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ASSESSMENT

OF
LEARNING
Assessment of
Learning
It focuses on the development and
utilization of assessment tools to
improve the teaching-learning process.
It emphasizes on the use of testing for
measuring knowledge, comprehension
and other thinking skills. It allows the
students to go through the standard
steps in test constitution for quality
assessment. Students will experience
how to develop rubrics for
performance-based and portfolio
assessment.
I. BASIC CONCEPTS in
ASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENT is the process of gathering
information about students what they know and
can do.

MEASUREMENT refers to the quantitative


aspect of evaluation. It involves outcomes that can
be quantified statistically. It can also be defined as
the process in determining and differentiating the
information about the attributes or characteristics
of things.
I. BASIC CONCEPTS in
ASSESSMENT
Evaluation is the process of interpreting and
making judgments about assessment
information.
It is qualitative aspect of determining the
outcomes of learning. It involves value judgment.
Evaluation is more comprehensive than
measurement. In fact, measurement is one
aspect of evaluation.
EVALUATION is the process of
gathering evidence regarding the
problem and progress of individuals in
achieving desirable educational goals.
Chief Purpose of Evaluation
The improvement of the individual
learner
Other Purposes of Evaluation
To maintain standard
To select students
To motivate learning
To guide learning
To furnish instruction
To appraise educational
instrumentalities
Evaluation and the Teaching-Learning
Process
Teaching, Learning and Evaluation are three
interdependent aspects of the educative process.
This interdependent is clearly seen when the main
purpose of instruction is conceived in terms of
helping pupils achieve a set of learning outcomes
which include changes in the intellectual,
emotional or physical domains. Instructional
objectives or desired changes in the pupils are
brought about by planned activities and pupils
progress is evaluated by tests and other devices.
This integration of evaluation into teaching-learning
process can be seen in the following stages of the
process:
Setting instructional objectives
Determining pupil variables that
can affect instruction
Providing instructional activities
that are relevant and necessary to
achieve the desired learning
outcomes.
Determining the extent to which
desired outcomes are achieved
Principles of Educational Evaluation
Evaluation must be based on the
previously accepted educational
objectives.
Evaluation should be continuous
comprehensive and cumulative
process.
Evaluation should recognize that the
total individual personality is involved
in learning.
Principles of Educational Evaluation
Evaluation should be democratic and
cooperative.

Evaluation should be positive and


action-directed.

Evaluation should give opportunity to


the pupil to become increasingly
independent in self-appraisal and self-
direction.
Principles of Educational Evaluation
Evaluation should include all
significant evidence from every
possible source.
Evaluation should take into
consideration the limitations of the
particular educational situations.
Measurement
Is a part of the educational evaluation process
whereby some tools or instruments are used to
provide a quantitative description of the progress
of students towards desirable educational goals.

Test or Testing
Is a systematic procedure to determine the
presence or absence of certain characteristics or
qualities in a learner. It consists of questions or
exercises or other devices for measuring the
outcomes of learning.
Types of Evaluation

PLACEMENT
Evaluation accounts for a students entry
behavior or performance. It determines the
knowledge and skills he possesses which are
necessary at the beginning of instruction in a given
subject area.
Types of Evaluation
FORMATIVE
Evaluation provides the students with feedback
regarding his success or failure in attaining
instructional objectives. It identifies the specific
learning errors that need to be corrected and
provides reinforcement for successful performance
as well. For teacher, formative evaluation provides
information for making instruction and remedial
work more effective.
Types of Evaluation
DIAGNOSTIC
Evaluation is used to detect students learning
difficulties which are not revealed by formative
tests or checked by remedial instruction and other
instructional adjustments.
Types of Evaluation
SUMMATIVE
Evaluation is concerned with what students
have learned. This implies that the instructional
activity has for the most part been completed and
that little correction of learning deficiencies is
possible.
II. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

1. Clarity of Learning Targets


a. Cognitive Targets
Blooms Hierarchy of Educational Objectives

Level 1. KNOWLEDGE which refers to the acquisition


of facts, concepts and theories.
Level 2. COMPREHENSION refers to the same
concept as understanding. It is a step higher than
mere acquisition of facts and involves a cognition or
awareness of the interrelationship of facts and
concepts.
II. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

1. Clarity of Learning Targets


a. Cognitive Targets
Blooms Hierarchy of Educational Objectives

Level 3. APPLICATION refers to the transfer of


knowledge from one field of study to another or from
one concept to another concept in the same
discipline.
Level 4. ANALYSIS refers to the breaking down of a
concept or idea into its components and explaining
the concept as composition of these concepts.
II. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

1. Clarity of Learning Targets


a. Cognitive Targets
Blooms Hierarchy of Educational Objectives

Level 5. SYNTHESIS refers to the opposite of analysis


and entails putting together the components in order
to summarize the concept.
Level 6. EVALUATION AND REASONING refers to
valuing and judgment or putting the worth of a
concept or principle.
1. Clarity of Learning Targets

b. Skills, Competencies and


Abilities Targets
Skills refers to specific activities or tasks that a
student can proficiently do.

c. Products, Outputs and Projects


Targets
Products, outputs and projects are tangible and
concrete evidence of students ability.
II. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

2. Appropriateness of Assessment
Methods
a. Written-Response Instruments
Objective Tests
b. Product Rating scales
c. Performance Test
Checklist
d. Oral Questioning
e. Observation and Self Reports
Self-checklist
II. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

3. Properties of Assessment Methods


a. Validity
Appropriateness, correctness,
meaningfulness and usefulness
Content Validity content and format of the
instrument
Face Validity the outward appearance of the
test
Criterion Validity the degree to which the
item measures the criterion
Construct Validity loads highly on a given
construct or factor
VALIDITY the degree to which a test
measures what it is intended to
measure. It is the usefulness of the test
for a given measure.
II. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

3. Properties of Assessment Methods


b. Reliability
consistency

RELIABILITY the degree to which


measures what it really measures.
The test of reliability is the
consistency of the results when it
is administered.
II. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

3. Properties of Assessment Methods

c. Fairness
d. Practicality and
Efficiency
c. Ethics in Assessment