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M A E D 6 0 2 : S TAT I S T I C A L M E T H O D S

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

VON CHRISTOPHER G. CHUA, LPT, MST


Affiliate, ESSU-Graduate School
Session Objectives
In this fraction of the course on Statistical Methods, graduate students
enrolled in the subject are expected to do the following:

1. Discuss in detail hypothesis testing. 4. Describe the steps in hypothesis


2. Define important terms related to testing.
hypothesis testing (e.i. null and 5. Test hypotheses using the traditional
alternative hypotheses, test statistic, method.
critical value and region, type of test,
level of significance)
3. Differentiate Types I and II errors in
hypothesis testing.
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Download the document to use it as reference.
Fundamentals of
Hypothesis Testing
Understanding the jargons
Hypothesis
In statistics, a hypothesis is a claim or statement It may or
about a property of one or more populations. may not be
true.
Examples of statistical hypotheses:
The average Filipino adult drinks 800 ml of
carbonated drinks in a week.
Only ten percent of children who enter Grade 1 will
be able to graduate in college.

Hypothesis testing aims to make a statistical


conclusion about whether to reject or not reject the
hypothesis.
Hypothesis
The best way to determine if a hypothesis Usually impractical
was true would be to examine the entire
population. So, examine random
samples from the
The mean number of text messages received population
per day by kids aged 15-16 years old in Brgy
A is 24. If sample data is not
consistent with
The mean number of text messages received hypothesis, reject it.
per day by Filipino teenagers is 24.
Statistical
Hypothesis
There
are two types of statistical
hypotheses.

The null hypothesis states that there


is NO statistical significance between
two variables in the hypothesis.
It is the hypothesis that the researcher
tries to disprove.

The alternative hypothesis states


that there is a statistical significance
between two variables.
Usually what the researcher thinks is
true and is testing.
The
hypothesis we want to test is if is
likely true.

There are two possible outcomes:


Reject H0 because of sufficient
evidence in the sample in favor or
H1;
Do not reject H0 because of
insufficient evidence to support H1.

Note that failure to reject H0 does not


mean the null hypothesis is true. There
is no formal outcome that says accept
H0." It only means that we do not have
sufficient evidence to support H1.
Stating the null and alternative
hypotheses

Coca Cola Bottling Company claims There is NO significant
that the mean volume of coke in cans is difference between the
12 oz. A sample of 200 cans of the soft sample mean and the
drink was randomly selected and companys claim.
measured in terms of its liquid volume
content. The mean of this sample is
12.38 oz. Is there a significant There is a significant
difference between the sample mean difference between the
obtained and the companys claim? sample mean and the
companys claim.
TWO-TAILED HYPOTHESIS TEST
Stating the null and alternative
hypotheses

The mean daily income of
The mean daily income of 20 families in the families after the
Brgy A is 250. An NGO recently livelihood program is NOT
conducted a livelihood program for significantly greater than
these families. After three months, the the mean daily income
mean daily income of these families was before it.
recorded at 295 pesos. Is the mean
daily income after the livelihood The mean daily income of
program significantly greater than the the families after the
mean daily income of the families livelihood program is
before it? significantly greater than
the mean daily income
before it.
ONE-TAILED HYPOTHESIS TEST
Two-tailed Hypothesis Test

There is NO significant
difference between the
sample mean and the

companys claim.

Non rejection region


There is a significant
Critical / rejection difference between the

region sample mean and the
companys claim.
The critical region is the set of all values of the test statistic that
would cause us to reject the null hypothesis.
One-tailed Hypothesis Test

The mean daily
income of the
families after the
livelihood program is
NOT significantly
greater than the

mean daily income
before it.
Non rejection region

The mean daily


income of the
Critical / rejection
region families after the
livelihood program is
significantly greater
Test Statistic
The test statistic
Claims about the
Two Dependent Samples
is a sample population mean,
statistic or a value
based on the
sample data used Two Independent
Claims about the Samples
in making decision population mean,
about the
rejection of the
null hypothesis.
Types of Errors
True State of Nature
The null The null
hypothesis is hypothesis is
true. false.
Type I error
We decide to reject Correct
(rejecting a true
the null hypothesis. Decision
null hypothesis)
Decision Type II error
We decide not to (not rejecting a
Correct
reject the null false null
Decision
hypothesis. hypothesis)
Two-tailed Hypothesis Test

The probability of rejecting In two-tailed tests, the level

the null hypothesis when it of significance level, is


is true (Type I error) is divided equally between
called the significance the two tails that constitute
level, denoted by the the critical region.
symbol This value is
typically predetermined.

Non rejection region


Critical / rejection
region

One-tailed Hypothesis Test

One-tailed hypothesis tests In one-tailed tests, the level

can be left tailed or right of significance level, is


tailed depending on which taken only on the tail that
tail the critical region is contains the critical region.
located.

Non rejection region


Critical / rejection
region

Conclusions in Hypothesis Testing
Start

Does the
original claim There is sufficient evidence to warrant
contain the
No Reject Yes
the rejection of the claim that (original
Original ? (Reject)
condition of claim claim)
equality? contains
equalityand There is no sufficient evidence to
becomes No
warrant the rejection of the claim that
(Donotreject)
(original claim)


No Reject Yes
The sample data support that (original
Originalclaimdoesnot ? (Reject)
containequalityand claim)
becomes

No There is no sufficient sample evidence


(Donotreject) to support the claim that (original
claim)
Steps in
Hypothesis Testing
Going through the process
1. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Express
the hypotheses in symbols.
2. Determine the appropriate test statistic and the
sampling distribution.
3. Identify or select the significance level and degree
of freedom.
4. Determine the critical values and the critical
region and formulate the decision rule.
Traditional 5. Compute for the test statistic.
Method of 6. Decide whether to reject or not to reject the null
Hypothesis hypothesis. Draw a conclusion.
Testing
t-test for One Sample

There is no significant difference From the t-table, we identify
A
local gym advertises that with between the mean weight loss of the region to be greater than
their workout plan you will lose the sample and the local gyms 2.064.
5 kg of body mass in a month. A claim of a 5-kg weight loss. Decision rule: Reject if
There is a significant difference
consumers group wants to test between the mean weight loss of
this claim by getting data on 25 the sample and the local gyms Since , we reject the null
people who went through the claim of a 5-kg weight loss. hypothesis.

program and found out that the Since , test statistic will be There is sufficient evidence to
average weight loss of this obtained through two-tailed t- warrant the rejection of the
sample is 4.21 kg with a test for one sample. claim that the mean weight loss
of the sample is not significantly
standard deviation of 0.78 kg. different the local gyms claim
Test the claim of the gym at . Set , 4 of a 5-kg weight loss.
t-test for One Sample

The mean rating of the From the t-table, we identify
As a means to assess its faculty, probationary instructors is not the region to be greater than
the Graduate School of ESSU significantly greater than the 1.706.
conducts a faculty evaluation mean rating of all faculty Decision rule: Reject if
members.
before the end of every term. The mean rating of the
For the current semester, the probationary instructors is
average rating of all instructors significantly greater than the Since , we reject the null
mean rating of all faculty hypothesis.
is 3.39 with a standard deviation members.
of 0.87. On the other hand, There is sufficient evidence to
twenty-seven newly hired Since , test statistic will be warrant the rejection of the
obtained through one-tailed t- claim that mean rating of the
probationary instructors got a test for one sample. probationary instructors is not
mean rating of 3.76. Based from significantly greater than the
the data, did the probationary mean rating of all faculty
Set , members.
instructors get a better rating
than the faculty as a whole?
z-test for One Sample

There is no significant difference From the z-table, we identify
A company which manufactures between the mean of the the region that is 0.025 from
battery-operated toy cars randomly selected sample and each tail or 0.475 from the
claims that its products have a the companys claim. mean,
There is a significant difference Decision rule: Reject if
mean life span of 5 years with a between the mean of the
standard deviation of 2 years. A randomly selected sample and
sample of 40 toys was tested the companys claim.
Since , we reject the null
and found to have a mean life Since , test statistic will be hypothesis.
span of only 3 years. Using a 5 obtained through two-tailed z-
percent level of significance, test for one sample. There is sufficient evidence to
warrant the rejection of the
determine if there is a claim that the mean life span of
significant difference between the companys battery-
the mean of the randomly operated toy cars is 5 years.

selected sample and the


companys claim.
Test concerning two dependent
samples
A professor who teaches Algebra offered his students a two-hour lecture on Math anxiety and
ways to overcome it. The following table shows the test score in Algebra of seven students before
and after they attended the lecture. Test at 2.5% level of significance if attending the lecture helped
improve the score in Algebra.

Student Allan Bobby Carlo Dante Efren Frank Gabby


Before 56 69 48 74 65 71 58
After 62 73 44 85 71 70 69
d
Test concerning two independent
samples

Filipino freshmen high school From the z-table, we identify the
A local researcher studied the
students did not perform better region that is 0.05 from each tail or
Mathematics achievement of in Mathematics than their 0.45 from the mean,
Amerasians and Filipinos. According to Amerasian counterparts. Decision rule: Reject if
the study, the mean score on a
mathematics test given to 120 Filipino freshmen high school
Amerasian freshmen high school students performed better in
students was 68 with a standard Mathematics than their
deviation of 5.6. The same test was Amerasian counterparts. Since, we do not reject the null
given to 180 Filipino freshmen high hypothesis.
Test statistic will be obtained
school students and the mean score
through one-tailed z-test for two There is no sufficient evidence to
obtained was 68.9 with a standard independent samples. warrant the rejection of the claim
deviation of 7.8. Using the 5% level of that the Filipino freshmen high
significance, does the data show that school students did not perform
Filipino freshmen high school students better in Mathematics than their
performed better in Mathematics than Amerasian counterparts.
their Amerasian counterparts?