Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 132

ASME SECTION IX

S.SINGARAVELU
SM/ WTC
QUALIFICATION STANDARD FOR
WELDING AND BRAZING
PROCEDURES,WELDERS,BRAZERS,
AND WELDERS AND BRAZING
OPERATORS.
BOARDBOARD
OF
COMMITTEES
GOVERNORS
OF TECHNICAL
& TECHNICAL
GROUPS DIVISIONS
(37)
SUB
SUB GROUP ONMEMBER
COMMITTEE
HONORARY ON WELDING (SC IX)
CONTENTS
PART QW : WELDING
PART QB : BRAZING
APPENDICES:
- A : Mandatory Submittal of Tech enquiry
- B : Non Mandatory- Welding & Brazing Forms
- D : Non Mandatory P number Listing
- E : Mandatory- Permitted SWPSs
-F : Mandatory -Standard units used in equations
- G : Non Mandatory- Guidance for use of US
Customary & SI units in ASME code.
TITLE QW WELDING QB BRAZING

General ARTICLE I and ARTICLE XI


Requirements Appendix I QB- 100
( Rounded Indication
Charts) QW- 100
Procedure ARTICLE II ARTICLE XII
Requirements QW- 200 QB- 200
Performance ARTICLE III ARTICLE XIII
Requirements QW- 300 QB-300
DATA ARTICLE IV ARTICLE XIV
QW -400 QB-400
Standard Welding ARTICLE V
Procedure QW -500
Specifications
QW-100
QW-110 Weld orientation
QW-120 Test positions for Groove welds
QW-130 Test positions for Fillet welds
QW-140 Types and Purpose of test and Examinations
QW-150 Tension Tests
QW-160 Guided Bend Tests
QW-170 Notch- Toughness Tests
QW-180 Fillet- Weld Tests
QW-190 Other Tests and Examinations
QW-200
QW-210 Preparation of Test Coupon
QW-250 Welding Variables
QW-290 Temper Bead Welding
QW-300
QW-310 Qualification Test Coupons
QW-320 Retests and Renewal of Qualification
QW-350 Welding Variables for Welders
QW-360 Welding Variables for Welding
operators
QW-380 Special processes
QW-400
QW-410 Technique
QW-420 Material Groupings
QW-430 F-Numbers
QW-440 Weld Metal Chemical Composition
QW-450 Specimens
QW-460 Graphics
QW-470 Etching- Processes and Reagents
QW-490 Definitions
QW-500
QW-510 Adoption of SWPSs
QW-520 Use of SWPSs Without Discrete
Demonstration
QW-530 Forms
QW-540 Production Use of SWPSs
RESPONSIBILITY
MANUFACTURER- Operational Control
PREPARTION OF WELDING &
SPECIMENS , TESTING-Sub contracted.
Welder/operator-Full Supervision & Control
of the manufacturer.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Degree of quality required is ascertained based on

1. Application needs

2. Standard to be established based on service needs

3. Consideration of the engineering performance and


safety factors.
Five Ps Assure Quality
1. Process selection.The process selected
must be the most appropriate one for the
job under the given conditions on all
considerations.
2. Preparation.The joint configuration must
be right and compatible with the welding
process.
Five Ps Assure Quality
3.Procedure.To assure uniform results, the
process must be clearly spelled out in detail
and followed religiously during welding.
4.Pretesting. By a full- scale mock-up test, the
process,preparation,and procedures are
proved to have the desired standard of
quality.
Five Ps Assure Quality
5.Personnel. Personnel assigned for the job
shall be qualified to perform the assigned
tasks.
WPS Welding Procedure Specification

PQR Procedure Qualification Record


WELDING PROCEDURE
SPECIFICATION
The welding procedure specification(WPS) is a
proposal for welding a joint between two specified
base metals. The purpose of a WPS is to define and
document the details that are to be carried out in
specific materials or parts. To fulfill the purpose
efficiently, the WPS should be as concise and clear as
possible with out extraneous details.
From a designers point of view,the properties of the
weld joint are designated as follows:
1.Yield stress
2.Ultimate tensile strength
3.Percentage elongation
4.Impact strength and so on
The welding procedure specifications are written
exactly to these property requirements on to
relevant welding parameters comprising of
mainly two factors;
1.Physical soundness (free from discontinuities)
2.Metallurgical compatibility
Physical soundness is related to the mode of
deposition. In other words ,the process
techniques are influenced by the skill of the
welder or welding machine operator.
Metallurgical compatibility is by itself dependent
upon the chemical composition of the weld
metal, filler metal,flux or gas,and the heat cycles
the weldment undergoes during welding and post
weld heat treatment.
Radiography can give conclusive account of
physical soundness of the weld,where as the
metallurgical compatibility is revealed only by
conducting a mechanical test.
Purpose of WPS & PQR

To determine that the Weldment proposed


for construction is capable of having the
required properties for its intended
application
BASIC INFORMATION FOR
THE WPS
The information needed for the WPS includes
1.Base metals to be joined
2.Typical weld joint configuration
3.Dimensions of parts to be joined
4.Welding process to be employed
Of these,the first three details could be gathered
from either the purchase order or the technical
specification or from the applicable standards,whereas
the fourth could be decided based on the manufacture
experience.
WPS
A written document that provides direction to
the welder or welding operator for making
production welds in accordance with the
CODE requirements. It establishes the
properties of the weldment, not the skill of
the welder.
PQR
Shall document what occurred during welding
the test coupon and results of testing of the
coupon.
As a minimum, the PQR shall document all the
essential variables and other specific
information for each process used during
welding the test coupon and the results of the
required testing.
PROCEDURE
QUALIFICATION RECORD
The five basic steps involved in the
qualification of a welding procedure are
1.Preparation and welding of suitable samples
2.Testing of representative specimens
3.Evaluation of overall preparation,
welding,testing,and end results
4.Possible changes in procedure
5.Approval
As per ASME Section IX,
Test requirements for a procedure qualification
record(PQR) are spelled out in QW 451,
Test specimens in QW 462,
Preparation of samples in QW 463.
Acceptance criteria for welding are specified in
QW 150,QW 160,QW 170,QW 180,and QW 190.
The suggested format for the preparation of PQR
is given QW 483)
WELDING VARIABLES
Depending on their influence on obtaining the desired
quality weldments, the welding parameters are listed and
classifieds as essential,supplementary essential,and non
essential variables.
These welding variables are described in article IV:
Welding Data under clauses QW 400 to Qw410.
For a process under consideration,only a few among
them may be applicable,and these are given in sections
QW252 to QW 265 for welding procedure and QW352 to
QW 357 for performance qualification,and QW 361 to
QW384 for welding machine operators, special
processes,etc., against each welding process.
Variables

Essential

Non-essential

Supplementary
essential
Essential variables
Essential variables are those in which a change,as
described in specific variables,is considered to affect
mechanical properties of the weldment and shall require
requalification of the WPS.
Supplementary Essential variables
Supplementary Essential variables are those variables
which are also to be considered essential variables when
other sections of the code call for notch toughness
testing.
Non Essential variables
Non Essential variables are those in which a change,as
described in specific variables, may be made in the WPS
with out requalification.
Essential Variables

A change in welding condition which will


affect the mechanical properties of the
weldment.
e.g.: A) Change in P Number
B) Filler metal
C) Electrode
D) PWHT, etc.
Non Essential Variables

A change in welding condition which will


NOT affect the mechanical properties of
the weldment.

e.g. : A) Change in Joint Design


B) Methods of Back gouging
C) Cleaning. etc.
Supplementary Essential
Variables
A change in welding condition which will
affect the Notch-Toughness (Impact)
properties of the weldment.

e.g. : A) Change in Heat input


B) Uphill or Down Vertical welding

C) Diameter of Electrode
D) Position, etc.
Points to be considered for
establishing WPS
Code Contract/Customer/
of construction
Code/TPI
Detailed drawing of
Preheat/Postheat/ PWHT
weldment requirements
Material Skilled welder
Thickness Good welding m/c with
Configuration accessories
Application
Process
WPS FLOW DIAGRAM

Release of WPS with out PQR for


Procedure Qualification Test (QW 482)

Procedure Qualification Test


(Welding and Testing)

Release PQR(QW483)

Issue the WPS for performance


Revise the WPS with Qualification Test
PQR (QW482)
performance Qualification Test
Issue the WPS for production
Issue the manufacturers record of
Welds (QW 482)
welder/operator Qualification

Add on to welders list Add on to renewal Log sheet

PRODUCTION WELDS Selection of welder or Renewal of performance


operator Qualification
Client spec+code+Drawing Applicable ASME Code+Client Specification+drawing

Welding process for all joints+essential/supplementary


Decision on welding process essential variables to be specified

Selection of PQR from past records Select a PQR from the past data matching essential /
supplementary essential variables of the job

WPS for specific job


NO Release of WPS for job
(QW 482)

Preparation of draft WPS (QW482) Release of draft WPS-R0 with out PQR

Procedure Qualification Test Welding procedure Qualification test as per QW 483

DT & NDT to yield acceptable results as per QW


DT and NDT
150,160,170,180 or 302 as acceptable

Preparation of PQR based on test results + consequential


Preparation of PQR (QW 483)
qualification of the welder

Release of WPS Rev 1 for work Release of WPS R1 with all essential, supplementary
essential and non essential variables

Certification of WPS by third party Documentation for future use


Inspection Agency
CONTENTS

OF

WPS / PQR
IX recommends formats for WPS in QW 482 wherein the
following details shall be filled in:
1.Joints QW 402
2.Base metals QW 403
3.Filler metals QW 404
4.Positions QW 405
5.Preheat QW 406
6.Post weld heat treatment QW 407
7.Gas QW 408
8.Electrical characteristics QW 409
9.Techniques QW 410
The details are to be filled in depending on applicability to
the particular welding process selected in the WPS.
Joints (QW-402)

Joint Design
(V-groove, U-groove, Single-bevel
etc.)

Backing
(YES/NO)

Backing Material Type


(Metal/Non-fusing Metal/Non-
metallic/Others)
Base Metals (QW-403)

P.Number & Group Number


Specification Type & Grade OR
Chemical Analysis & Mechanical Properties

Thickness Range
Groove : ______ Fillet:______

PipeDiameter Range
Groove : ______ Fillet :_______
Thickness Range
Range of Thickness T of Base Metal,
Thickness T of Test Coupon, Qualified (mm) Maximum Thickness t of Deposited
Welded, (mm) Weld Metal, Qualified, (mm)
Min. Max.

Less than 1.5 T 2T 2t

1.5 to 10, incl. 1.5 2T 2t

Over 10, but less than 19 5 2T 2t

19 to less than 38 5 2T 2t when t < 19

2T when t > 19

38 and over 5 200 2t when t < 19

200 when t > 19


Filler Metals (QW-404)
AWS Classification Size of Filler metal
SFA Number
Flux trade name
F. Number
Consumable insert
A. Number
Electrode flux class

Deposited Weld Metal Thickness range


Groove: ______
Fillet:______
F - NUMBERS

F-Number grouping of electrodes &


welding rods is based essentially on their
usability characteristics to reduce the
number of tests required to qualify
procedures and welders.
A - NUMBERS

Used to describe the weld deposit chemistry


and is applicable only to the ferrous metals
for the qualification of a welding procedure.
Position (QW-405)
Position Of Groove

Position Of Fillet

Weld Progression (UP/DOWN)

Others
Preheat (QW-406)
Preheat Temperature (min.)

Interpass Temperature (max.)

Preheat Maintenance

Others
PWHT (QW-407)
Temperature Range

Time Range

Others
Preheat & PWHT requirement
based on Diameter, Thickness
and Composition of
Base Material
GAS (QW-408)
Gas Mix % Flow Rate

Shielding

Trailing

Backing
Electrical Characteristics (QW-409)

Current (AC/DC)
Polarity (EP/EN)
Amps & Volts
W-Electrode type & size
Mode of Metal Transfer (GMAW)
Electrode Wire Feed Speed range
Techniques (QW-410)
Stringer or Weave Bead
Orifice/Gas Cup Size
Initial or Interpass Cleaning
Method of Back Gauging
Oscillation
Contact Tip to Work Distance
Multiple or Single Pass (per side)
Multiple or Single Electrode
Electrode Spacing
Peening
Others
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED Form No.
TIRUCHIRAPALLI-620014 101-403
WELDING TECHNOLOGY CENTRE
PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD
Page 1 of 2

Procedure Qualification Record No : Date :


WPS No : Type :
Welding Process : (Auto,Semi-Auto,Manual,Machine)

JOINTS (QW-402) BASE METALS (QW-403)


Matl. Specn. :
Type or Grade :
P. No. :
Thickness :
Size :
Groove Design used Others :

FILLER METALS (QW-404) POSITION (QW-405)


AWS No. (Class) : Welding Position :
SFA : Weld Progression :
Filler Metal F No. : (Uphill/Downhill)
(Weld Metal Analysis) A No : Others: :
Filler metal size : PREHEAT (QW-406)
Preheat temp. :
Deposited weld Metal thickness : Interpass temp. :
Postheat :
Brand : Others :

PWHT (QW-407) GAS (QW-408) Gas Mixture(%) Flow rate


Temperature : Shielding : ----- ------ -----
Time : Trailing : ----- ------ -----
Others : Backing : ----- ------ -----

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (QW-409) TECHNIQUE (QW-410)


Current : Polarity: String/Weave Bead :
Amps : Oscillation :
Volt : Multipass or single pass :
ROL (mm/Electrode) : Multiple or single electrode:
Tungsten Electrode type and size: Travel speed :
Mode of metal Transfer: Others :
Others :
BHEL Page 2 of 2
Tiruchirappalli-14 PQR No.:

TENSILE TEST (QW-150)


Specimen Width Thickness Area Ultimate Ultimate Failure
No. mm mm mm Total Load Unit Stress Location
kN N/mm

GUIDED BEND TESTS (QW-160)

Type & Result Type & Result


Fig No. QW-462.2 Fog No. QW-462.2

TOUGHNESS TEST (QW-170)


Specimen Notch Notch Test Impact Values Lateral Exp. Drop Weight
No Location Type Temp. Kg.m
CVN2mm C %Shear Mills Break No
Break

FILLET WELD TEST (QW-180)


Result-Satisfactory (Yes/No) :
Macro Results (Yes/No) :
Penetration into Parent metal (Yes/No) :

OTHER TESTS
Type of Test :
Result :
Report No. :
Deposit analysis :
Others :

Welders Name: Stamp No.:


Test conducted by: BHEL Plant Laboratory Test No. :
We certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test welds were prepared ,
welded and tested in accordance with the requirements of Sec IX of the ASME code Edition 2004 and
addenda July 2005.

Approved by : Prepared by :

(XXXXXXXX) (XXXXXXXX)
XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED Form No.
TIRUCHIRAPPALLI-620014 101 - 401
WELDING TECHNOLOGY CENTRE
WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION
Page 1 of 2

WPS No. : Date : Supporting


Rev No. : Date : ---- PQR No:
Welding Process : Type :
(Auto/Semi-Auto/Manual/Machine)
Application :

JOINTS (QW-402)
Joint Design :.
Backing (Yes/No) :
Backing Material (Type) :
Metal/Non fusing metal
Non metallic/Others

BASE METAL (QW-403)


P.No.: Group No.: TO P.No.: Group No.:
Spec. Type & Grade : .
Chem. Analysis & Mech. Prop. : .
Thickness Range :-
Groove : Fillet :
Pipe Diameter Range :-
Groove : Fillet :
Others :

FILLER METALS (QW-404)


AWS No.(Class) : Size of filler metal :
Specn. No.(SFA) : Flux trade Name :
F.No. : Consumable insert :
A.No. : Electrode flux class :
Deposited weld metal thickness range :-
Groove :
Fillet :

POSITION (QW-405) PREHEAT (QW-406)


Position of Groove : Preheat Temp. (min) :
Position of Fillet : Inter pass Temp. (max) :
Weld Progression : Post heat :
(Up/Down) Others :
BHEL Page 2 of 2
Tiruchirappalli 14 WPS No : Rev :

PWHT(QW-407) GAS ( QW - 408)


Gases Mix % flow Rt
Temp. Range : Shielding : --- ---
Time Range : Trailing : --- ---
Others : Backing : --- ---

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ( QW 409 )


Current (AC/DC) : See table Polarity : See table
Amps (Range) : See table Volts : See table
Tungsten Electrode type and size : .
Mode of Metal transfer for (GMAW) : .
Electrode wire feed speed range : .
Pulsing current (GTAW) : .

TECHNIQUES (QW-410)
String or Weave Bead
Orifice or Gas cup size :
Initial and Interpass Cleaning : Brushing / Chipping / Grinding.
Method of Back Gouging : .
Oscillation :
Contact tube to work distance :
Multiple or single pass (per side) :
Multiple or single Electrode :
Electrode spacing : .
Peening :
Others : Nil
Filler Current Others (Hot
Weld Process Class Dia. Type Amps. Voltage Travel speed wire,Torch
Layer mm. Range Range angle,ROL.)

Root &
Capping

Others

-- do --

Approved by : Prepared by :

(xxxxxxxxx) (xxxxxxxxxxxx)
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Weldgroove
Plate Orientation
positions 1G, 2G, 3G,
4G
Pipe groove positions 1G, 2G, 5G,
6G
Plate fillet positions 1F, 2F, 3F, 4F
Pipe fillet positions 1F, 2F, 2FR, 4F,
5F
1F - 0 to 30
2F - +15 -10 wrt 45
4F - 0 - 125
3F - 125 - 235
GMAW in different
positions
1F

2F
Flat Horizont
Fillet welding of plate al

3F
4F overhead
Vertical
Base Metal Classification
P nos depend on composition,
weldability & mechanical
properties.
Group nos classify metals within P
nos for procedure qualification
where notch toughness
requirements are specified. But
base metals can not be
indiscriminately substituted.
P. No. & COMMON TUBES PIPES PLATES FORGINGS CASTINGS
Gr. No NAME
P1 Gr1 CARBON SA179 SA106GrB SA36 SA266CL1 SA216WCA
STEELS SA192 SA333Gr1 SA515Gr55 SA350LF1 SA352LCA
SA210GrA1 SA333Gr6 SA515Gr60 SA352LCB
SA334Gr1 SA515Gr65
SA334Gr6 SA516Gr55
SA516Gr60
SA516Gr65
P1 Gr2 -do- SA210GrC SA106GrC SA515Gr70 SA105 SA216WCB
SA516Gr70 SA266CL2S SA216WCC
SA299 SA350LF2 SA352LCC
OTHER -do- IS1239 API5LGrB IS226
SPEC. IS2062
BMC10
BMC16
BMC20
P3 Gr1 C Mo SA209T1 SA335P1 SA204GrA SA217WC1
Cr 1/2Mo SA213T2 SA335Gr2 SAA387Gr2
P4 Gr1 1Cr MO SA213T12 SA335P12 SA387Gr12 SA182F12 SA217WC6
1Cr Mo SA213T11 SA335P11 SA387Gr11 SA182F11
P5A Gr1 2, Cr 1Mo SA213T22 SA335P22 SA387Gr22 SA182F22 SA217WC9
P5B Gr2 9Cr1Mo V SA213T91 SA335P91 SA387Gr91 SA182F91
SA199T91
P8 Gr1 18Cr 8Ni SA213TP304 SA376TP304 SA240TP304 SA182F304 SA351CF3
SA213TP304H SA376TP304H SA240TP321 SA182F321 SA351CF8
SA213TP316 SA376TP316 SA240TP347 SA182F347 SA351CF3M
SA213TP321 SA376TP321 SA336F304 SA351CF8M
SA213TP347 SA376TP347 SA336F321 SA351CF10
SA213TP347H SA376TP347H SA336F347 SA351CF10M
P8 Gr2 25Cr-20Ni SA213TP310H SA240TP310 SA182F310 SA351CK20
(Type 310)
Base Metal P Numbers

P1 - P11 Steel
P21 - P25 Al alloys
P31 - P35 Cu alloys
P41 - P47 Ni alloys
P51 - P53 Ti alloys
P61 - P62 Zr alloys
Base Metal P Numbers
Examples of P nos
P1 C Steel
P3 1/2 Mo steels
P4 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steels
P5A 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels
P6 13 Cr steel
P7 17 Cr steel
P8 ASS
P9A 2 1/2 Ni steels
P10A Mn - 1/2 Ni - V steels
P11 9 Ni steels
Base Metal P Numbers
Examples of P nos
P1 C Steel
P3 1/2 Mo steels
P4 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steels
P5A 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels
P6 13 Cr steel
P7 17 Cr steel
P8 ASS
P9A 2 1/2 Ni steels
P10A Mn - 1/2 Ni - V steels
P11 9 Ni steels
Base Metal for WPS
Test Coupon Base Metal
qualified
Px - Px Px
Px - Py Px - Py
P3 - P3 P3 ( P3 / P1)
P4 - P4 P4 ( P4 / P3 / P1)
P5A - P5A P5A ( P5A / P4 / P3 / P1)
P5A (P4 / P3 / P1) P5A (P4 / P3 / P1)
P4 (P3 / P1) P4 (P3 / P1)
BM used for procedure qualification coupon Base Metals Qualified
One metal from a P-No. to any metal from the Any metal assigned that P or S No.
same P-No.
One metal from a P-No. to any metal from the Any metal assigned the 1st P or S No. to any
any other P-No. metal assigned the 2nd P or S No.
One metal from P-No. 3 to any metal from P-No. Any P or S No. 3 metal to any metal
3 assigned P or S No. 3 or 1
One metal from P-No. 4 to any metal from P-No. Any P or S No. 4 metal to any metal
4 assigned P or S No. 4, 3 or 1
One metal from P-No. 5A to any metal from P- Any P or S No. 5A metal to any metal
No. 5A assigned P or S No. 5A, 4, 3 or 1
One metal from P-No. 5A to any metal from P- Any P or S No. 5A metal to any metal
No. 4, 3 or 1 assigned P or S No. 4, 3 or 1
One metal from P-No. 4 to any metal from P-No. Any P or S No. 4 metal to any metal
3 or 1 assigned P or S No. 3 or 1
Any unassigned metal to the same unassigned The unassigned metal to itself
metal
Any unassigned metal to any P-No. metal The unassigned metal to any metal assigned
to the same P or S No. as the qualified metal
Any unassigned metal to any other unassigned The first unassigned metal to the second
metal unassigned metal
S - Number
They are mostly ASTM specification
materials that have not been adopted within
Section II, Part D but that are referred within
Code Cases and the ASME B31 Code.
e.g. A 588 Gr A S-No. 3
Group No. 1
A 576 G10100 S-No. 1
Group No. 1
SFA NO. DESCRIPTION
5.01 Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines
5.1 Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5.2 Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxy Fuel Gas Welding
5.3 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5.4 Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5.5 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5.6 Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes
5.7 Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes
5.8 Filler Metal for Brazing and Braze Welding
5.9 Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods
5.10 Bare Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
5.11 Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
5.12 Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting
5.13 Solid Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes
5.14 Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods
5.15 Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron
5.16 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Rods and Electrodes
5.17 Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
5.18 Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
5.19
5.20 Carbon steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
5.21 Composite Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes
5.22 SS Electrodes for FCAW and SS Flux Cored Rods for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
5.23 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
5.24 Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
5.25 Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electro-slag Welding
5.26 Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electro-gas Welding
5.27
5.28 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
5.29 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
5.30 Consumable Inserts
5.31 Fluxes and Brazing and Braze Welding
5.32 Welding Shielding Gases
F-Number Description
1 CS, LAS and certain SS (EXX2X) electrodes
2 CS titania-coated (EXX12, EXX13, EXX14 & EXX19)
electrodes
3 CS cellulose-coated (EXX10 & EXX11) electrodes
4 CS & LAS all position, low hydrogen (EXX15, EXX16,
EXX18 & EXX48) electrodes & martensitic, ferritic &
ppt. hardening SS all position (EXX15, EXX16 &
EXX17) electrodes
5 Austenitic and duplex SS all-position (EXX15, EXX16
& EXX17) electrodes
6 Solid, Flux-cored & composite ferrous electrodes & rods
--- ---
Filler Metal F Numbers
Based on usability characteristics
i.e ability of welders to make
satisfactory welds with given filler
F1 E XX20
F2 E XX12, E XX13
F3 E XX10, E XX11
F4 E XX18
F5 ASS, Duplex SS
F6 Bare rods
F - NUMBERS (QW - 432)
Steel and Steel Alloys
F-No. ASME Classification AWS Classification F-No. ASME Classification AWS Classification

1 SFA-5.1 EXX20 4 SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex EXXX(X)-15


1 SFA-5.1 EXX22 4 SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex EXXX(X)-16
1 SFA-5.1 EXX24 4 SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex EXXX(X)-17
1 SFA-5.1 EXX27 4 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX15-X
1 SFA-5.1 EXX28 4 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX16-X
1 SFA-5.4 EXXX(X)-25 4 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX18-X
1 SFA-5.4 EXXX(X)-26 4 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX18M
1 SFA-5.5 EXX20-X 4 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX18M1
1 SFA-5.5 EXX27-X
5 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex EXXX(X)-15
5 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex EXXX(X)-16
2 SFA-5.1 EXX12
5 SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex EXXX(X)-17
2 SFA-5.1 EXX13
2 SFA-5.1 EXX14
6 SFA-5.2 All classifications
2 SFA-5.1 EXX19
6 SFA-5.9 All classifications
2 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX13-X
6 SFA-5.17 All classifications
6 SFA-5.18 All classifications
3 SFA-5.1 EXX10 6 SFA-5.20 All classifications
3 SFA-5.1 EXX11 6 SFA-5.22 All classifications
3 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX10-X 6 SFA-5.23 All classifications
3 SFA-5.5 E(X)XX11-X 6 SFA-5.25 All classifications
6 SFA-5.26 All classifications
4 SFA-5.1 EXX15 6 SFA-5.28 All classifications
4 SFA-5.1 EXX16 6 SFA-5.29 All classifications
4 SFA-5.1 EXX18 6 SFA-5.30 INMs-X
4 SFA-5.1 EXX18M 6 SFA-5.30 IN5XX
4 SFA-5.1 EXX48 6 SFA-5.30 IN3XX(X)
Weld Metal Analysis, % [Single values shown are maximum ]
A-
Types of Weld Deposit
No.
C Cr Mo Ni Mn Si

1 Mild Steel 0.20 1.60 1.00

2 Carbon-Molybdenum 0.15 0.50 0.40-0.65 1.60 1.00

Chrome (0.4% to 2%)-


3 0.15 0.40-2.00 0.40-0.65 1.60 1.00
Molybdenum

Chrome (2% to 6%)-


4 0.15 2.00-6.00 0.40-1.50 1.60 2.00
Molybdenum

Chrome (6% to 10.5%)-


5 0.15 6.00-10.50 0.40-1.50 1.20 2.00
Molybdenum

6 Chrome-Martensitic 0.15 11.00-15.00 0.70 2.00 1.00

7 Chrome-Ferritic 0.15 11.00-30.00 1.00 1.00 3.00

8 Chromium-Nickel 0.15 14.50-30.00 4.00 7.50-15.00 2.50 1.00

9 Chromium-Nickel 0.30 19.00-30.00 6.00 15.00-37.00 2.50 1.00

10 Nickel to 4% 0.15 0.55 0.80-4.00 1.70 1.00

11 Manganese-Molybdenum 0.17 0.25-0.75 0.85 1.25-2.25 1.00

Nickel-Chrome-
12 0.15 1.50 0.25-0.80 1.25-2.80 0.75-2.25 1.00
Molybdenum
Selection of Filler Metal
Tube
P1/Gr1,2 P3/Gr1 P4/Gr1 P5A/Gr1 P5B/Gr2 P8/Gr1,2
Material
ER80S-G ER80S-G ER80S-G ER80S-G
ERNiCr-3
P1/Gr1,2 (RT Mo) (RT Mo) (RT Mo) (RT Mo)
ENiCrFe-3
E7018-1 E7018-1 E7018-1 E7018-1
ER80S-G ER80S-G ER80S-G
P3/Gr1 (RT Mo) (RT Mo) (RT Mo)
E7018-A1 E7018-A1 E7018-A1
ER80S-G ER80S-G ER80S-G
ERNiCr-3
P4/Gr1 (1Cr Mo) (1Cr Mo) (1Cr Mo)
ENiCrFe-3
E8018-B2 E8018-B2 E8018-B2
ER90S-G ER90S-G
ERNiCr-3
P5A/Gr1 (2Cr1Mo) (2Cr1Mo)
ENiCrFe-3
E9018-B3 E9018-B3

ER90S-B9 ERNiCr-3
P5B/Gr2
E9018-B9 ENiCrFe-3
Filler metals suitable for welding joints between
dissimilar austenitic stainless steels

Base Metal 304L 308 309 309S 310 310S 316,316H 316L 317 321,321H 347,347H,348,348H

304,304H,305 308L 308L 308,309 308,309 308,309, 310 308,309, 310 308,316 308,316 308,316, 317 308 308

304L 308L 308,309 308,309 308,309, 310 308,309, 310 308,316 308L,316L 308,316, 317 308L,347 308L,347

308 308,309 308,309 308,309, 310 308,309, 310 308,316 308,316 308,316, 317 308 308,347

309 309 309,310 309,310 308,316 309,316 309,316 309,347 309,347

309S 309,310 309S,310S 308,316 309S,316L 310,317 309,347 309,347

310 316 310,316 317 308,310 308,310

310S 316 316,317 308,310 308,310

316,316H 316 317 308,316 308,316, 347

316L 316L 316L,347

317 308,317 308,317, 347

321,321H 308L,347
Procedure Qualification

When two or more procedures (diff


processes or other essential variables) are
used in one joint, use table for determining
the applicable range of thickness qualified.
Carry out tension test for each weld metal.
One or more processes from a
combination may be deleted provided
remaining metal meets the requirements.
Thickness Range
Range of Thickness T of Base Metal,
Thickness T of Test Coupon, Qualified (mm) Maximum Thickness t of Deposited
Welded, (mm) Weld Metal, Qualified, (mm)
Min. Max.

Less than 1.5 T 2T 2t

1.5 to 10, incl. 1.5 2T 2t

Over 10, but less than 19 5 2T 2t

19 to less than 38 5 2T 2t when t < 19

2T when t > 19

38 and over 5 200 2t when t < 19

200 when t > 19


WPS for SMAW

Essential variables

Change in qualified Thickness


Change in P no
Change in F no of filler metal
Change in A no of filler metal
Change in deposited metal thickness
Decrease of more than 100 F in
preheat
Change in PWHT
WPS for SMAW

Supplementary Essential variables


Change in Group no of base metal
Change in T limits for impact test
Change in dia of filler metal > 1/4
Change in AWS class of filler metal
Change in welding position
Increase of more than 100 F in preheat
Change in PWHT Time and temp range
Change in current or polarity
WPS for SMAW

Non Essential variables


Change in Groove design, backing, root
spacing, retainers etc
Change in dia of filler metal
Change in AWS class of filler metal
Change in welding position
Change in preheat maintenance
Change in current or polarity
Change in string/weave, cleaning, back
gouging, peening, manual/automatic
WPS for GTAW

Essential variables

Change in qualified Thickness


Change in P no
Change in F no & A no of filler metal
Addition/deletion of filler metal
Change in size of filler metal, product
form
Decrease of more than 100 F in preheat
Change in PWHT
WPS for GTAW

Essential variables (cond)

Change in single, mixture % gas


Deletion of backing gas
Change in shielding / trailing gas
Change in Closed to out chamber
technique
Supplementary Essential variables
WPS for GTAW
Change in Group no of base metal
Change in T limits
Change in AWS class of filler metal
Change in welding position
Increase of more than 100 F in
preheat
Change in PWHT Time and temp
range
Change in current/polarity, incr. in
heat input
Change in multi to single pass,
electrodes
WELDING PERFORMANCE
QUALIFICATION
1. Welder, welding operator, and tack welder qualification
tests determine the ability of those tested to produce
acceptably sounds welds with processes, materials, and
procedures called for in the test.
2. The qualification tests are not intended to be used as a
guide for welding during actual construction, but rather
to assess whether an individual normally will or can do
in production.
QUALIFICATION
Welding variables applicable for
performance in QW 350 and QW 360.
Allowable visual,mechanical,and
radiographic examination requirements are
described in QW 304 and QW 305.
Retests and renewal of qualifications are
given in QW 320.
Suggested format for performance
qualification tests is given in QW 484
Welders Performance Qualification

The performance qualification tests


are intended to determine the
ability of welders to make sound
welds
A welder is qualified by radiography
of a test coupon or by radiography
of initial production welding or by
bend tests taken from a test
coupon
Performance Qualification
The basic criterion for welders
qualification is to determine the
welders ability to deposit sound
weld metal. The purpose of
performance qualification test is to
determine the welding operators
mechanical ability to operate the
welding equipment.
Release of WPS Latest Revision Applicable WPS with PQR to be released for the conduct
of welders list

Preparation Welder / Operator Preparation of specimen for the test using materials of
Qualification Tests compatible quality

Welder / Operator Qualification


test

NDT or DT as per ASME NDT & DT as per QW 160, 302 to yield


Section IX satisfactory results

Release of WPQ record Preparation of WPQ Records as per QW 484

Add to list of welder / operators

Add to Renewal test Register Renewal test as required in QW 322


Welders Performance Qualification

Weld Plate & pipe Pipe of OD Fillet


>24OD 2 7/8 - 24

Plate 1F F
Plate 2F F, H
Plate 3F F, H, V
Plate 4F F, H, O
Welders Performance Qualification

Weld Plate & pipe Pipe of ODFillet

>24OD 2 7/8 - 24

Plate 1G F F F
Plate 2G F, H F, H F, H
Plate 3G F, V F F, H, V
Plate 4G F, O F F, H, O
Welders Performance Qualification

Weld Plate & pipe Pipe of OD Fillet


>24OD 2 7/8 - 24

Pipe 1G F F F
Pipe 2G F, H F, H F, H
Pipe 5G F, V, OF, V, O All
Pipe 6G All All All
Pipe 2G + 5GAll All All
Welders Performance Qualification

Weld Plate & pipe Pipe of OD Fillet


>24OD 2 7/8 - 24

Pipe 1F F
Pipe 2F F, H
Pipe 2FR F, H
Pipe 4F F, H, O
Pipe 5F All
Welders Performance Qualification

Thk Max tk of dep. Metal Test


3/8 2t 1FB, 1RB
>3/8 2t 1FB, 1RB
>1/2 Max to be welded 2SB

OD of test coupon Range of OD qualifie


<1 Size welded - unlimitd
1 - 2 7/8 1 - unlimited
> 2 7/8 2 7/8 - unlimited
Welders Performance Qualification
Test coupon More than 2 welders
different procedure can do a single
test coupon. Failure then both are
failed.

Retest - 2 consecutive test coupons


to pass
Renewal if no welding for 6 months.
Single test coupon plate/pipe, any
thickness, material, position. If
passed then complete previous
qualification is restored.
Welders Performance Qualification

Variables for SMAW

Removal of backing
Change in Pipe diameter
Change in P number
Change in F Number
Change in thickness of weld
deposit
Change in welding position
Welders Performance Qualification
Variables for GTAW
Removal of backing
Change in Pipe diameter
Addition / deletion of filler metal
Addition / deletion of insert
Change in P number
Change in F Number
Change in solid filler to flux cored filler
metal
Change in thickness of weld deposit
Change in welding position
Removal of inert gas backing
Change in current or polarity
Welders Performance Qualification
Welded Qualified
Without Backing
Fx Fx
With Backing
F1 F1
F2 F2, F1
F3 F3, F2, F1
F4 F4, F3, F2, F1
F5 F5, F1
Welders Performance Qualification
F No qualification with backing
F1 with backing F1 with backing
F1 without backing F1 with & without backing
F2 with backing F1 & F2 with backing
F2 without backing F2 with & without backing, F1 with
backing
F3 with backing F1, F2 & F3 with backing
F3 without backing F3 with & without backing, F1, F2
with backing
F4 with backing F1, F2, F3 & F4 with backing
F4 without backing F4 with & without backing, F1, F2,
F3 with backing
F5 with backing F1 & F5 with backing
F5 without backing F5 with & without backing, F1 with
backing
Tests for Qualification
Tension test Minimum values for specified
tensile strength
For dissimilar joint, lesser of the
two values
If break outside weld, if tensile st.
value not < 5% of the base metal

Bend test No open discontinuity > 1/8 in


any direction

Impact test In accordance with the section


Tests for Qualification

Radiography No crack or LOP or LOF


Any elongated slag >1/8 for t <3/8
1/3 t for t 3/8 - 2 1/4
3/4 for t>2 1/4
Any group of slag in a line with aggregate
length t in 12 t unless separated by 6L

Max permissible dimension for rounded


indication smaller of 20% of t or 1/8
For thickness<1/8, max no of accepted
rounded indication 12 in 6 length
For thickness>1/8, charts for max acceptable
types of rounded indication
Tests for Initial Qualification
Theoretical examination
Groove welds in plate - single or double
vee 299 x 381 x 16 mm min size in flat,
horizontal or vertical. Vertical or
horizontal position also qualifies for all
Fillet weld in plate - 16 x 381 mm min in
flat, horizontal, vertical or overhead.
Horizontal or vertical also qualifies for
flat. Vertical position also qualifies for
flat, horizontal or vertical.
Tests
Pipe for in
welding Initial Qualification
the following positions (i)
Horizontally rolled (ii) Horizontal turned
(iii) Vertical fixed (iv) Horizontal fixed.
Qualification in (ii) or (iii) also qualifies
(i). Qualification in (iv) also qualifies (i) or
(ii).

Branch to pipe welding


Pipe size 127 OD x 10 tk. Tube 89 OD x 6
tk.

Tube welding with axis vertical and tubes


of same size fixed in adjoining positions.
Tests for Requalification
No theoretical examination
Plate welding 152 length x 229 x 16 tk in
45 deg position. Weld to be done from
underside.
Pipe welding with axis of pipe horizontal.
Branch to pipe as earlier
Tube welding axis vertical and tubes of
same size in adjoining position.
Regular production weld to the
satisfaction of competent authority
may be accepted as alternative to the
above tests
Examination of the weld for
initial Qualification
PLATE QUALIFICATION (Fillet weld)

Specimen shall not fracture during load


application
If fractures, no evidence of cracks /
ICP / sum of inclusions and gas pockets
< 51 mm
Macro examination shall show complete
fusion
concavity / convexity < 1.6 mm
difference in leg length < 1.6 mm
THANK YOU

QUESTIONS PLEASE