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Respirator types

From the preamble to the revision of 1910.134:
In principle, respirators frequently may be
capable of providing adequate protection.
However, problems associated with selection,
fit, and use often render them ineffective in
actual application, preventing the assurance
of consistent and reliable protection,
regardless of the theoretical capabilities of
the respirator.
A little respirator history. . . .
In Roman mines they used loose-fitting animal
bladders to try to filter out lead
1814: development of a particulate removing filter
in a rigid container
1854: discovery that activated charcoal could be
used to capture some vapors
WWI: improvements in full face gas masks
1930: the development of resin impregnated dust
filters permitted cheaper, improved units
1940s: SCBA developed from SCUBA concept
Types of Respirators

R e s p ira to rs

A ir P u rify in g A ir S u p p ly in g

N e g a tiv e P re s s u re P o w e re d A ir P u rify in g A irlin e SCBA

Types of Respirators

cleans air*
cant add oxygen

Air- Purifying Respirators

removes particulate, or

removes vapor & gas, or

combination of the above

Air- Purifying Respirators
particulates: filters

gases or vapors: chemical

cartridges or chemical canisters
Types of Respirators


supply a clean* source of air

Air- Purifying Respirators
Negative pressure
user draws in air through a filter or cartridge
creates a negative pressure

Powered air-purifying (PAPR)

battery powered pump draws in air through a
provides positive pressure to user
Air-Supplying Respirators
Airline air is supplied to facepiece via air
line from either a compressor, a large
cylinder or cascade system
SCBA air is supplied via short air line
from a user-worn cylinder (thus, self-
Airline with escape bottle combo unit
SCBA escape only units
Operation modes: See tab3-3

Demand mode

Positive pressure mode

Pressure-demand mode
Operation modes:
Demand mode: air enters facepiece
only when wearer creates negative
Positive pressure mode
Pressure-demand mode
Operation modes:
Demand mode
Positive pressure mode: facepiece is
constantly positively pressurized
(compared to air outside the
facepiece) by a constant flow
Pressure-demand mode
Operation modes:
Demand mode
Positive pressure mode
Pressure-demand mode: facepiece is
always positively pressurized but flow
changes according to demand from
Types of Facepieces

Tight-fitting: requires seal on face

(thus no facial hair); air-purifying or

Loose-fitting: no seal on face; airline

only (but not airline with escape
Tight-fitting facepieces
Full face: hairline to below chin (covers
nose, mouth & eyes)

Half face: nose & mouth, & seals under


Quarter face: nose & mouth, but seals

between mouth & chin
Loose-fitting facepieces
Hood: device covering head & neck

Helmet: gives impact & penetration


variations; above with: Blouses

(covers shoulders) or Full suits
TC approval schedules:
TC-14G-XXXX gas masks
TC-19C-XXXX air supply
TC-21C-XXXX DFM (term out-dated)
TC-23C-XXXX chemical cartridge
TC-84A-XXXX non-powered APR
(under 84)