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HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS Symptoms
Many people with HIV do not know they
are infected.
a flu-like illness within several days to
weeks after exposure to the virus.
These symptoms usually disappear on

their own within a few weeks


After that, the person feels normal and
has no symptoms. This asymptomatic
phase often lasts for years
HIV/AIDS

The progression of disease


varies widely among individuals.
This state may last from a few
months to more than 10 years
During this period, the virus
continues to multiply actively and
infects and kills the cells of the
immune system.
The virus destroys the cells that are
the primary infection fighters, called
CD4 cells.
AIDS is the later stage of HIV
infection, when the body begins
losing its ability to fight infections

Once the CD4 cell count falls low


enough, an infected person is said
to have AIDS.
Sometimes, the diagnosis of AIDS is
made because the person has
unusual infections or cancers that
show how weak the immune system.
The infections that happen with AIDS
are called opportunistic infections
because they take advantage of the
opportunity to infect a weakened
host.
opportunistic infections
pneumonia caused by
Pneumocystis, which causes
wheezing ,
brain infection with toxoplasmosis
which can cause trouble
thinking or symptoms that mimic a
stroke,
widespread infection with a bacteria
called MAC (mycobacterium avium
complex) which can cause fever
and weight loss,
Here are a few key points
about the disease
Globally, 85% of HIV transmission is heterosexual .
In the United States, approximately one-third of new
diagnoses appear to be related to heterosexual
transmission. Male-to-male sexual contact still accounts for
approximately half of new diagnoses in the U.S. Intravenous
drug use contributes to the remaining cases. Because the
diagnosis may occur years after infection, it is likely that a
higher proportion of recent infections are due to
heterosexual transmission.
Infections in women are increasing. Worldwide, 42% of
people with HIV are women. In the United States,
approximately 25% of new diagnoses are in women, and the
proportion is rising.
There is good news on one front: New HIV infections in U.S.
children have fallen dramatically, with only 38 cases
reported in 2006. This is largely a result of testing and
treating infected mothers, as well as establishing uniform
testing guidelines for blood products.
Transmission

HIV Must Be Present

There Needs to Be Enough


Virus
HIV Must Get into the
Bloodstream
Paths of Infection

HIV can be transmitted through:


Unprotected vaginal, anal
and oral sex.
Direct blood contact, which may
occur through needle sharing,
transfusions , accidents in
health care settings, or certain
blood products.
Mother to baby; before or during
birth or through breast milk
Infectious Fluids

HIV can be transmitted from an


infected person to another through:
Blood
Semen (including pre-seminal

fluid)
Vaginal secretions

HIV can also be transmitted through

breast milk-expressed through feeding,


in limited circumstances where there is
exposure to large quantities
Non-Infectious Fluids

Saliva
Urine
Tears
Sweat
Feces
Vomit
Insects

are NOT considered infectious


HIV Transmission Routes

Sexual Transmission
HIV can be transmitted through
sexual intercourse, both vaginal
and anal
HIV can also be transmitted
through oral sex
Conditions such as bleeding gums
and poor oral health
increase the risk of transmission and
through oral sex
Non-sexual Transmission

Sharing Needles
Tattoos and Piercing
Blood Transfusions
Other Blood Products
Mother to Infant Transmission
Treatment of HIV Infection

Currently, there are 30 antiretroviral


drugs approved by the Food and
Drug Administration to treat people
infected with HIV.
Currently available drugs do not
cure HIV infection or AIDS
They can suppress the virus,
even to undetectable levels, but they
cannot eliminate HIV from the body