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THIRD EDITION

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D.

Chapter 19
The Kidneys

PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by


Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Excretory System: Anatomy Review

Kidney
Cortex
Medulla
Pelvis
Nephrons
Ureter
Bladder
Urethra

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19-1: Anatomy Summary: The Urinary System
3 processes of the nephron are: filtration,
reabsorption and secretion.

Figure 19-2: Filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion


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Kidney Functions: Overview

Figure 19-3: The excretion of a substance depends on the amount that was filtered, reabsorbed, and secreted

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FILTRATION
Glomerulus + Bowman's Capsule = Renal corpuscle
Fenestrated capillaries
Filtration slits

3 barriers to filtration:
1. Glomerular capillary endothelium
2. Basal lamina (acellular; collagen and
glycoproteins)
3. Epithelium of Bowmans capsule
(podocytes)
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19-4: Structure of the renal corpuscle
Have actin and can contract to alter
filtration.
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Glomerular Flow Rate (GFR):
average GFR is 125 mls/min!
Glomerular Capillary
Hydrostatic pressure out
(55 mmHg)
Colloid osmotic pressure
in ( 30 mmHg)
Bowmans Capsule pressure
Back hydrostatic
pressure in (15 mmHg)

Net Filtration 10 mmHg


GFR 180L/day (about 1% is
excreted)

Do you urinate
180L/day???
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19-6: Filtration pressure in the renal corpuscle
Glomerular Flow Rate (GFR)

urine

Figure 19-5: The filtration fraction


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Regulation of GFR: Tubuloglomerular FB

Macula densa + juxtaglomerular cells = Juxtaglomerular apparatus

Figure 19-9: The juxtaglomerular apparatus


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Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Reabsorption: Can be ACTIVE or PASSIVE
Passive diffusion in: molecules travel down their
concentration/electrochemical gradients.
Active Transport : molecules pushed against
their gradients. Must use primary or secondary
active transport.
Reabsorption of:
Sodium
Urea
Glucose

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Sodium Reabsorption: Primary Active Transport

Proximal tubule

Figure 19-11: Sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule


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Reabsorption:
Secondary Active Transport of glucose

Na+ linked 20 transport


A lot of stuff follows
sodium out of the tubule
lumen.
Symports make this happen
Glucose
Ions
Amino acids

Proximal tubule, key site

Figure 19-12: Sodium-linked glucose reabsorption in the


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings proximal tubule
Reabsorption:
Passive Transport of Urea
IN the proximal tubule
1. sodium and other solutes
are reabsorbed.
2. Water follows.
When water leaves, no urea
has left yet.
You have smaller volume
with same amount of urea.
Urea concentration is
higher.
3. NOW urea will be
reabsorbed passively down
its concentration gradient.
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Reabsorption: The concept of saturation
Saturation refers to the maximum rate of transport (of
glucose, or something) that occurs when all available carriers are
occupied with substrate.

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Saturation; a closer look

Glucose on a carrier

Blood nephron

Glucose

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Glucose carrier
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Reabsorption: Receptors can Limit

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19-15: Glucose handling by the nephron
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings