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WELCOME

CONSCIENTATION PROGRAMME

RASANA.R.NATH
GEETHU. M.G

NATURAL SCIENCE
Biodiversity and
conservation
Biological diversity is an index of a nationals
wealth. It is the basis of human survival and
economic well being . the International Union for
the Conservation of Nature and United Nations
have defined conservation as the rational use of
the environment to achieve the highest
sustainable quality of live for mankind.
IMPORTANT TERMS
Biodiversity
Biosphere reserve
Conservation
Endemic species
Extinction
Biotic species
Hot sports
Mega diversity Zone
National Park
Red data book
Sanctuary
Genetic diversity
Ecosystem diversity
Cryopreservation
Insitu conservation
Exsitu conservation
BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity refers to the sum total of diversity
that exists at all levels of biological
organization. Biodiversity represents the totality
of genes, species and ecosystems of a region.

All the species do not occur at one place. The


site of occurrence of a species is determined by
the environmental conditions of the site and the
range of tolerance of a species. There different
regions of earth possess different forms of
plants and animal life.
LEVELS OF
BIODERVISTY
GENETEIC DIVERSITY
Genetic diversity refers to the variation of genes within species;
the difference could be in alleles in entire genes, determining
particular or in chromosomal structures. Genetic diversity within
a species often increases with environmental variability.
SPECIES DIVERSITY
Species diversity refers to the variety of species within a region.
Simplest measure of species diversity is species richness. , i.e, the
number of species per unit area. The number of species increases
with the area of the site.

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY


Within community diversity is called alpha diversity, between -
communities beta diversity, and overall diversity of a region is
known as gamma diversity. Ecosystem diversity describes the
number of niches, trophic level and various ecological processes
that sustain energy flow , food webs and the recycling of nutrients.
PATTERNS OF BIODIVERSITY

Latitudinal Gradients
Species- Area relationship
THE IMPORTANCE OF
SPECIES DIVERSITY TO
TH ECOSYSEM
Productivity:
An ecosystem with higher biodiversity is more productive
than an ecosystem with less diversity

Stability:
There is very little variation in yearly total biomass if
ecosystem is rich in rich in species biodiversity.

Resilience:
Increased biodiversity provides resilience to the
ecosystem against occasional natural or man made
disturbance and invasion by alien species.

Ecosystem health:
Rich biodiversity is essential for ecosystem health and for
survival of human race on earth.
Why do we conserve Biodiversity?
Narrowly utilitarian
Broadly utilitarian
Ethical argument

There are two methods of biodiversity conservation in- situ


and ex-situ conservation

In situ conservation
In this conservation biodiversity is protected in their natural
habitats. These natural habitats where biodiversity is protected
are called protected areas.
Protected Areas:
There are areas of land and/ or se especially dedicated to the
protection and maintenance of biological diversity along with
natural and cultural resources through legal or other effective
measures.

Protected areas are of three types:

National park
Wild life sanctuaries
Biosphere reserves.
National park
It aims at the protection of wild life and
maintenance of ecosystem.

Sanctuaries
It aims at the protection of wild life. It is
controlled by state Government private
ownership is allowed.
Biosphere reserves.
A biosphere reserve is a specified area in which multiple
use of the land is permitted by dividing it into certain
zones, each zone being specified for a particular activity
under MAB (Man and Biosphere) programme.

A biosphere reserve is basically divided into three zones

Core zone
Buffer zone
Manipulative zone
THE BIOSPHERE RESERVES IN INDIA
Ex- Situ conservation
If refers to the conservation of biodiversity at
places away from their natural habitat.

Offsite collection
Gene banks
Seed bank
Orchards
Tissue culture
Cryopreservation
HOT SPOTS
Hot spots are places or reservoirs of richest and
most threatened plant and animal life on earth.
Hot spots in India
Eastern Himalayas
The ester himalyas include north-eastern
Indian and Bhutan.
Western Ghats
This hot spot of India lies parallel to the western
coast of Indian peninsula
Agasthyamalai
Silent Valley
Environmental ethics
If refers to the responsibility of man to
protect and conserve nature. In other
words it is life in harmony with
nature.
THANK YOU