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R1.

3
RESP1.3 RESPONSE OF
CIVIL
1.3 ENGIONEEONSE
OF
RESPONSE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
CIVIL
PROJECTENGINEERING
PROJECT
MASONRY
BY :
NOR AZAH BINTI AZIZ
Learning Outcomes

Identify and describe material response


of modes primary failure due to:

iii) Masonry
a. Structure failure
Sliding
Diagonal
Compression and
Shear
b. Performance failure
Bedding joint
MASONRY
Masonry
Masonry is the building of structures from
individual units laid in and bound together
by mortar.

Mortar - A mortar is made by mixing


cement, water, air, and fine aggregates.

The common materials of masonry


construction are brick, stone, glass brick or
concrete block
Masonry
Masonry is generally a highly durable form
of construction.

Materials used, the quality of the mortar


and workmanship, and the pattern in which
the units are assembled can strongly affect
the durability of the overall masonry
construction.

Masonry is commonly used for the walls of


buildings, retaining walls and monuments.
Types of
Masonry

(CBPIMasonryTeachingPackageApril2000[online])
Masonry Structure failure

i. Sliding
ii. Diagonal
iii. Compression
iv. Shear
Masonry Structure failure

Masonry boasts an impressive


compressive strength (vertical loads)
but is much lower in tensile strength
(twisting or stretching.

The tensile strength of masonry walls


can be strengthened by thickening the
wall, or by building masonry piers
(vertical columns or ribs) at intervals.
Masonry Structure Failure

TENSILE STRESS:
The type that tends to stretch a material,
as though the forces were attempting to pull
the
molecules of the material apart.

COMPRESSIVE STRESS:
The type that tends to compress,
or press together, or crush the molecules
of the material.
Masonry Structure Failure

SHEAR STRESS:
The type that tends to slide or twist the
molecules of the material apart.

The numerical value of stress equals the


amount of force divided by the cross section
area of the member that is subject to force.
Failure Modes
Shear
Sliding shear
Bending
Shear
Shear

In concrete or masonry structures, shear is resisted as diagonal tension.


Examples
Wall Failure
Shear
Failure
Bending
The main forms of masonry failure in plane stress state.
(a)Partition into columns. (b) Partition into layers of one or several masonry rows.
(c) Splitting parallel to the external surfaces of the masonry.
(d) Break along a bed joint. (e) Break along a tooting crack.
(f) Vertical break through masonry elements. (g) Splitting along a stepped crack with
shear along the bed.
Masonry Performance Failure

Bedding Joint
The method of laying masonry units in a wall in a regular pattern for
strength & generally in such a way that there are no continuous
vertical joints (perpendiculars) in successive courses.

(CBPIMasonryTeachingPackageApril2000[online])
Masonry Performance Failure

Normally structure failure for masonry


structure occurs at bedding joint area.
Bedding joint is the weakness point in
masonry structure.
Quality of the mortar and workmanship
for bedding joint strongly affect the
durability of the overall masonry
construction.
R1.3
RESP1.3 RESPONSE OF
CIVIL
1.3 ENGIONEEONSE
OF
RESPONSE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
CIVIL
PROJECTENGINEERING
PROJECT
TIMBER
BY :
NOR AZAH BINTI AZIZ
Learning Outcomes

Identify and describe material response


of modes primary failure due to:

iv) Timber
a) Structure failure
Compressive
Tensile
Shear
b) Performance failure
Decay/Rotting
TIMBER
TIMBER
One of the earliest materials to be
used in building.
Still continues to play a major part in
general building, particularly in
furniture industry.
Building parts such as Window
Frame, Door Frame, Trusses, Wall
Panel, Flooring etc using timber still
in used.
ADVANTAGE
oo simplicity in fabrication
o lightness
o reusability
o insulation from heat. sound &
electricity
o aesthetically pleasing appearance
o resistance to oxidation, acid attack &
salt attack and salt water
DISADVANTAGE OF TIMBER

The material may be very variable


due to natural defect.
Possible distortion when its moisture
content changes.
Fungal and insect attack
Not good as fire resistant
Easy to creep under load
Timber Structure
Failure
i. Compressive
ii. Tensile
iii. Shear
Bending failure in
compression
Only likely for very high grade
material
Benign failure mode
Bending failure in tension
Most likely failure mode
Brittle
Combination of tension and shear,
although tension fracture is the
initiating mode
Shear failures
One of the very weak properties of wood
Shrinkage cracks often occur at the ends
of beams in the zone of maximum shear
stress
This part of the
Direct compression load transferred in
direct
transfer of loads in the compression

end zones reduces the


total shear force to be
carried.
45o

critical
section
Timber Performance
Failure
Decay/Rotting

Whereas weathering is degradation of the


wood surface, decay (also called rot)
affects the full volume of wood.

Decay is degradation caused by a variety


of decay fungi that are capable of breaking
down the structural components of wood
for food.
Timber Performance
Failure
Decay/Rotting

The fungi tunnel throughout the full volume


of the wood, degrading the polymers that
form the wood cells through a complicated
biochemical process. Since these polymers
give wood its strength, considerable loss of
strength occurs long before visible damage
is apparent. Wood decay fungi must have
adequate moisture to grow.
Decay