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Many Protective Function :

1. Barrier to disease organisms.
2. Protects the body from the harmful effect of too much light.
3. Regulating the temperatur of the body.
4. As an excretory organ, by sweating.
5. Contains never -ending. The different type of sensation :
Touch, Pressure, Heat, Cold and Pain.
6. Diagnosis tool :
Yellow in jaundice
Blue-Gray in cyanosis
Bronze, in certain glandular deficiencies.
Rough and lose its hair, in Vit.A deficiencies.
Rashes on the skin : Measles, Chicken-pox, Scarlet-fever, syphilis,
Allergic, etc.
Consisting in two layers :
Derived from ectoderm.
No blood vessels.
II. DERMIS : 1) Pars Papilllary
2) Pars Recticular.
Rest on Hypodermis
Consist of dense connective tissue
Derived from mesoderm.
1) Thick Skin
Palms of the hands
Soles of the feet
Have a thick epidermis

2) Thin Skin
The remainder of the body
Consisting of 5 layers or strata

a single layer of columnar ephitelial cells.
Have the hemidesmosomes and tonofibrils.


prickel cell layer
Several layers of polyhedral shape cells
Have the intercellular bridges and tonofibrils
Toward the surfaca, the cells become flattened.
1+2= Malpigian Layer
3 to 5 layers of flattened dells, diamond-shaped,
vesikular-nuclei absent.
Cytoplasm contains kerato hvaline granules.
Superficial cells:
The nuclei dissolved
The granules increased
The cells die, and soft. Keratin is formed.


Homogenous, translucent layer, very thin as a clear,
bright, line.
Consist of 3-5 cells, flattened and closely packed,
nuclei absent.
Cytoplasm contains eledin.
Consist of clear,scale-like. Dead cells. (Nuclei absent)
Eleidin transformed into soft-keratin (Horney scales)
I. Papillary layer : Finer and looser texture.
II. Reticular layer : Irregular dense T.C


Epidermis :
Thin epidermis
Fever layers : - STR. SPINOSUM is thinner
- STR. GRANULOSUM do not form a distinct
continous layer
- STR. LUCIDIUM is absent
- STR. CORNEUM is relatively thin
Dermis :
= Thick skin
The thinnest = The skin covering the eyelid: 0,5 mm
The thickest = Covering the shoulders and the back : 5 mm
Unbranched, coiled, tubular GLD.
Secretory Portion : - Lined by a simple columnar or coboidal
- Distinct basal lamina
- Nucleus is spherical
- Myoepithelial cells (+)
- Is situated deeply in the dermis or in the hypodermis

Excretory Portion : - Lined by a double layers of darkly stainning

cuboidal cells
- Basal lamina (+)
- Myoepithelial cells (-)
- To reach the free surface, where it open to a minute pit, the
sweat, pore..
2. Apocrine Glands :
Less coiling, the lumen is much wider
Found in the axilla, areola mammae, labia majora,
ceruminous and GLD. Of mole.
Holocrine type
Alveolar ( saccular) glD. That synthesize lipid (sebum)
Their duct open into the neck of the hair. Follicle.
Their ducts open directly upon the free surface of the skin: lans
penis, Labia minora.
The palms and the soles(-)
Processes in the sebaceous GLD :
- The proliferation of the cells at the basal layer
- The pushing of the extra cells formed toward the center of the
- The accumulation of fatty material in the cytoplasm of these
- The necrosis of these cells
Eye brows and eye lashes
Elastic keratinized threads
Developed from epidermis
Consist of :
1. Central Medulla : Consist soft keratin
2. Cortex : - Consist of tapering, spindle shaped,
cornified cells.
- several layers
- Contains hard, keratin
- The pigment in the cells of the cortexthat give the
colour of hair

3. Cuticle : Consist of very thin, single layer, flat, scalelike cells.

Medulla : Consist of 2-3 layers of cornified, cuboidal cells, contains

soft keratin
Hair Consist of :
1. Free shaft
2. Root : - Embedded in the skin
- Enclosing by a tubular hair. Follicle.
Hair Follicle
1. External connective tissue sheath
Dermal root sheath : derived from the dermis
Is composed of 3 layers :
a. Outer layer : Reticular layer of the dermis
b. Middle layer : Papillary layer of the dermis
c. Inner layer : -is a homogenous narrow band
- glassy membrane
- Basal membrane
2. Internal Ephitelial Root Sheat
Derived from epidermis
a. Outer epithelial root sheath
- Contains of layers of polygnal cells (str. Spinosum)
b. Inner ephithelial root sheath
- keratin sheath
- contains soft keratin
- consist of 3 layers = - Henles Layer
is a single layer of flattened clear cells cotains
hyaline fibrils.
- Huxleys Layer
consist of several rows of elongated cells, whose
cythoplash contain tricho, hyaline granules and
bundles of tonofibrils
Nuclei are pyknotic or absent
- The Cuticle of the root Sheath
a single layer of transparent horny scales
interdigitated with the cuticle of the hair.

Nail plate = hard keratin
Nail bed
Nail groove
nail - wall