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Qualitative Research

Sandhya saji
Qualitative research methods have
become increasingly important as ways
of developing nursing knowledge for
evidence-based nursing practice.
Qualitative research answers a wide
variety of questions related to nursing's
concern with human responses to
actual or potential health problems.
Qualitative research is a type of
scientific research which has its roots
in philosophy and human sciences.
Qualitative research plays an
important part in providing evidence
for practice in nursing, and is gaining
greater acceptance within medicine.
QR is used to gain insight into people's attitudes,
behaviors, value systems, concerns, motivations,
aspirations, culture or lifestyles.
Researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding
ofhuman behaviorand thereasonsthat govern such
behavior.
QR is often associated with naturalistic inquiry.
Naturalistic methods of inquiry attempt to deal with
the issue of human complexity by exploring directly.
Naturalistic inquiry always takes place in the natural
settings
Foundational Similarities
All qualitative data can be measured
and coded using quantitative methods.
Quantitative research can be
generated from qualitative inquiries.
Example: One can code an open-ended
interview with numbers that refer to
data specific references, or such
references could become the origin of
a randomized experiment.
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research

General Seek to confirm hypotheses Seek to explore phenomena


framework Postivist paradigm Naturalistic paradigm
To predict & control To understand (what, how, & why)
Objectives

Highly structured methods: Use semi-structured methods: in-depth


questionnaires, surveys, and structured interviews, focus
Tools observation groups, and participant observation

Rigid design Emergent design


Design Controlled & experimental
Prediction Rich thick description

Outcomes Similarities & contrasts


Focus
Generalisability Process & context

Nature of data Statistical Non-statistical


analysis
Relatively large samples using often Small samples using purposive,
Sampling random sampling convenient or snow ball sampling
technique.
PURPOSE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
For better understanding of a phenomenon and gain new
perspectives
Collect and explore in-depth information that cant be
conveyed quantitatively.
Provide rich descriptions of complex phenomena.
Explore sensitive topics
Explore the issues of difficult to access groups / subcultures
Explore culturally defined experiences
Track unique / unexpected events
Illuminate experience and interpretation by actors
Gives voice to those rarely heard
CHARECTERISTICS
Takes place in the natural setting
Uses multiple methods that are interpretive
Is emergent rather than tightly prefigured
Fundamentally interpretive (role of researcher as
interpreter)
Researcher views social phenomena holistically
Researcher systematically reflects on who he or she is in
the inquiry and is sensitive to him or her personal
biography and how it shapes the study
Researcher adopts and uses one or more strategies of
inquiry.
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
Respect for persons
Beneficence
Justice
Respect for communities
Qualitative Research
Terminology
Methods
Strengths and weaknesses
Terminology
Grounded theory
Ethnography
Phenomenology
Field research
Grounded Theory
Grounded theory refers to an inductive
process of generating theory from data.

This is considered ground-up or bottom-


up processing.

Grounded theorists argue that theory


generated from observations of the
empirical world may be more valid and
useful than theories generated from
deductive inquiries.
Grounded Theory (cont)
Grounded theorists criticize deductive
reasoning since it relies upon a priori
assumptions about the world.

However, grounded theory incorporates


deductive reasoning when using constant
comparisons.

In doing this, researchers detect patterns in


their observations and then create working
hypotheses that directs the progression of the
inquiry.
Methods
Interview
Ethnography
Ethnography emphasizes the
observation of details of everyday life
as they naturally unfold in the real
world. This is sometimes called
naturalistic research.

Ethnography is a method of describing


a culture or society. This is primarily
used in anthropological research.
Methods

Direct observation
Participant observation
Unstructured Interview
Research Process

The ethnographer is the primary research instrument


The researcher spends one year or more in the field
setting long enough to see a full cycle of activity
For example, a full school year
Outsiders broad and analytical perspective on

group
studied

Insider view, familiarity, empathy, identification


with
group
Phenomenology
Phenomenology is a school of
thought that emphasizes a focus on
peoples subjective experiences and
interpretations of the world.

Phenomenological theorists argue


that objectivity is virtually impossible
to ascertain, so to compensate, one
must view all research from the
perspective of the researcher.
Phenomenology (cont)
Phenomenologists attempt to understand
those whom they observe from the
subjects perspective.

This outlook is especially pertinent in social


work and research where empathy and
perspective become the keys to success.
Method

Interview
Field Research
Field research is a general term that
refers to a group of methodologies
used by researchers in making
qualitative inquiries.

The field researcher goes directly to


the social phenomenon under study
and observes it as completely as
possible.
Field Research
(cont)
The natural environment is the
priority of the field researcher. There
are no implemented controls or
experimental conditions to speak of.

Such methodologies are especially


useful in observing social phenomena
over time.
Methods

Participant observation
Direct observation
Unstructured or intensive
interviewing
Case studies
Participant Observation
The researcher literally becomes
part of the observation.

Example: One studying the


homeless may decide to walk the
streets of a given area in an
attempt to gain perspective and
possibly subjects for future study.
Direct Observation
Direct observation is where the researcher
observes the actual behaviors of the
subjects, instead of relying on what the
subjects say about themselves or others say
about them.

Example: The observation booth at the CECP


in Martha Van may be used for direct
observation of behavior where survey or
other empirical methodologies may seem
inappropriate.
Unstructured or Intensive
Interviewing
This method allows the researcher to
ask open-ended questions during an
interview.

Details are more important here than


a specific interview procedure.

Here lies the inductive framework


through which theory can be
generated.
Case Studies
A particular case study may be the focus
of any of the previously mentioned field
strategies.

The case study is important in qualitative


research, especially in areas where
exceptions are being studied.

Example: A patient may have a rare form


of cancer that has a set of symptoms and
potential treatments that have never
before been researched.
Methods
Interpretive techniques

Coding
ANALSYINGDATA IN QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
Recursive abstraction

Content analysis
Steps
Organize and prepare the data for analysis
Read all data, get a sense of the whole
Begin detailed analysis with coding process
Generate a description of the setting/people
as well as categories or themes for analysis
Identify themes (writing, visual, etc.)
Interpret and make meaning out of data
ANALSYINGDATA IN QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH

Interpretive techniques
Coding (Divide in segment, special word)

Recursive abstraction (Summarization )

Content analysis(themes and

subthemes)
Steps
Organize and prepare the data for analysis
Read all data, get a sense of the whole
Begin detailed analysis with coding process
Generate a description of the setting/people
as well as categories or themes for analysis
Identify themes (writing, visual, etc.)
Interpret and make meaning out of data
Strengths and Weaknesses
Objectivity
Reliability
Validity
Generalizability
Objectivity
It is given that objectivity is
impossible in qualitative inquiry.
Instead the researcher locates
his/herself in the research.

Objectivity is replaced by
subjective interpretation and
mass detail for later analysis.
Reliability
Since procedure is de-emphasized in
qualitative research, replication and
other tests of reliability become
more difficult.

However, measures may be taken to


make research more reliable within
the particular study (such as
observer training, or more objective
checklists, and so on).
Validity
Qualitative researchers use greater detail to
argue for the presence of construct validity.

Weak on external validity.

Content validity can be retained if the


researcher implements some sort of
criterion settings.

Having a focused criterion adds to the


studys validity.
Generalizability
Results for the most part, do not
extend much further than the original
subject pool.

Sampling methods determine the


extent of the studys generalizability.

Quota and Purposive sampling


strategies are used to broaden the
generalizability.
CONCLUSION

Qualitative research must be systematic,


rigorous and planned to make it credible
and dependable.
It involves critical self-scrutiny (active
reflexivity) to produce explanations. Such
investigations produce social explanations
which are somewhat generalizable.
Qualitative research is still not be seen as
a unified body and face many criticisms
Thank
you