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ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR

PHYSICS
Unit-13

Class: 10 M1
Instructor: Usama Shabbir
ATOMIC PHYSICS

Atomic physicsis the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated


system ofelectrons and an atomic nucleus.
It is primarily concerned with the
arrangement of electrons around the
nucleus and the processes by which
these arrangements change
NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Nuclear physicsis the field of physics that studies the constituents of


nucleus (protons and neutrons) andinteractions of atomic nuclei.
SUB ATOMIC PARTICLES
Proton: Protons are positively charged particles found inside the nucleus
of an atom.

Neutron: Neutrons are the other particle found in the nucleus of an


atom. Unlike protons and electrons,

Electron: Electrons are negatively charged particles that surround the


nucleus in orbits similar to moons orbiting a planet.
ATOMIC NUMBER, NEUTRON NUMBER
AND ATOMIC MASS NUMBER
Total number of protons in the nucleus is called theatomic numberof
the atom and is given thesymbol Z.

The number of neutrons in a nucleus is known as theneutron


numberand is given thesymbol N.

The total number of nucleons, that is, protons and neutrons in a nucleus,
is equal toZ + N = A, where A is called theatomic mass number
ISOTOPES
Atoms of an element having same atomic number but different mass
number is called isotopes

Or

Atoms of an element having same number of protons but different


number of neutrons
Example:
Hydrogen has three isotopes
Carbon has three isotopes
ISOTOPES CONT
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY
Radioactivity defined as the spontaneous emission of particles or
radiation or both at the same time, by unstable nuclei. Those elements
which emit these radiations are known as radioactive elements.

Actually when isotopes are unstable they emit energy in the form of
radiation. There are three main types of radiation or radioactive decay
depending on the isotope.
(i) Alpha particles
(ii) Beta particles
(iii) Gamma rays
PROPERTIES
Assignment No. 1
Concepts of Alpha particles, Beta particles and Gamma rays

Properties of Alpha particles, Beta particles and Gamma rays


BACKGROUND RADIATIONS &
COSMIC RADIATIONS
Radiations present in the atmosphere due to different radioactive
substances are called background radiations

The earth and all living things receive radiations from outer space, those
radiations are called cosmic radiations
NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATIONS
The spontaneous process in which a parent unstable nuclide changes into
a more stable daughter nuclide with the emission of radiations is called
nuclear transmutations.
RADIOACTIVE DECAYS
NATURE & PROPERTIES OF
RADIOACTIVE DECAYS
Nature of Radioactive decays-------------Have been done through
Assignment

Properties of Radioactive decays-------- Have been done through


Assignment
HALF LIFE
The time during which half of the unstable radioactive nuclei disintegrate
is known as Half Life of the given sample of radioactive element.
HALF LIFE CONT

The half-life of isotopes from some


sample elements:

oxygen 16 infinite
uranium 238 4,460,000,000 years
uranium 235 713,000,000 years
carbon 14 5,730 years
cobalt 60 5.27 years
silver 94 - .42 seconds
HALF LIFE CONT