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Introduction to Database Management Systems

Chapter 1 (Part 12nd)

Disadvantages of Database Approach

1. High Cost of DBMS

2. Higher Hardware Cost

3. Higher Programming Cost

4. High Conversion Cost

5. More Chance of Failure

6. Complexity & Performance

Difference between File and Database
File-based approach Database approach
1. The programs and data are inter dependent. 1.The programs and data are independent of each
2. The data may be duplicated in different that 2.The data is not duplicated and appears
cause data redundancy . only once.
3. The same data in different file may be 3. The data appear only once so it is always
files different that creates inconsistence. consistent.
4. The data is separately stored in various files 5. The data is stored in tables which are
and it is difficult for applications to Linked together. The applications can
retrieve the appropriate. retrieve the required data easily.

5. The data is distributed in many different files 5. The data is stored at one place and can be
and cannot be shared. shared easily.
6. It is difficult to apply data integrity 6. Database approach provides many
check on files. constraints for data integrity.
7.It provides poor security as the data is 7. It provides many procedures to maintain data
widely Spread. security.

8. It is difficult to maintain as it 8. It provides many facilities to maintain the

provides less controlling facilities. programs easily.

9. It is less complex system. 9. It is very complex system.

10. The cost is much more than file system.
10. The cost is very less than DBMS.

11. One application can fail without 11. All application relying on database fail if the
affecting the others. database fails.
Application Program

An application program is a program that is used to send commands to

the database management system to manipulate database. These
commands are sent to DBMS through graphical user interface. The user
interacts with application program. The application program further
interacts with database management system. Two important application
programs are Developer2000 and Power Builder.
Relationship of Application Program &
A database application is developed by using both application program and
database management system. The application program contains the user
interface. The user uses this interface for communicating with the database
management system to manipulate database. The application program is also
called the front-end and the database is known as back-end.
The relation of application program and database management system is very
important. When a database program is developed, a way of communication
with the program is required for the user. The user cannot use the database
directly. An easy and simple interface is required so that the user can easily
use the database.
Another important relationship of DBMS and application program is that it is
used to produce effective and informative report in application programs.
These reports are very important for any organization for taking different
decision about the business.
Range of Database Applications
The range of database applications is as follows:

1. Personal Computer Databases

Personal computer databases are specially designed, for single user. The user
may be using stand-alone desktop computer or laptop. The representatives of a
medical company may use laptop computers when working in the market. This
computer may use a simple database application in which the records of
customers are stored.
Some important decisions about the development of personal computer database
applications are as follows:
It should be purchased or developed within the organization?
It should be developed by end user or d professional in information system?
Required data and the design of database
Selection of DBMS for database application
Synchronization of personal computer database with other databases
Accuracy of data in personal computer database
2. Workgroup Databases

A workgroup is a team of people who work on the same project collectively. A

workgroup normally consists of less than 25 people. A type of database that is
specially designed to support workgroups is known as workgroup database.
The people in workgroup arc connected with one another through local area
network is (LAN). The database is stored on a central computer called server.
All members of the workgroup can share this database.
Workgroup databases provide many facilities but arise some problems also.
The main problems are of security and integrity of data when the data is
updated concurrently.
Some important decisions about workgroups databases are as

Database optimization to satisfy requirements of different members of

Concurrency control.
Decision about the location of different operations i.e. on server or
3. Department Databases

A functional unit in an organization is known as department. An organization

may have marketing, production and accounting departments. A department
normally consists of 25 to 100 people. Department databases are specially
designed to support the functions of a department.
Some important decisions about
department databases are as follows:
Database design for efficient performance to handle a large number of users
and transactions
Proper security to protect data against unauthorized access
Database tools for complex environment
Ensure data redundancy and consistency if data is used in different
The need for distributed database if users are geographically away from one
4. Enterprise Databases
A type of database that is specially designed to support the functions of a
whole organization or many departments of an organization is known as
enterprise database. The most important enterprise database is known as
data warehouse. The contents of a data warehouse are derived from many
operational database like personal computer, workgroup and department
Suppose a university has many departments like CS, Biology, Agriculture etc.
Each department uses a department database to maintain the functions of
department. The Vice Chancellor needs to get the information of different
departments frequently. In order to satisfy this requirement, a data
warehouse can be developed for the whole university in VC office. The data
warehouse will extract the databases of different departments periodically.
Some important decisions about enterprise databases
are as follows:

Distribution of data among various locations in the corporate structure

Maintenance of standards for data names, definitions, and formats
Types of Users

Application Programmers
Application programmer is a professional who writes computer programs in a
high level 'language. These programs can be used to interact with databases.
Application programmer designs application programs according to the
requirements of users. He works according to the specification provided by the
system analyst
End Users
End users are those persons who interact with the application directly. They are
responsible to insert, delete and update data in the database. They get information
from the system as and when required. Different types of end users are as follows:
Naive Users:
Naive users are the users who have no technical knowledge about the DBMS. They
use database through application programs using simple user interface. They perform
all operations by using simple commands provided in user interface. The data entry
operator in an office is responsible for entering records in database. He performs this
task by using menus and buttons etc. He does not know anything about database or
DBMS. He interacts with database through application program.
Sophisticated Users:
Sophisticated users are the users who are familiar with the structure of database
and facilities of DBMS. Such users can use a query language such as SQL to perform
the required operations on databases. Some sophisticated users can also write
application programs.
Database Administrator
Database administrator is the most technical user. he is responsible for managing
the whole database system. He designs, creates and maintains the database. He
manages the users who can access this database and controls integrity issues.
Some important functions of a database administrator are as follows:
Installation of software
Monitoring of database system
Solution of any problem that occurs in the database system
Assigning permission to different users to use database system
Taking regular backups of database
Restoring the system in case of any problem or system crash
History of Database Systems
The concept of databases was introduced in 1960's. Following is a brief discussion
about the history of database.

1960's :-
In 1960's, computers became cost effective for companies and the storage
capability of computers increased. Two main data models were developed.
Network model (CODASYL)
Hierarchical (IMS)
Access to database was through low-level pointer operations. Storage details
depended on the type of data to be stored. Thus adding an extra field to your
database requires rewriting the underlying access/modification scheme. Emphasis
was on records to be processed, not overall structure of the system. A user would
need to know the physical structure of the database in order to query for
information. One major commercial success was SABRE system from IBM and
American Airlines.
E.f Codd proposed relational model for databases in a landmark paper on how to think
about databases. He disconnects the schema (logical organization) of a database from
the physical storage methods. This system has become standard since then.

Two main prototypes for relational systems were developed during 1974-1977.
Developed at UCB. This ultimately led to Ingres Corp., Sybase, MS SQL
Server, Britton-Lee, Wang's PACE. This system used QU EL as query language.
System R:
Developed at IBM San Jose and led to IBM's SQL/DS & DB2, Oracle, HP's
Allbase, Tandem's Non-Stop SQL. This system used SEQUEL as query language.
P. Chen proposed Entity-Relationship (ER) model for database design. It gave another
important insight into conceptual data models. Such higher-level modeling allows the
designer to concentrate on the use of data instead of logical table structure.

Early 1980's
In early 1980's, the commercialization of relational systems took place.

Mid 1980's
SQL (Structured Query Language) became a standard. IBM launched DB2. The importance of
network and hierarchical models was decreased. The development of the IBM PC gave rise to
many DB companies and products such as RIM, RBASE 5000, PARADOX, OS/2 Database
Manager, Dbase III, IV (later Foxbase and then Visual FoxPro), Watcom SQL.

Early 1990's
In early 1990's, much work was done on client tools for application development such as
PowerBuilder (Sybase), Oracle Developer, VB (Microsoft), etc. Client-server 'model for
computing became the norm for future business decisions. The work on Object Database
Management Systems (ODBMS) prototypes also started during this period.
Mid 1990's
The usable Internet/WWW appeared in the middle of 1990. It allowed remote
access to computer systems. The concept of Web/DB started to grow.

Late 1990's
Internet companies worked for Web/Internet/DB connectors. Examples are Active
Server Pages, FrontPage, Java Servlets, JDBC, Java Beans, ColdFusion,
Dreamweaver, Oracle Developer etc. Open source solution came online with
popular use of cgi, Apache, MySQ1, etc. Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) and
Online Analytic Processing (OLAP) comes of age with many merchants using point-
of-sale (POS) technology on a daily basis.
Future Trends
Huge (terabyte) systems are appearing and the handling and analyzing data
become very complex. Large science databases such as genome project,
geological, national security, and space exploration data have been developed.
Data mining, data warehousing, data marts are Commonly used techniques today.
This trend will continue in the future.
XML with Java has become a popular technique. Mobile .database is now coming
to market in various ways. Distributed transaction processing is also becoming
very popular for business planning in many areas.