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THE EXECUTIVE BODY: THE

PRESIDENT AND THE CABINET,


ROLES AND FUNCTIONS,
DUTIES AND POWER

JOYCE ANGELICA P. MENDIGORIN,


RN
EXECUTIVE BRANCH
is that part of the government
that has sole authority and
responsibility for the daily
administration of the state
bureaucracy.
RESPONSIBILITY
The six roles that the top leadership of
the executive branch may fulfill are as
follows:
Head of State
Head of Government
Chief Diplomat
Commander-in-Chief
Chief Executive
Chief legislator
Article VII, Section 1, of the 1987
Constitution vests executive power
to the President of the Philippines,
who functions as the Head of
State, Head of Government, and
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed
Forces of the Philippines. As Chief
Executive, the President of the
Philippines exercises control over
all the executive departments,
bureaus, and offices.
President of the
Philippines
Elected by direct vote by the
people for a term of six
years.
May only serve for one term
and is ineligible for re-
election.
The term of the President of
the Philippines starts at noon
of the 30th day of June after
an election is held.
President of the
Philippines
Qualifications
The qualifications for an individual to aspire for the
Presidency of the Philippines are outlined in
Article VII, Section 2 of the Constitution. According
to the Constitution, an individual may become
President provided he meets the following criteria:
1. Natural born Filipino
2. A registered voter
3. Must be able to read and write
4. 40 years of age at the day of the election
5. Must have resided in the Philippines ten years
before the election is held.
Powers of the President
Besides the Constitution, the
powers of the President of the
Philippines are specifically outlined
inExecutive Order no. 292 s. 1987
, otherwise known as the
Administrative Code of 1987. The
following powers are:
1. Power of control over the
Executive Branch
2. Ordinance Power
Powers of the President
There are six issuances that the
President may issue. They are the
following as defined in the
Administrative Code of 1987:
Executive Orders
Administrative Orders
Proclamations
Memorandum Orders
Memorandum Circulars
General or Special Orders
Powers of the President
3. Power over Aliens
4. Powers of Eminent Domain, Escheat,
Land Reservation and Recovery of Ill-
gotten Wealth
Article III, Section 9 (1) of the
Constitution provides that no person
shall be deprived of his/her life, liberty,
or property without due process of law.
Furthermore, Article III, Section 9 (2),
provides that private property shall not
be taken for public use without just
Powers of the President
Once the aforementioned conditions
are met, the President may exercise
the power of eminent domain which
are as follows:
Power of Eminent Domain
Power to Direct Escheat or
Reversion Proceedings
Power to Reserve Lands of the
Public and Private Domain of the
Government
Power over Ill-gotten Wealth
Powers of the President
5. Power of Appointment
6. Power of General Supervision Over
Local Governments
7. Other Powers
Powers of the President
May grant pardon, amnesty or reduce the
sentence of those convicted on the final
judgment of the Supreme Court
Pardon = Forgiveness given to an individual

Amnesty = Forgiveness given to a big group

of individuals
Commutation = Reducing the penalty

Reprieve = Delay of punishment


Vice President of
the Philippines
The Vice President of the
Philippines is elected by
direct vote by the people
for a term of six years and
may run for re-election
once. The term of the Vice
President of the Philippines
starts at noon of the 30th
day of June after an
election is held.
Vice President of the Philippines

Qualifications
The qualifications for aspirants to
the Office of the Vice President are
outlined in Article VII, Section 3.
According to the Constitution, the
qualifications for the President are
the same for the Vice President.
Duties of the Vice President
According to the Constitution, the Vice
President may concurrently assume a
cabinet position should the President
of the Philippines offer him one. The
Vice President will become a Secretary
concurrent to his position of Vice
President.
Aside from the Cabinet post, the Vice
President is mandated to assume the
Presidency in case of the death,
disability, or resignation of the
Cabinet Secretaries
Functions of a Cabinet Secretary
Cabinet Secretaries act as the alter ego
of the President executing, with his
authority, the power of the Office of the
President in their respective
departments.
The number of Cabinet Secretaries
varies from time to time depending on
the need of an Administration.
According to the Administrative Code of
1987, the President of the Philippines
Appointment of Cabinet Secretaries
According to the Article 7, Section 16, the
President may appoint anyone to executive
departments with the consent of the
Commission on Appointments. Names of
individuals nominated to cabinet posts are
submitted to the Commission on
Appointments for their consideration.
An individual may not assume his post in a
given department unless confirmed by the
Commission on Appointments. However, the
Constitution provides for individual
becoming Cabinet Secretaries in an Acting
Capacity before they are confirmed.
According to the Commission of
Appointments website, the
following need confirmation in
order to assume their posts:
1. Executive Secretary
2. Secretary of Agrarian Reform
3. Secretary of Agriculture
4. Secretary of Budget and Management
5. Secretary of Education
6. Secretary of Energy
7. Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
8. Secretary of Finance
9. Secretary of Foreign Affairs
According to the Commission of
Appointments website, the
following need confirmation in
order to assume their posts:
10. Secretary of Health
11. Secretary of Justice
12. Secretary of Labor and Employment
13. Secretary of National Defense
14. Secretary of Public Works and Highways
15. Secretary of Science and Technology
16. Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
17. Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
18. Secretary of Trade and Industry
According to the Commission of
Appointments website, the
following need confirmation in
order to assume their posts:
19. Secretary of Transportation and Communications
20. Secretary of Tourism
21. Commission on Higher Education
22. Director General of the National Economic and
Development Authority
Powers of a Cabinet Secretary
As stated above, a Cabinet Secretary is
the alter ego of the President in their
respective Departments. Thus, they
possess the power to issue directives
relative to their departments, such as
department orders. These orders only
apply to offices under a specific
department under the Cabinet
Secretarys jurisdiction. Cabinet
Secretaries also act as advisors to the
President of the Philippines for their
Duties of Cabinet Members of the President
Secretary of Agrarian Reform
-is responsible for all land reform programs in
the country.
Secretary of Agriculture
- is responsible for boosting the income of
farmers as well as reducing the incidence of
poverty in the rural sector
Secretary of Budget and Management
is responsible for the sound and efficient use
of government resources for national
development and also as an instrument for
the meeting of national socio-economic and
political development goals.
Duties of Cabinet Members of the President
Secretary of Education
is the chief formulator of Philippine
educational policy and is responsible for the
Philippine primary and secondary school
system.
Secretary of Energy
is responsible for preparing, integrating,
coordinating, supervising and controlling all
plans, programs, projects and activities of the
Government relative to energy exploration,
development, utilization, distribution and
conservation.
Duties of Cabinet Members of the President
Executive Secretary is the head and highest
ranking official serving in Cabinet of the
Philippines and the head of the Office of the
President of the Philippines.
Presidential Management Staff is the one
who manage the development and
formulation of the projects and policies of
the Office of the President.
Communications Group is primarily
responsible for planning, programming, and
coordinating the activities that will most
effectively collect information about what is
happening in the Executive branch of the
Local Governments
The Executive Branch extends beyond
the National Government. According
to Article 10, Section 4 of the
Constitution the President of the
Philippines is mandated to supervise
local government all over the country.
However, because of Republic Act No.
7160, otherwise known as the Local
Government Code of 1991, local
governments enjoy relative autonomy
from the National Government.
Local Governments
Each Local Government has its own
Chief Executive. The following is the list
of local Chief Executives:
1. Provinces = Governors
2. Cities = Mayor
3. Municipalities = Mayor
4. Barangay = Barangay Captains
The local Chief Executives have the
power to approve or veto local
ordinances recommended by the local
legislators.
Local Governments
Term Limits
The Offices of the above mentioned
local Chief Executives are limited to
three consecutive three-year terms.
Once they end their third term, they
may not run for reelection but may
run again once they let one term
pass.