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Chapter 2



Arief Rachman Hakim

Aswin Akbar
Rifki Cikita. NZ
Yuni Ismi Alviani
Strategy in the communication process consists of two actions:
Determining the purpose, goals, or vision of what we want to
Developing how best to achieve the purpose, goals, or vision

Establishing a Clear Purpose

Determining Communication Strategy
Analyzing Audiences
Organizing Communication Effectively
1. Establishing a Clear Purpose

Clarifying the Purpose:

To inform transferring facts, data, or information to someone
To influence or persuade motivating someone or convincing him
or her to feel, believe, or act in some way
To instruct instructing someone in a process, procedure, or
To engage involving someone in a collaborative exchange of
The purpose may evolve over time
Connecting Thinking and
The Final Draft of the
First Draft of the Memo Memo

Negative Tone & Impression Positive & Motivating

2. Determining Communication
Considering the Context
What else is going on in the world, industry, distribution channel, or organization that
will affect how the audience will receive this communication? And what might be
going on in the individual receivers life?
Where does the communication fall in the overall flow of communication first or last?
What has happened before and after?
What are the organizational implications?
What are the people implications?
What does the audience know or believe about the context, compared with what the
sender knows or believes?
What are the audiences expectations of this communication medium?
What are the cultural differences I should consider?
Using a Strategy Framework


Strategy Framework :


3. Analyzing Audiences

1. Who is your primary audience? What do they expect? How do

they feel?
2. What is your purpose in communicating with this person or
3. Who is your secondary audience?
4. What does each audience know?
5. What are their motivations?
6. What do you expect the audience to do, to feel?
7. What would be the most effective media for this audience?
By Expertise or Community of Practice
By Decision-Making Style
By Medium based on the medium through which they receive
that communication
By Organizational Context how they affect motivation
Audience Medium Purpose Approach
Layperson/non expert Magazine To entertain Make interesting and practical
Article Give background
Newsletter To inform Define terms
Pamphlet To engage Use narrative and analogy
Blog, Twitter
Executive E-mail To inform Focus on decision making
Memo Keep simple
Presentation To persuade Be honest and direct
Report Give conclusions and recommendations early

Expert Journal article To inform State the how and why

Report Present limited background information
Professional Use language of the discipline
network/blog State inferences and conclusions
White paper Cite numerous references

Technical Reports To inform State the how and why

Procedure To instruct Provide limited background information
Professional Keep practical/avoid theory
White paper To persuade

Combined (diverse) E-mail To inform Avoid technical language and jargon

Memo Use sections, divisions, and headings
Report To instruct Define terms/limits technical information to
Blog appendixes
Twitter To persuade Keep prose clean, concise, and simple
Style Characteristics Communication Approach
Charismatics Talkative, captivating Begin with bottom line
Easily intrigued by new ideas Focus on result
Make decisions based on information, not emotions Present straightforward arguments
Use visual aids

Thinkers Intelligent, logical, academic Openly communicate any concerns up front

Impressed by arguments supported by data Have lots of data ready
Tend to be risk averse Provide all perspectives
Need time to come to their own conclusions Be prepared to go through methods
Be prepared for silence

Skeptics Demanding, suspicious of every fact Build credibility in yourself and your ideas by
Aggressive, almost combative style enlisting the help of someone they trust
Need to trust someone to believe their ideas Emphasize the credibility of your sources
Dont like being challenged or made to look uninformed Make arguments as concrete as possible, using
in any way specific examples

Followers Cautious, responsible Present proven methods, references, and

Risk averse testimonials
Prefer innovative applications of proven solutions Show how the idea is safe yet innovative
Make decisions based on track records, their or others Use case studies
Present options
Provide details

Controllers Logical, unemotional, sensible, detail-oriented, Carefully structure your argument

analytical Provide details from experts
Abhor uncertainty and ambiguity Dont push too hard
Focus on the facts and analytics of an argument Provide the facts and leave them to decide
4. Organizing Communication
Questions helpful to determine the best approach to organizing
What is the most effective way to open communication with this
How should I arrange the information I provide to ensure that the
audience will follow the discussion easily, understand the main
ideas, an be receptive to the information?
What is the most effective way to end this communication?

The general rule for professional communication is that our purpose

for writing or speaking usually comes first
Selecting Organizational Devices

Methods to organize individual sections and even the entire

document or presentation:
Deduction (general to particular)
Induction (particular to general)
Using The Pyramid Principle

Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive
Each level must summarize the ideas grouped below it
Ideas in each grouping must always be the same kind of idea
Ideas in each grouping must always be logically ordered
Overall Argument

Sub-argument #1 Sub-argument #2 Sub-argument #3

Evidence Evidence Evidence Evidence Evidence Evidence

Concept based on Barbara Mintos The Pyramid Principle

Pyramid Example

BankCorp should launch

its new card in China.

Why? Why? Why?

Attractive Easy to
Will be Profitable
Market Implement

Pro-bank No Costs Revenue Staff Plan

climate competition low high available developed
Creating a Storyboard

See the logical flow

Imagine the individual graphics needed to support each idea
Dividing these pieces up for completion by the individual team

Effective communication requires a clear purpose.

Idea generation techniques help clarify purpose.
Effective communication requires a communication strategy.
No strategy will work without audience analysis.
The specific organizational structure depends on your message and
audience, but a logical structure is essential.
Thank You