Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 44

POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY

CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS
IGNEOU SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC
S
Rock-forming Source of

Rocks under high


material

Molten materials in Weathering and


temperatures
deep crust and erosion of rocks
and pressures in
upper mantle exposed at surface
deep crust

Recrystallization due to
process

Crystallization Sedimentation, burial


heat, pressure, or
(Solidification of melt) and lithification
chemically active fluids
OBJECTIVES

The concepts of rock matrix and porosity

The difference between original (primary) and


induced (secondary) porosity

The difference between total and effective porosity


DISCUSSION TOPICS

Definition: Porosity is the fraction of a rock that


is occupied by voids (pores).

Origins and descriptions

Factors that effect porosity


POROSITY DEFINITION

Porosity: The fraction of a rock that is occupied by


pores

Porosity is an intensive property describing the


fluid storage capacity of rock

Vp
Vb Vma
Porosity
Vb Vb
ROCK MATRIX AND PORE SPACE

Rock matrix Pore space


ROCK MATRIX AND PORE SPACE

Rock matrix Water Oil and/or gas


PORE-SPACE CLASSIFICATION

Total Pore Volume


Total porosity, t =
Bulk Volume
Effective porosity, e =
Interconnected Pore Space
Bulk Volume
Effective porosity of great importance;
contains the mobile fluid
COMPARISON OF TOTAL AND EFFECTIVE
POROSITIES

Very clean sandstones : e t

Poorly to moderately well -cemented intergranular


materials: t e

Highly cemented materials and most carbonates:


e < t
ORIGINS OF POROSITY IN CLASTICS AND
CARBONATES
(Genetic Classification)

Primary (original)

Secondary (induced)
PRIMARY (ORIGINAL) POROSITY

Developed at deposition
Typified by
Intergranular pores of clastics or
carbonates
Intercrystalline and fenestral pores of carbonates
Usually more uniform than induced porosity
SECONDARY (INDUCED) POROSITY

Developed by geologic processes after


deposition (diagenetic processes)
Examples
Grain dissolution in sandstones or carbonates
Vugs and solution cavities in carbonates
Fracture development in some sandstones, shales,
and carbonates
FOUR MAJOR COMPONENTS OF
SANDSTONE

Framework
Sand (and Silt) Size Detrital Grains
Matrix
Silt and Clay Size Detrital Material
Cement
Material Precipitated Post-Depositionally,
During Burial. Cements Fill Pores and
Replace Framework Grains
Pores
Voids Among the Above Components
FOUR COMPONENTS OF SANDSTONE
Geologists Classification

1. Framework Note different use of matrix


2. Matrix Engineering
matrix by geologists and engineers
3. Cement
4. Pores

PORE
FRAMEWORK
CEMENT (QUARTZ) MATRIX

FRAMEWORK
(FELDSPAR)

0.25 mm
SANDSTONES POROSITY TYPES

Intergranular (Primary) Interstitial Void Space Between


Framework Grains

Micropores Small Pores Mainly Between Detrital


Framework Grains or Cement

Dissolution Partial or Complete Dissolution of


or Authigenic Grains (Can Also Occur
Within Grains

Fractures Breakage Due to Earth Stresses


FACTORS THAT AFFECT POROSITY

PRIMARY
Particle sphericity and angularity
Packing
Sorting (variable grain sizes)

SECONDARY (diagenetic)
Cementing materials
Overburden stress (compaction)
Vugs, dissolution, and fractures
ROUNDNESS AND SPHERICITY OF CLASTIC GRAINS
Porosity

SPHERICITY

High

Low

Very Sub- Sub- Well-


Angular Angular Rounded
Rounded
Rounded
Angular
ROUNDNESS

Porosity
FACTORS THAT AFFECT POROSITY

PRIMARY
Particle sphericity and angularity
Packing
Sorting (variable grain sizes)

SECONDARY (DIAGENETIC)
Cementing materials
Overburden stress (compaction)
Vugs, dissolution, and fractures
PACKING PATTERN
GRAIN PACKING IN SANDSTONE
Line of Traverse
(using microscope) 4 Types of Grain Contacts

Packing Proximity
Tangential Contact A measure of the extent to
which sedimentary particles
are in contact with their
Sutured Contact neighbors
Long Contact Packing Density
Cement
A measure of the extent to
which sedimentary particles
occupy the rock volume
Matrix
Concavo-Convex
(clays, etc.)
Contact

This Example
Packing Proximity = 40%
Packing Density = 0.8
(modified from Blatt, 1982)
Porosity Calculations - Uniform Spheres

Bulk volume = (2r)3 = 8r3


4 r3
Matrix volume = 3

Pore volume = bulk volume - matrix volume


Pore Volume
Porosity
Bulk Volume

Bulk Volume Matrix Volume



Bulk Volume

8 r3 4 / 3 r3
1 47.6%
8 r3 2 3
Compaction
Grain-Size Sorting in Sandstone

Very Well Well Moderately Poorly Very Poorly


Sorted Sorted Sorted Sorted Sorted

SORTING
TYPES OF TEXTURAL CHANGES SENSED
BY THE NAKED EYE AS BEDDING

Sand
Shale Slow Current
Fast Current
Change of Composition Change of Size
River
Eolian
Beach
Fluvial
Change of Shape Change of Orientation

Change of Packing
FACTORS THAT AFFECT POROSITY

PRIMARY
Particle sphericity and angularity
Packing
Sorting (variable grain sizes)

SECONDARY (DIAGENETIC)
Cementing materials
Overburden stress (compaction)
Vugs, dissolution, and fractures
DIAGENESIS
Diagenesis is the Post-
Depositional Chemical and
Mechanical Changes that
Carbonate
Occur in Sedimentary Rocks
Cemented
Some Diagenetic Effects Include
Oil Compaction
Stained Precipitation of Cement
Dissolution of Framework
Grains and Cement
The Effects of Diagenesis May
Enhance or Degrade Reservoir
Quality
DUAL POROSITY IN SANDSTONE
Sandstone Comp. 1. Primary and secondary matrix porosity system
Framework 2. Fracture porosity system
Matrix
Cement FRACTURE DISSOLUTION
Pores PORE

PORE
FRAMEWORK
(QUARTZ)
CEMENT
MATRIX

FRAMEWORK
(FELDSPAR)

Note different use of matrix 0.25 mm


by geologists and engineers
INTERGRANULAR PORE AND MICROPOROSITY

Intergranular
Pore

Intergranular Pores
Microporosity Contain Hydrocarbon
Fluids

Quartz Micropores Contain


Kaolinite
Detrital
Grain
Irreducible Water
DISSOLUTION POROSITY

Partially Dissolution of
Dissolved Framework Grains
Feldspar (Feldspar, for
Example) and
Cement may
Pore Enhance the
Interconnected
Quartz Detrital Pore System
Grain
This is Secondary
Thin Section Micrograph - Plane Polarized Light
Avile Sandstone, Neuquen Basin, Argentina Porosity
CARBONATES POROSITY TYPES
Interparticle Pores Between Particles or Grains
Intraparticle Pores Within Individual Particles or Grains

Intercrystal Pores Between Crystals


Moldic Pores Formed by Dissolution of an
Individual Grain or Crystal in the Rock
Fenestral Primary Pores Larger Than Grain-Supported
Interstices
Fracture Formed by a Planar Break in the Rock
Vug Large Pores Formed by Indiscriminate
Dissolution of Cements and Grains
Idealized Carbonate Porosity Types

Interparticle Intraparticle Intercrystal Moldic

Fabric
Selective
Fenestral Shelter Growth-Framework

Non-Fabric
Selective
Fracture Channel Vug

Breccia Boring Burrow Shrinkage


Fabric Selective or Not Fabric Selective
(modified from Choquette and Pray, 1970)
CARBONATE POROSITY - EXAMPLE

Moldic
Pores
Due to dissolution
Dolomite and collapse of ooids
(allochemical particles)

Moldic Isolated pores


Pore
Low effective porosity

Calcite Low permeability


Blue areas are pores.
CARBONATE POROSITY - EXAMPLE
Moldic and
Interparticle Pores
Interparticle
Pores Combination pore system

Moldic pores formed through


dissolution of ooids (allochemical
particles)

Connected pores

Moldic High effective porosity


Pore
High permeability
Thin section micrograph
Smackover Formation, Alabama
Black areas are pores.
Permeability
tortuosity is a measure of the degree of deviation of a
pathway from a straight line; the more irregular the
pathway the greater the tortuosity .
Thus, the larger the tortuosity of the pathways
through a rock the lower the permeability. Again,
this is related to the degree of resistance to flow that
is due to the total character of the pathway.
Factors controlling to permeability..
Measurement of flow direction.
ROSE DIAGRAM
THANK YOU