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Chapter 2,

Entrepreneurial Intentions
and Corporate
Vishnu Parmar, IBA
University of Sindh
Intention to Act
Entrepreneurial Intentions: The motivational
factors that influence individuals to pursue
entrepreneurial outcomes
Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy: The conviction
that one can successfully execute the
entrepreneurial process
Perceived Desirability: The degree to which
an individual has a favorable or unfavorable
evaluation of the potential entrepreneurial
Entrepreneur Background and
Past Work Experience
Role Models and Support Systems
Moral Support Network (Psychological
Support to an entrepreneur)
Professional Support Network
Key Elements in Entrepreneurs

Supportive childhood family
Having a father who is self-
employed helps.
Education is important.
Aged 22-45 when starting
Work history: dissatisfied with
company job but has technical
Bill Gates
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Role Models
parents, relatives, friends or
entrepreneurs in the community.
may serve as mentors.
may help establish a moral and
professional support network.
invaluable source of counsel and

Who are your entrepreneurial role models?

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Minority Entrepreneurs

Male vs Female
Other communities like Asian
American, African, Hispanic
Bohra, Memon, Dewan, Chinoti, etc
Male Entrepreneur
Motivation Make Things Happen, Role In Corp. Not
Important, Desire To Be In Control
Dissatisfied With Present Job, Sidelines,
Departure Point Discharged/Laid-Off, Acquisition Opportunity

Fund Sources Personal Assets/Savings, Bank, Investors,

Family/Friends Loans

Occupational Experience, Recognized Specialist, Competent In

Background Business Functions

Personality Opinionated/Persuasive, Goal-Oriented,

Innovative/Idealistic, Self-Confident, Energetic
Age = 25-35, Father Self-Employed, College-
Background Educated, Firstborn Child
Friends, Professional Acquaintances (Lawyers,
Support Groups Accountants), Associates, Spouse

Business Started Manufacturing/Construction

Female Entrepreneur
Accomplishment Of Goal, Do It Alone
Departure Point Job Frustration, Recognition Of Opportunity,
Change In Personal Circumstance
Personal Assets/Savings, Personal Loans
Fund Sources
Occupational Experience, Mid-Management/Administrative
Background Experience, Service Occupation

Personality Flexible/Tolerant, Goal-Oriented, Creative &

Realistic, Self-Confident, Energetic, Social
Age = 35-45, Father Self-Employed, College
Background Educated (Liberal Arts), Firstborn Child
Friends, Spouse, Family, Womens Prof. Groups,
Support Groups Trade Associations

Business Started Service-Related

Entrepreneur Vs.
An inventor creates something for the first
time. While the entrepreneur falls in love
with the new venture, the inventor falls in
love with the invention and often requires
the expertise of an entrepreneur to launch a
new venture.

Historians classify Albert Einstein as an inventive genius and Henry

Ford as an entrepreneurial genius. Do you agree or disagree? Why?
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Managerial vs
Entrepreneurial Decision
Entrepreneurial Management is
Entrepreneurial Management is
distinct from traditional
management in terms of eight
dimensions (Table 2.1)
1. Strategic Orientation
2. Commitment to Opportunity
3. Commitment to resources
4. Control of Resources
Managerial vs
Entrepreneurial Decision
5. Management Structure
6. Reward Philosophy
7. Growth Orientation
8. Entrepreneurial Culture
Establishing a Culture for
Corporate Entrepreneurship
Corporate Entrepreneurship means
entrepreneurial action within an
established organization
In establishing an entrepreneurial
environment within an established
organization, certain factors and
leadership characteristics need to be
present (Table 2.3)
Table 2.3 (Characteristics of an
Entrepreneurial Environment)
1. Organization operates on frontiers
of technology
2. New ideas encouraged
3. Trial and error encouraged
4. Failure Allowed
5. No Opportunity Parameters
6. Resources Available and Accessible
Table 2.3 (Characteristics of an
Entrepreneurial Environment)
7. Multidiscipline teamwork approach
8. Long Time Horizon
9. Volunteer Program
10.Appropriate Reward System
11. Sponsor and Champions available
12. Support of top management
Leadership Characteristics of
Corporate Entrepreneurs
1. Understands the Environment
2. Is Visionary and Flexible
3. Creates Management Options
4. Encourages Teamwork
5. Encourages Open Discussion
6. Builds a coalition of supporters
7. Persists