Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 58

DIVERSITY OF LIFE

Chapter 12
Chapters 13-15 included
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
To make sense out of lifes diversity organisms are classified
and named based on their characteristics
Phylogeny
The evolutionary history and the relationships among a species or group
of species
Systematics
The study of organisms with the purpose of deriving their relationships
Taxonomy
The science of classifying organisms
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy is based on the work of Karl von Linne (Linnaeus)
Organisms are grouped based on shared characteristics
Individual organisms are identified as a species
Morphologically different from other groups
Do not interbreed with other groups
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy
One or more species which share characteristics are placed in a
group called a taxon (plural is taxa)
The first taxon is the genus
Each species is assigned a name based on their genus plus a
descriptive specific epithet
Genus species
Italics
The genus is capitalized, species is not
Binomial naming system designed by Linneaus
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy
Taxa are then placed in broader
more inclusive categories (still
based on shared characteristics
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy
The levels of taxa from the most inclusive/broad to the most
exclusive are:
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
Genus: Musca
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
Genus = Musca
Family = Muscidae
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
Genus = Musca
Family = Muscidae
Order = Diptera
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
Genus = Musca
Family = Muscidae
Order = Diptera
Class = Insecta
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
Genus = Musca
Family = Muscidae
Order = Diptera
Class = Insect
Phylum = Arthropoda
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
Genus = Musca
Family = Muscidae
Order = Diptera
Class = Insect
Phylum = Arthropoda
Kingdom = Animalia
ORGANIZING LIFE ON EARTH
Taxonomy of a house fly
From most exclusive or specific to the most inclusive
Species = Musca domestica
Genus = Musca
Family = Muscidae
Order = Diptera
Class = Insect
Phylum = Arthropoda
Kingdom = Animalia
Domain = Eukarya
DETERMINING EVOLUTIONARY
RELATIONSHIPS
Organisms that share similar physical features (morphology)
and genetic sequences tend to be more closely related than
those that do not
Homologies
Features overlap morphologically and genetically
Arrangement of bones in the wing of a bird and the arm of a human
DETERMINING EVOLUTIONARY
RELATIONSHIPS
Organisms that share similar physical features (morphology)
and genetic sequences tend to be more closely related than
those that do not
Analogies
Characteristic is superficially similar, but is not genetically similar
Comparison of wings between birds and insects
Lead to mis-classification of organisms
DETERMINING EVOLUTIONARY
RELATIONSHIPS
Molecular comparisons
Relatedness is now determined on more than just morphology
Cell type, cell wall, reproduction, nutrition, motility, etc.
Most importantlygenetic similarities

Genetic relatedness
Genetic information is compared
Species A: AACTAGCGCGAT
Species B: AACTAGCGCCAT
Species C: T T CTAGCGG TAT
Shows evolutionary relatedness (phylogenetic)
DETERMINING EVOLUTIONARY
RELATIONSHIPS
Molecular comparisons
Genetic analysis of many organisms resulted in three distinct
lineages or Domains
Bacteria
Archae
Eukarya
QUESTIONS
What is the correct way to write a scientific binomial name?
What is taxonomy?
Which is the most inclusive taxon?
Which is the most exclusive taxon?
Give an example of a homology
Name one domain
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram (a type of phylogenetic tree)
Depicts relatedness of organisms which are arranged on
branches
Those close to one another are more closely related
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram
Branch points represent where a single lineage evolved into
distinct new ones
Common ancestor is represented by the single branch point at
the base
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram
Organisms are indicated at the end of each branched line
Closely related: Rabbit and Lizard/3 and 4
Less closely related: Rabbit and Lancelet/1 and 5
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram
Significant character changes are indicated
Must be quantifiable and heritable (Physical, behavioral, physiological, or
molecular trait)
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram
Shared ancestral character (symplesiomorphy)
All members of the lineage have this character
Vertebral column/Letter A
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram
Shared derived characters (synapomorphies) are traits that
Arose since common ancestry
Define each branching point
Hinged jaw, legs, etc/Letters B-H
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram
Outgroup shares only the ancestral character (symplesiomorphy)
Derived characters (synapomorphies) arose later evolutionarily
Lancelet/#5
Clade: groups (taxa) that share a synapomorphy
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
Cladogram
Idealy taxonomists will be able to create
monophylogentic cladograms containing
A common ancestor
All the descendants
Many cladograms are still either poly- or
para-phylogenetic as there is missing
information about species, relatedness, and
evolutionary history
QUESTIONS

Symplesiomorphy Single ancestor and all its descendants

Synapomorphy Groups that share a synapomorphy

Outgroup Character common to all members of a lineage

Character Shares only the first character with the other group members

Monophylogenetic Character which has arisen since common ancestry with the outgroup

Clade Similar traits used to group organisms


DICHOTOMOUS KEY
Dichotomous keys are used to identify organisms
Consist of a series of questions
Each question has two possible answers
Based on the answer, you will be directed to the next question
or given the name of the organism
DICHOTOMOUS KEY
1. Sex female ---------------------------------2
Sex male ---------------------------------5
Who is the male student
with brown hair wearing
2. Hair color red -----------------------------Sally
cowboy boots?
Not red ---------------------------------3
3. Hair blond -----------------------------Julie Start at #1: because he is
Hair black ---------------------------------4 male, we need to go to # 5
4. Glasses ----------------------Deanna
No glasses --------------------------Leslie #5: his shoes are not high-
5. High-tops ------------------------Joseph tops, go to #6
not high-tops --------------------------------6
6. Hair blond -----------------------Michael #6: brown hair would lead
Hair brown --------------------------David
us to the name David
DICHOTOMOUS KEY
1. Sex female ---------------------------------2
Sex male ---------------------------------5 Imagine that you meet a
blond male member of this
2. Hair color red -----------------------------Sally class wearing sandals. Who
Not red ---------------------------------3 is it?
3. Hair blond -----------------------------Julie
Hair black ---------------------------------4
4. Glasses ----------------------Deanna Imagine that his girl friend
No glasses --------------------------Leslie has black hair but doesn't
5. High-tops ------------------------Joseph wear glasses. Who is he
not high-tops --------------------------------6 dating?
6. Hair blond -----------------------Michael
Hair brown --------------------------David
BIODIVERSITY
Characters used to differentiate Domains and Kingdoms
Type of cell
Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus, are very small, and are simple
Domains Archaea and Bacteria
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, tend to be larger, and are complex with
multiple organelles and cellular structures
Domain Eukarya
Presence or absence of a cell wall
Material used to build the cell wall
Uni- or multi- cellular
BIODIVERSITY
Characters used to differentiate Domains and Kingdoms
Nutrition (how they acquire energy)
Autotroph or heterotroph
Motility
Can they move on their own
What method do they use for movement
BIODIVERSITY
Characters used to differentiate Domains and Kingdoms
Mode of reproduction
Sexual, asexual, both
Life cycle
ARCHAEBACTERIA
Domain Archae: Kingdom Archaebacteria
Prokaryotic cells with a cell wall (built with pseudomurine or
other)
Microscopic uni-cellular organisms
Many are autotrophs
chemosynthesis and some forms of photosynthesis
Those that can move use flagella
Reproduce asexually using prokaryotic fission
ARCHAEBACTERIA
Classification is based on
Extreme habitats
Halophiles
Thermophiles
Physiology
Energy source

Two types of archaebacteria from a hydrothermal vent


BACTERIA
Domain Bacteria: Kingdom Bacteria
Prokaryotic cells with a cell wall (built with peptidoglycan)
Microscopic uni-cellular organisms
Diverse forms of acquiring energy
Those that can move use flagella mostly
Reproduce asexually using prokaryotic fission
BACTERIA
Classification is based on
Form of nutrition
Autotroph
Heterotroph
Habitat
Shape
Coccus
Bacillus
Spirillium
BACTERIA
Classification is based on
Gram stain
A staining method that results in two different colors depending on the
thickness of the bacterias cell wall
Thick = Purple (called Gram+)
Thin = Pink (called Gram-)
PROTISTA
Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista
Eukaryotic cells
Some protists have cell walls (constructed with a
variety of molecules)
They do not represent a monophylogenetic
group
Taxonomy is changing
All of Domain Eukarya can be divided into six
supergroups containing all the protists, animals,
plants, and fungi
PROTISTA
Most are microscopic and uni-cellular
Even though unseen, they play a significant role in life
Photosynthesis
Diatoms
Green, red, and brown algae
Diseases
Trypanosomes cause African Sleeping Sickness, Chagas Disease, and
Leishmaniasis
Plasmodium causes malaria
PROTISTA
Most are microscopic and uni-cellular
Even though unseen, they play a significant role in life
Pond life
Paramecium
Commercial use
Diatomaceous earth
Toothpaste, reflective paint
Carrageenan
Gelling, thickening, stabilizing
Agar
PLANTAE
Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Plantae
Eukaryotic cells
cell walls constructed with cellulose
Plants are multi-cellular and macroscopic
Photosynthetic autotrophs
Non-motile
Reproduce sexually
Form spores or seeds
PLANTAE
Classification is based on
Absence or presence of
Vascular tissues
Conduct water (xylem) and
photosynthesized sugars
(phloem) through the plant
Seeds
Flowers and fruit
PLANTAE
Taxa of the Plantae
Bryophytes
Mosses: simple small plants
No vascular tissue, seeds, or flowers
PLANTAE
Taxa of the Plantae
Ferns
Have vascular tissue
No seeds or flowers
PLANTAE
Taxa of the Plantae
Gymnosperms (evergreen, cone bearing)
Have vascular tissue and seeds (develop in cones)
No flowers or fruit
PLANTAE
Taxa of the Plantae
Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Have vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers and fruit
FUNGI
Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Fungi
Eukaryotic cells
cell walls constructed with chitin
Some fungi are microscopic but most are larger
Most are multicelled
Yeasts are uni-cellular
Heterotrophs
Non-motile
Reproduce sexually and asexually
Release spores following reproduction
FUNGI
Important impacts of fungi
Disease
Mold
Mycoses
Ring worm
Coccidiodomycosis
Histoplasmosis
Ecosystems
Decomposition
Lichens (fungus + algae)
Food
Yeast (bread, fermentation)
Mushrooms
ANIMALIA
Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Animalia
Eukaryotic cells
No cell walls
Range in size from microscopic rotifers up to the blue whale
All are multicellular
Heterotrophs
Movement based on contractile tissues (muscles) and a skeleton
Reproduce sexually
Form ova and sperm for reproduction
A few species can reproduce asexually
ANIMALIA
Classification is based on
Level of development
tissues, organs, organ systems
Symmetry
Type of skeleton
Several other criteria
ANIMALIA
Taxa of animalia
Sponges
Simplest and least complex
Cnidarians
Jelly fish, anemones
Flat worms
Tape worms
Round worms
Hook worms, filarial worms, ascaris
Segmented worms
Earthworm
ANIMALIA
Taxa of animalia
Mollusca
Clams, snails, squid
Arthropoda
Spiders, crustaceans, insects
Echinodermata
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins
Chordata
Vertebrates
Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
QUESTIONS
Archaebacteria Chitin cell walls

Bacteria Photosynthetic

Protista Peptidoglycan cell walls

Plantae Extreme habitats

Fungi No cell walls

Animalia Includes plasmodium which causes malaria


SUMMARY
Classification
Nomenclature
Taxonomy
Dichotomous keys
Cladograms
Biodiversity
Kingdoms