.p.m.
PUMPING SYSTEMS
STATIC HEAD

The components of Static head are the elevation between :


- the surface of the liquid at the point of suction and at the point of discharge

Static head also accounts for the pressure differential between the point of
suction and the point of discharge

Static head does not vary with capacity


ITT

Exercise

1. What is P.S.I. a measurement of?


2. 100 imperial gallons per minute
equals what in m3/h

Answer

1. Pressure
2. 27.27 m3/h
PUMPING SYSTEMS STATIC HEAD
Example 1 6m

DN 80 (3) PUMP 4.5 m To


Pipe Loading
6m 6m
Rack
Hs
0.6 m
(2)

1.2 m

In this example the static head (Hs) is equal


to :
2.4 m
1.2 + 1.2 + 0.6 + 4.5 = 7.5 m
ITT Fluid

PUMPING SYSTEMS STATIC HEAD


Example 2 6m

6m Hs
PUMP DN 80 (3) 4.5 m To
Pipe Loading
6m 6m
Rack
0.6 m

In this example the static head (Hs) is equal to :


4.5 + 0.6 - 3 = 2.1 m
PUMPING SYSTEMS DYNAMIC HEAD

Head
A pump must overcome
the resistance of a pumping Pump Resistance
system in order to cause
the liquid to flow
completely through the
system

Resistance to liquid flow is


known as a pumping
systems Dynamic Head
ITT Group

PUMPING SYSTEMS DYNAMIC HEAD

3.5 bar 2.1 bar


(50 psi) (30psi)

Dynamic head losses are those losses that are realised


once fluid begins to flow through the pumping system
Dynamic head losses are a function of capacity
ITT

Friction losses (for 100 m of new straight cast iron pipes)


FRICTION LOSS IN PIPES
Flow Nominal diameter in mm and inches

3
m /h l/min
15 20
1/2" 3/4"
25 32
1" 1" 1"
40 50
2"
65
2"
80
3"
100
4"
125
5"
150
6"
175
7"
200
8"
250
10" Hazen-Williams formula :
3 50 V 4.72 2.65 1.7 1.04 0.66 0.42
hr 246 58.2 21.1 5.6 1.75 0.61
3.6 60 V 3.18 2.04 1.24 0.8 0.51 V = Water speed (m/sec)
hr 82 30 8 2.48 0.86 hr = Friction losses (m/100 m of pipe)
4.2 70 V 3.72 2.38 1.45 0.93 0.59 Multiply friction losses by :

6,05 x Q 1,85 x 10 6
hr 110 40 10.8 3.33 1.14 0,8 for stainless steel pipes
4.8 80 V 4.25 2.72 1.66 1.06 0.68 1,25 for slighty rusty steel pipes

5.4 90 V
hr 141 51.5 13.9 4.3 1.46
3.06 1.87 1.19 0.76 0.45
1,7 for encrusted pipes (in w hich scales reduce
inner diameter)
p= xL
C 1,85 x d 4,87
hr 64 17.5 5.4 1.82 0.46 0,7 for aluminium pipes
6 100 V 3.4 2.07 1.33 0.85 0.5 0,7 for PVC and PE pipes
hr 79 21.4 6.6 2.22 0.56 1,3 for fiber-cement pipes
9 150 V 3.11 1.99 1.27 0.75 0.5
hr 47 14.2 4.74 1.21 0.43
12 200 V 4.15 2.65 1.7 1.01 0.66
hr 82 24.5 8.1 2.1 0.74
15 250 V 5.18 3.32 2.12 1.26 0.83 0.53 P = friction loss ( metre/1 metre of pipe)
hr 126 37.5 12.3 3.2 1.12 0.36
18 300 V 3.98 2.55 1.51 1 0.64
hr 53 17.3 4.5 1.58 0.51 Q = flow (litres/minute)
24 400 V 5.31 3.4 2.01 1.33 0.85

30 500 V
hr 92 29.5
6.63 4.25
7.8
2.51
2.7 0.89
1.66 1.06 0.68
C = coefficient in according to type of pipe
hr 140 44.8 12 4.13 1.36 0.48
36 600 V
hr
5.1
63
3.02
16.9
1.99 1.27 0.82
5.8 1.93 0.68
for cast iron pipes = 100
42 700 V 5.94 3.52 2.32 1.49 0.95

48 800 V
hr 84
6.79
22.6
4.02
7.8 2.6
2.65 1.70 1.09 0.75
0.9 for steel pipes = 120
hr 108 29 10 3.35 1.16 0.43
54 900 V 7.64 4.52 2.99 1.91 1.22 0.85 for stainless steel and copper pipes = 140
hr 134 36 12.5 4.2 1.45 0.54
60 1000 V 5.03 3.32 2.12 1.36 0.94
hr 44.5 15.2 5.14 1.76 0.66 d = inner diameter (mm)
90 1500 V 7.54 4.98 3.18 2.04 1.42 1.04
hr 96 32.6 11.2 3.77 1.42 0.68
120 2000 V 6.63 4.25 2.72 1.89 1.39 1.06 0.68 L = pipe length (m)
hr 56 19.4 6.5 2.43 1.18 0.58 0.16
PUMPING SYSTEMS FRICTION HEAD LOSSES
Every component of a pumping system has associated
friction losses
Friction loss tables can be obtained from the component manufacturer or
various other reference sources
Friction losses are a function of capacity and component size
Fittings and valves diameter in mm (DN)
25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300
equivalent lenght in m
Elbow 45 0,3 0,3 0,6 0,6 0,9 0,9 1,2 1,5 2,1 2,7 3,3 3,9
FITTINGS 90
90 long radius
0,6
0,6
0,9
0,6
1,2
0,6
1,5
0,9
1,8
1,2
2,1
1,5
3,0
1,8
3,6
2,4
4,2
2,7
5,4
3,9
6,6
4,8
8,1
5,4
AND Fittings Tee
Cross
1,5
1,5
1,8
1,8
2,4
2,4
3,0
3,0
3,6
3,6
4,5
4,5
6,0
6,0
7,5
7,5
9,0 10,5
9,0 10,5
15,0
15,0
18,0
18,0
VALVES Gate valve
Non-return valve
-
1,5
-
2,1
-
2,7
0,3
3,3
0,3
4,2
0,3
4,8
0,6
6,6
0,6 0,9
8,3 10,4 13,5
1,2 1,5
16,5
1,8
19,5
FRICTION
This table considers fittings made in steel (coefficient C = 120) .
LOSSES If you have different material , multiply by :
0,723 if cast iron (C = 100)
1,320 if stainless steel or copper (C = 140)
Worksheet 1

Hotel Lowara

Worked Example

Customer is unsure of pipe length,


it maybe 100, 120 or 76 metres.

Calculate the friction loss


Tank assuming capacity is 100 l/min

Answer
Pipe 40mm cast iron
1. 6.6 metres
2. 7.92 and 5.02 metres
PUMPING SYSTEMS FRICTION 6m
HEAD LOSSES
Example 1
PUMP 4.5 m To
DN 80 (3)
Pipe 6 m Loading
6m
Rack
0.6 m

1.2 m In this example the friction losses (p) is equal to :


Flow = 800 l/min
Three elbows 90 (equivalent length) = 3x1.5 = 4.5 m
2.4 m Pipe losses = ((2.4+1.2+0.6+6+6+4.5+6)+4.5)x(10/100) = 3.12 m
Loading rack losses= 2.8 m

Total friction losses = 3.12+2.8 = 5.92 m


ITT Fluid

PUMPING SYSTEMS FRICTION HEAD LOSSES


Example 2 6m

6m Hs
PUMP DN 80 (3) 4.5 m To
Pipe Loading
6m 6m
Rack
0.6 m

In this example the friction losses (p) is equal to :


Flow = 800 l/min
Two elbows 90 (equivalent length) = 2 x1.5 = 3.0 m
Pipe losses = ((6+6+4.5+6)+3.0)x(10/100) = 2.55 m
Loading rack losses= 2.8 m

Total friction losses = 2.55+2.8 = 5.35 m


Worksheet 2

Hotel Lowara

Worked Example

Customer confirms pipe length is


100 metres.
With 5 swept bends, 2 tees a gate
valve and check valve.
Tank Calculate the total head required
to overcome dynamic losses.
Answer
7.31 metres
PUMPING SYSTEMS FRICTION HEAD LOSSES

A typical friction loss table for piping illustrates friction


losses as a function of capacity, pipe diameter, pipe
length and viscosity
Water (viscosity = 1 cSt)

speed

Lubricating oil SAE40 (viscosity = 150 cSt)

speed
PUMPING SYSTEMS TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD

Static head is the resistance of


a pumping system before the
liquid is set into motion
Dynamic head represents the
resistance of a pumping system
while the pumped fluid is in motion
Required system pressure
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS MENTAL NOTE

Pressure values must be converted to absolute units using the


following formula :

Rough conversion
Metres of head = (bar x 10) / specific gravity

Feet of head = (psi x 2.31) / specific gravity

Reminder
PUMPING SYSTEMS TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD

The systems total dynamic


Now what
head is simply: we have to
do ?

Static Head
+
Dynamic Head
=
Total Dynamic Head
PUMPING SYSTEMS TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD
6m
Example 1

PUMP 4.5 m To
DN 80 (3)
Pipe 6 m Loading
6m
Rack
0.6 m

1.2 m The total dynamic head (TDH) is equal to :


Static head = 7.5 m
Dynamic head (friction losses) = 5.92 m
2.4 m

Total dynamic head = 7.5+5.92 = 13.42 m


ITT

PUMPING SYSTEMS TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD


6m

6m
PUMP DN 80 (3) 4.5 m To
Pipe Loading
6m 6m
Rack
0.6 m

In this example the total dynamic head (TDH) is equal to :


Static head = 2.1 m
Dynamic head = 5.35 m Example 2

Total dynamic head = 2.1+5.35 = 7.45 m


Worksheet 3

Hotel Lowara

The shower at the furthest


point requires a 2 bar pressure
and the static head is now

70 metres
shown.

What is the equivalent head in


Tank
metres?

Approx. 20 metres
ITT Fluid Technology - Commercial Products Group

PUMPING SYSTEMS MENTAL NOTE


It is a good system design to include suction
and discharge valves in the system.
Using the discharge
valve as a throttling
valve to control the m
pump yst e t
S ou
Lay r int
e p
Blu s
Isolating the pump
for maintenance
considerations A discharge check valve
may also be required in
high discharge head
applications (to prevent
water hammer)
ITT Fluid Technology - Commercial Products Group

PUMPING SYSTEMS SYSTEM CURVE


A System Curve is a graphical representation of the resistance behaviour
(TDH) of a pumping system over its entire capacity range
Head

Dynamic head

Static head
Capacity
A system curve shows:
- the static head component
( this is constant over the entire capacity range)
- the dynamic head component ( which increases with capacity)
Hotel Lowara

If the static head increases to


80 metres how does this
affect the friction loss?

70 metres
The system curve of the
worked example

metres 2 metres

7.5
Tank
70

It does not change 50 l/min 100 l/min


PUMPING SYSTEMS
SYSTEM CURVE
The system designer can change the shape of the System curve by altering
the size of piping, type of equipment, and physical layout of the pumping
system

The end user can change the shape of the System curve by opening or
closing system valves, changing equipment or piping layouts, and
varying the liquid levels in the suction or discharge tanks
Worksheet 5

Hotel Lowara

Our hotel has 20 bedrooms


added to it which has resulted
in the following information
changes:

70 metres
Capacity: 150 l/min
Pipe length: 180 metres
No. bends: 8
Tank No. tees 3
Unions 4
What is the new total head?
All other information as before.
119.06 (120) metres
Pump Performance
Curves
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS

Now we know
the required duty
Pump Curve Graph

45
40
35
30
Head m

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Capacity m3/h
Plotted Duty Points

45
40
35
30
Head m

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Capacity m3/h
Plotted Curve

45
40
35
30
Head m

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 30 36 42 48 60 72 84
Capacity m3/h
ITT Fluid Products Group

PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE


Head

Q-
H
Capacity
Composite Curves

45
40
35
30
Head m

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 30 36 42 48 60 72 84
Capacity m3/h
PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE

Head
200 (8)

2800 min-1 (rpm)

150
(6)

Capacity
Holding a constant speed, the H-Q curve for any given pump can be altered by varying the
impeller diameter
The output of these changes are covered by the affinity laws :
Q1 : Q2 = d1 : d2
Efficiency Curve

80
70
60
50
Head m

40
30
20
10
0
0 25 30 43 54 68 76 83 87
Capacity m3/h
PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE

Centrifugal pump curves typically show hydraulic efficiency points


52
Head
200 (8) %
56%

62%
150 (6)
65%

Capacity
The best efficiency point (BEP) is the highest efficiency point on the
curve
Typical Performance Curve

Best Efficiency Point


P3

P1
P2

Power Requirements
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS
Head
200 (8) CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE
150 Q-
(6) H
Power in Kw
(bhp)
Q-
P
Capacity
Pump curves typically show the absorbed power(brake horsepower)
required to operate the pump at various points along its Head-Capacity
curve
The absorbed power shown on the curve is based on pumping water
(specific gravity = 1.0)
Typical Performance Curve

Power Absorbed
Curves
Products Group

PUMP HYDRAULICS
PUMP CURVE
A given pump will
generate the same
Why are pump curves given in
terms of meters of head
meters of head
(feet) instead of kPa (PSI)? regardless of the
liquid being pumped
but...
...the discharge
pressure will vary
with the specific
gravity of the liquid!
Centrifugal pumps
develop head - not
pressure!
ITT Fluid Technology - Commercial Products Group

PUMP HYDRAULICS HEAD - PRESSURE

Water Gasoline
7 bar 5 bar
(100 psi) (72 psi)

Two identical pumps operating in identical systems will develop the same
head but...
discharge gauges will give different readings if the specific gravity of the
liquids being pumped is different
ITT Fluid Technology - Commercial Products Group

PUMP HYDRAULICS SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Water Gasoline
= 1 Kg/litre (8.33 lbs/gal) = 0.72 Kg/litre (6.0 lbs/gal)
Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a liquid to its volume
Relative specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a liquid to the
weight of water
The relative specific gravity of gasoline is 0.72 / 1 = 0.72
PUMP HYDRAULICS SPECIFIC GRAVITY

It affects the absorbed power (brake horsepower) requirements of the pump

absorbed power by pump = capacity x head x specific gravity

All pressure information is converted to absolute units, metres of head or feet by using the
specific gravity of the liquid being pumped

More on this later...Now back to our show!


Exercise
1. What are the heads that two
pumps are generating which are
situated at sea level one pumping
water, a similar unit is installed next
to it pumping a fuel oil with an
specific gravity (s.g.) of 0.7, the
gauge reads 4 bar on both systems.

Answer:
1. 39.24 and 56.06 metres
ITT Fluid Technology - Commercial Products Group

PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE

The H-Q curve for a particular pump is a function of :

The impeller diameter

And the speed of operation


ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE

Head 2800 min-1 (3450


rpm)
200 (8)

1950 min-1 (2400


rpm)

Capacity

By keeping the impeller diameter constant, the H-Q curve for any
given pump can be altered by varying the pump speed
The output of these changes are covered by the affinity laws :
Q1 : Q2 = n1 : n2
PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE
The actual absorbed power must be corrected for specific gravity
Absorbed power Correction
Simply multiply the absorbed power shown on the curve by the specific
gravity of the liquid being pumped

For example, if it takes 4 kW to pump water it will take (4 x 0.72) = 2.9 kW


to pump the same amount of gasoline at the given head

Power kW = Q. Q = m3/h

H. H = metres

.k = specific gravity
= efficiency
k= 367 for kW calculation
NPSH
PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE
Head

Q-
H
NPSHr in
metres (feet)
Q-
NPSHr
Capacity

Pump curves typically show the Net Positive Suction Head Required to
operate the pump at each point along its Head-Capacity curve
Inside the pump

Pressure drop
in pump
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS

NPSHr = Net Positive Suction Head Required

...is an extremely important parameter to consider


...refers to the internal losses of a centrifugal pump
...is determined by testing in a laboratory
...varies with:
each pump type
with the pump capacity
with the pump speed
IT

PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE


Head

Q-
H
H1 NPSHr in metres
(feet)

Q- NPSHr1
NPSHr Capacity
Q1
NPSHr increases with capacity
The NPSHr value for a particular application is determined at the designated
flow rate
Typical Performance Curve

NPSH Required Curve


ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS
MENTAL NOTE Lets talk
NPSH

The NPSH Available from the system

MUST ALWAYS BE GREATER

than the NPSH Required by the pump

More on NPSHa/NPSHr later...


Commercial Products Group

PUMP HYDRAULICS THE SUCTION SIDE


ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
CURVE

Self-priming pump curves


typically provide information
on the suction lift capability
of the particular pump
PUMP HYDRAULICS THE SUCTION SIDE

Suction Side Limitations


The importance of keeping within the limitations of the
suction of any pump cannot be emphasized too greatly

KEEP IN MIND THAT...

...90% of all pump problems are due to poor suction


conditions!
PUMP HYDRAULICS

NPSHa = Net Positive Suction Head Available

NPSH available is the term that describes whether the pressure on


the suction side is adequate for proper pump operation

Self-priming applications must also consider the amount of air the


pump is required to evacuate
PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa
Proper system design allows for the highest possible
NPSHa
Factors affecting NPSH available include :
Pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
Relative elevation of the liquid
Friction losses in the suction piping
Velocity of the liquid in the suction piping
Vapour pressure of the liquid
These factors constitute a systems dynamic suction condition and
must be carefully considered before a final pump selection can be
made.
PUMP HYDRAULICS MENTAL NOTE
Proper system design allows for the highest possible NPSHa

NPSHa must be sufficiently greater than NPSHr in order to


prevent:
Poor pump performance
Excessive vibration
Noisy operation Reminder
remind
Premature failure of components
Cavitation
PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa
Pressure Acting On The Surface Of The Liquid

Pressure acting on the surface of a liquid


pushes it into the pump:

Atmospheric pressure
Pressurized tank
Vacuum tank

The pressure on the liquid is the major


contributor to the NPSHa of a system
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS MENTAL NOTE

Pressure values must be converted to absolute units using the


following formula :
Metres of head = (bar x 10) / specific gravity

Feet of head = (psi x 2.31) / specific gravity

Atmospheric pressure at sea level = 1 bar (14.7 psi)


Pressurized vessel = Absolute pressure gauge reading
Reminder
Vacuum vessel = Vacuum gauge reading
remind
PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa

Static suction head implies that


the liquid level is above the inlet
of the pump
Static suction lift implies that
the liquid level is below the inlet
PUMP of the pump

Static suction head increases NPSHa


because gravity helps push liquid into
the pump
Static suction lift decreases NPSHa
because the pump must work against
gravity
PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa
20 mm
Hg
Friction Losses In The Suction Piping
10 mm
Hg

Friction losses in suction piping decreases NPSHa

Factors affecting friction losses include :


Size of piping
760 mm Hg = 1 atm = 10.33 m H2O =
Length of piping 1.013 bar = 1013 mbar
Fittings and equipment
PUMP HYDRAULICS
NPSHa
Velocity Head Loss

SPEED
LIMIT

12
m/s
Accelerating the liquid from zero to its ultimate velocity
results in Velocity head loss

Velocity head loss decreases NPSHa


ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa

Vapour pressure of the liquid

The vapour pressure of the liquid must be


carefully considered to ensure proper pump
operation
Vapour pressure indicates the dividing line
between a liquid and its gaseous state
Vapour pressure typically varies with
temperature
The pressure in the suction line must never fall
below the vapour pressure of the liquid
PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa
Vapor pressure of the liquid
100C 212F
80C 176F

At sea level On the mountain


Spaghetti
PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa
Vapour pressure of the liquid

A liquid with a vapour pressure of 0.56 bar (8 psi) @ 38C (100F)


requires at least 0.56 bar (8 psi) of pressure acting on its surface to
stay a liquid

The pressure in a fluid handling system must be equal to or greater


than the vapour pressure of the liquid at every point throughout
that system

Without sufficient pressure the liquid will flash into a gas and
become unpumpable.
PUMP HYDRAULICS
Just Give NPSHa
Me The
Formulae
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS
QUICK FORMULA NPSHa

Ha = 10.33 - (NPSHr + 0.5) - ps - Kt - Kh


ps
Where :

Ha = Suction height (m)


10.33 = Maximum suction limit (m) *
NPSHr = NPSH required by pump (m)
0.5 = Safety margin (m) Ha
ps = Friction losses of the suction piping system
(m)
Kt = Reducing coefficient due to temperature (m)
Kh = Reducing coefficient due to altitude (m)
PUMP HYDRAULICS NPSHa & NPSHr
NPSHr < NPSHa
NPSHa + NPSHr < 10.33 m (33.9)
Head
Q-
Liquid :
H NPSH
water
Atmospheric
H1
pressure :
Limit : 10.33 m
1 bar (14.7 psi) NPSHa
at sea level
NPSHr1
Temperature :
NPSHr
20C (68F)
Q1 Capacity
If NPSHa + NPSHr > 10.33 m CAVITATION !!
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS
NPSHa & NPSHr

Reducing coefficients

Temperature Coefficient Altitude Coefficient


C K Kt (m) m Kh (m)
30 86 0.4 0 0.00
40 104 0.8 500 0.55
50 122 1.3 1000 1.10
60 140 2.0 1500 1.65
70 158 3.2 2000 2.20
80 176 4.8 2500 2.75
90 194 7.1 3000 3.30
Exercise
A customer has a suction lift of 5
metres, the liquid temperature is
70 degrees C, if there are no other
losses will the pump work if the
pump requires 2 metres NPSH?

NPSH available = 10.2 (PA - PV) +/- Hs - Hf PA = 1 bar


PV = 0.3116 bar
= 0.9777
The NPSH available is 2.2 metres
Pump Selection
PUMP HYDRAULICS
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE
Head
Now we go back
to pump curves

Q-
H

Capacity
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CURVE


The NPSH-Q & Power-Q curves for a particular pump are a
function of :
The impeller diameter

And the speed of operation


Affinity Formulas
n1 Q1 1
Flow = =
n2 Q2 2
2
n1 H1 1
Head = =
n2 H2 4

2
n1 NPSH1 1
NPSH = =
n2 NPSH2 4

3
n1 P1 1
Power = =
n2 P2 8
PUMP HYDRAULICS SELECTING A PUMP
In order to properly select a pump you need to know the
facts :

Liquid characteristics
Pumping system design
TDH
Capacity
NPSHa
PUMP HYDRAULICS MENTAL NOTE

The first rule of centrifugal


pump selection:
Head determines Capacity
The second rule of centrifugal pump
selection:

A centrifugal pump will operate at the point of


intersection between the pumps H-Q curve
and the System curve
PUMP HYDRAULICS
SELECTING A PUMP

System Curve
Head Q-
H
H1 Operating Point

NPSH

Q - NPSH NPSHr1

Q1 Capacity
ITT

PUMP HYDRAULICS
SELECTING A PUMP
Duty Point
Duty required:
60 m3/h at 3.2 bar (32 metres)
Pump performance:
Capacity: 60 m3/h
Head: 32.8 metres
Efficiency: 76.2%
NPSHr: 2.8 metres
Power: 7.0 kW
Worksheet 8

Hotel Lowara

Select a pump for both duties


previously calculated:

70 metres
1. 100 l/min at 98 metres
2. 150 l/min at 120 metres

Tank

1. SV4 20
2. SV 811
WORKSHEET No. 9

3m

50mm

6m

95 m What pump is needed?

Customer Requires a pump for above layout:


Pump: SV8-14
2 off unions, 2 off tees, 9 off 90 elbows, 1 off check
valve, 1 off gate valve. There are 4 sprinklers
requiring 3 m3/h each. The sprinkler needs 10 bar
pressure.
Variable Speed
Pump Selection
Constant Pressure System
Use pumps having not too much flat performance curve
Know first minimum and maximum values for flow and working pressure
value
H
NO ! H
YES !
Flat curve Steep curve
50 Hz
45 Hz
50 Hz
40 Hz
45 Hz
40 Hz H required 35 Hz
30 Hz
35 Hz
30 Hz

Q Q
Q max required Q max required
Constant Flow System
Know first minimum and maximum values for pressure and working flow
value
H

50
Hz
45
Hz
40
Hz
B 35
Hz
30
Hz
Q

A = blocked filter (maximum value of friction losses)


B = clean filter (minimum value of friction losses)
Variable Pressure - Flow System (friction losses curve)
Use pumps having not too much steep performance curve
Know first minimum and maximum values for flow and pressure
H

50
Hz
45
B Hz
pmax 40
Hz
pmin 35
Hz
30
Hz

Q pmax
Qmin Qmax
Viscous Liquid
Pump Selection
WORKSHEET No. 10

Viscous Correction
Assume Duty of: 60 m3/h @ 3.0 bar
Liquid: Ethylene Glycol
Temperature: -20C
Viscosity: 65 Centistokes
S.G: 1.1

Select a pump
First Task:
Convert 3.0 bar into absolute figures (feet/ metres)

Assume factor is x 10/ s.g.

3.0 bar = 27.27 metres (89.50 feet)


Typical Curves

Produced by
Hydraulic Institute
H Viscosity Factors
% = 0.73
Q
Q% = 0.98
%
HBEP = 0.94
H+20% = 0.92
H-20% = 0.95
H-40% = 0.975
With Water

0.6 QBEP 0.8 QBEP 1.0 QBEP 1.2 QBEP

m3/h 40.8 54.4 68.0 81.6

Hm 37.2 34.2 30.0 25.0

% 68.0 75.0 77.0 73.5

P kW 6.17 6.85 7.32 7.67


With Glycol
0.6 QBEP 0.8 QBEP 1.0 QBEP 1.2 QBEP

m3/h 40.8 40.0 54.4 53.3 68.0 66.7 81.6 80.0

Hm 37.2 36.3 34.2 32.5 30.0 28.2 25.0 23.0

% 68.0 50.0 75.0 55.0 77.0 56.2 73.5 54.0

P kW 6.17 8.82 6.85 9.57 7.32 10.17 7.67 10.36


H-40%


H-20%
HBEP

H+20%

Duty Point
Correction Points
Power Correction Points

Duty Point
10.17 kW


8.82 kW
Pump Selection

FHE/ S 50-160/110
11 kW 2900 rpm

To confirm:
Seal Type and
elastomers are
suitable for liquid
and temperature
stated