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MANAGEMENT

DEVELOPMENT
MEANING
It is an educational process utilizing a systematic and
organized procedure by which managerial personnel
learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for
general purpose.
It is mainly designed to induce behavioral changes in
individuals by cultivating their mental and inherent
qualities through the acquisition, understanding and
use of knowledge, insights and skills as they are
needed for effective management.
The management process consists of:
Assessing the companys strategic needs
Appraising managers current performance
Developing the managers( and future managers)
SUCESSION PLANNING
A process through which senior level openings are
planned for and eventually filled
For example: GE spent several years developing,
testing, and watching potential replacements for CEO
before finally choosing JEFFERY IMMELT.
The new MBAs may join Fords management
development program and rotate through various
assignments and educational experiences. The dual
aims are identifying their management potential and
giving them breadth of experience(in say, production or
finance). The firm may then slot the superior candidates
onto a fast track, a development program that
prepares them more quickly for senior level commands.
NATURE OF MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
Organized process of learning
A long term process
On going exercise rather than
Oneshot affair
Aims at preparing managers for
better performance
It is nothing but guided self
development
PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
Principle of individual difference
Provision of incentive
Provision of applying the content of
training on the job
Active participation of trainer and
trainee
Feedback about the trainees
progress in the training and
development programme should be
shared with him/her
OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
To bring current performance of the
managerial personnel up to the highest
attainable level
To ensure availability of qualified managerial
manpower
To ensure managerial capabilities
To aid in encouraging and achieving self
development and self confidence
To provide opportunities for managers to
update their knowledge and skill
IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
Management developmental efforts are
required:
Due to rapid changes in technology
To understand the behavior of people in
changing socio cultural environment
To meet the needs of the customer
To understand the social responsibility of
business
To have harmony and peace in the organization
To impart knowledge on the latest management
principles, techniques and practices
SYSTEMS/TECHNIQUES OF
MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
OFF-THE JOB
ON-THE-JOB METHOD METHOD
Role playing
Sensitivity training
Coaching Conference training
Understudy Programmed
Multiple management instructions
Committee Simulation techniques
assignment like:
Business games
In basket
Case study
PURPOSE OF MANAGEMENT
DEVLOPMENT
PURPOSE METHODS/TECHNIQ
UES
JOB KNOWLEDGE ON THE JOB EXPERIENCE
COACHING
UNDERSTUDY
ORGANISATIONAL KNOWLEDGE JOB ROTATION
MULTIPLE MANAGEMENT

DECISION MAKING SKILLS IN BASKET


BUSINESS GAMES
CASE STUDY
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND ROLE PLAYING
TEAMWORK SENSITIVITY TRAINING

SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL NEEDS JUNIOR BOARD


COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONS
On-the-job coaching
On the job coaching:
In this method, the immediate supervisor guides
the subordinates about various ways and methods
and skills to do the job. He only acts as a guide
and not as a teacher
Periodic feedback and evaluation are also part of
the coaching activity
Advantages:
It provides real and practical job experience
It increases motivation of trainee
It leads to minimization of problem of transferring
learning from theory to practice
Disadvantages:
The man cannot develop beyond the limits of his own
bosss abilities
Understudy
Understudy:
In this case an executive is developed to perform
the work or fill the position of his supervisor
In understudy only one candidate is selected by
department manager from his department.
Department manager then guides him to learn
his job and grapple with the problems that
confront the manager daily.
Advantages:
It ensures ready supply of competent people
whenever the vacancy arises
This method has built in motivation because it itself is
step towards the promotion of trainee
Multiple management
method
In this method, the organization makes a permanent
advisory committee of executives/managers. The
advisory committee solves the problem of the
organization and makes recommendation to the top
management
In some cases board of directors constitute a junior
board to train the junior executives
Advantages:
Organization gets productive ideas from advisory/junior
board
Inexpensive method
Develops teamwork and group discussion and makes
everyone learn to respect the view of others
Widens the knowledge and participation of the advisory
board/junior board
Committee management
A committee is a group of executives appointed to
investigate, take action, make recommendations
regarding some matter relating to the organization
The committee studies the problem or issue in
accordance with the terms of reference. Committee
promotes mutual sharing and discussions of
interest by many individuals to arrive at a
consensus of opinions
Advantages:
Widens the knowledge of the trainee through discussions
and deliberations in the committee meeting
Speeds up the development of the executive
Develops teamwork and group discussions and trainees
learn to respect the view of others
Role playing
It may be described as a technique of creating a
life situation, usually one involving conflict
between people, and then having persons in a
group to play the parts or roles of specific
personalities.
Two or more trainees in a group are given role to
play.
Advantages:
It helps the trainees to become aware of the problems
and the prospective of others with whom they deal
Experimental form of learning
Helps in improving inter personal competence of the
executives
Sensitivity training
It was originally developed by Kurt Lewin. It is also called
as laboratory training, t-group or group dynamic training
The sensitivity training technique works on the assumption
that changes in behavior cannot come by knowledge alone,
and hence practice in human relations creates an
atmosphere for change in attitudes and approaches
This is achieved by focusing during the session on aspects
such as the ability to listen to others, ability to
communicate, ability to diagnose human problems
correctly, learning to give and receive constructive
feedback and understanding the complexities of group
dynamics
It is informal and unstructured
The organizations which practices sensitivity training feel
that this method increases managerial sensitivity and trust
and enhances respect for the contribution of others
Contd
Objectives:
Have an understanding of others
Gain insight into the group process
Develop scientific behavioral skills
Make participants learn how to work more effectively as a group
or a team member and perform leadership roles
Advantages:
Increases insight of ones own behavior and how others perceive
it
Focuses on exploring the nature of interpersonal relationships
Helps in accepting criticism
Disadvantages:
Laboratory testing is conducted in controlled situations which
may not have bearing on the actual life
Leads to psychological reactions due to frank and free criticism
Expensive
Involves small number of trainees at one time
Conference training
A conference is group meeting conducted according to an
organized plan in which the participants seek to develop
the knowledge and understanding by obtaining
considerable amount of oral participation
The trainees learn to respect of viewpoint of others and to
realize that there is more than one workable approach
Advantages:
Participants play active role
Learning is facilitated through building upon ideas
Best method for reducing dogmatism employed in supervisory
and development training program
Drawback:
Progress at the conference is often slow because all those
desiring to speak on a point are allowed to do so
Sometimes, irrelevant issues may creep in and the main issue is
lost in the progress
Programmed instructions
It is the application of the science of learning to the task of
education and training
Key features:
Trainees learn at their own pace
Instructors are not key part of the learning
The material to be learnt is broken down into very small units or
stages
Each step is logically builds upon those that have preceded it
The student is given immediate knowledge of results for each
answer he gives
There is active participation by learner
It includes elaborate teaching machines, films, sound tapes,
programmed books, illustrations, printed material, diagrams
Computer assisted learning is often used to provide practice
to help students learn material that is well structured such
as grammar and mathematics
Simulation techniques
The basic idea is to create or construct a situation
which closely represents the actual one. In order to
conduct a trial or test run, it is conducted in a
controlled environment
Business games:
Business games are classroom simulation exercises
which are designed to be representative of the real life
condition
The participants of business game learn by analyzing the
problem and making trial and error decisions and
participants are given another chance in these games.
The feedback is very prompt
Advantages:
Useful for developing team cohesion and skills
Gets the experience in analyzing problems and taking decisions
In basket training
The participant is given all the material in
basket which will help them to solve the
problems. The participants is also given all
the information and materials required
such as reports, mail etc.
The participant is then asked to play the
role of manager who is responsible for
solving the problem
The participant by using his experience
takes the appropriate decision.
Case study method
It was developed by Christopher C Langdell. In this method,
the facts of the case that needs to be solved or has already
occurred in the organization are given for analysis and
decision-making to a group of participants
The group studies the problem, analyses it, find alternatives
and give suggestions.
Case studies are commonly used in teaching law, HRM and
marketing management by the management educational
institutions
Advantages:
Active involvement of the participant
Develop analytical thinking among the participants
Give the participants an opportunity to apply their knowledge to
find the solution for a realistic problem
Help the participants have greater respect and consideration
towards others thinking and opinion
Improve the decision making skills of executives
Transactional analysis(TA)
It is training technique used for analyzing and
understanding interpersonal behavior. When people
interact, then there is a social transaction i.e. exchange of
messages. The study of these transactions is called as TA
It teaches people to send messages that are clear and
responsible and to give responses that are natural and
reasonable
The TA training method makes use of two concepts:
The ego state
When two people interact, they face each other with three of the ego
states predominating which are:
Parent
Adult
Child
The transactions
These ego states in turn leads to three possible transactions:
Crossed ( the two persons operating in different ego states)
Complementary( ego state match, both person are operating in same way)
Ego states
The three active elements are called ego states. Berne
defined ego as a consistent pattern of feeling and
experience directly related to corresponding consistent
pattern of behavior
The parent ego state is like providing guidelines,
regulations and discipline for others
The adult ego state is our dispassionate and objective
side. It uses facts, information and analysis to reach the
best decisions
The child ego state reflects the natural impulses,
attitudes and activities that are learnt from childhood
experiences. This ego state can range from listening
and responding to hostility
Transactions