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CHAPTER 3

MATERIAL BALANCE APPLIED TO OIL


RESERVOIRS
3.1 INTRODUCTION

-THE SCHILTHUIS MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION


- BASIC TOOLS OF RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

=> INTERPRETING AND PREDICTING RESERVOIR


PERFORMANCE.

-MATERIAL BALANCE

1. ZERO DIMENSION THIS CHAPTER


2. MULTI-DIMENSION (MULTI-PHASE) RESERVOIR
SIMULATION
3.2 GENERAL FORM OF THE MATERIAL BALANCE
EQUATION FOR A
HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR

Underground withdrawal (RB)


= Expansion of oil and original dissolved gas (RB)(A)
+ Expansion of gascap gas (RB) (B)
+ Reduction in HCPV due to connate water expansion and decrease in
the pore volume (RB) .(C)
N initial oil in place ( STB ) V (1 S wc )
1
( STB )
Boi

initial H .C. Vol . of the gascap SCF ft 3 bbl


m ( const.) [] or or
initial H .C. Vol . of the oil SCF ft 3 bbl

N p cumulative oil production (STB )

cum. gas production ( SCF )


R p cumulative gas oil rato
cum. oil production ( STB )
EXPANSION OF OIL & ORIGINALLY DISSOLVED
GAS

Liquid exp ansion (oil exp ansion) liq. (at p ) liq. (at pi )
RB
NBo NBoi N ( Bo Boi )[]STB []RB (3.1)
STB

Liberated gas exp ansion [ solution gas (at p ) solution gas (at pi )]
SCF RB
NRsi B g NRs B g N ( Rsi Rs ) B g []STB []RB (3.2)
STB SCF
EXPANSION OF THE GASCAP GAS

Expansion of the gascap gas =gascap gas (at p)


gascap (at pi)
SCF RB
The total volume of gascap gas mNBoi [] STB []RB
SCF SCF
1 1
or G mNBoi []RB []SCF
B gi RB
SCF
1 RB
Amount of gas (at p ) mNBoi B g []SCF []RB
B gi SCF

Bg
Expansion of the gascap gas mNBoi mNBoi []RB
B gi
Bg
mNBoi ( 1) ( RB) (3.3)
B gi
CHANGE IN THE HCPV DUE TO THE CONNATE
WATER EXPANSION & PORE VOLUME
REDUCTION

d ( HCPV ) dVw dV f V f the total pore vol. HCPV /(1 S w )


(c wVw c f V f )p Vw the connate water vol. V f S wc
HCPV
(c wV f S wc c f V f )p V f (c w S wc c f )p (c w S wc c f )p
(1 S w )
c w S wc c f
(1 m) NBoi ( ) p
1 S wc
UNDERGROUND WITHDRAWAL

Pr oduction at surface N p ( STB ) oil N p R p ( SCF ) gas


Undergroun d withdrawal N p Bo ( RB) oil ( N p R p N p Rs ) B g ( RB ) gas
Undergroun d withdrawal N p Bo N p ( R p Rs ) B g N p [ Bo ( R p Rs ) B g ]
THE GENERAL EXPRESSION FOR THE Bg
MATERIAL
N p [ Bo ( R p RsBALANCE AS
) B g ] N ( Bo B oi ) N ( R si R s ) B g mNBoi ( 1)
B gi
c w S wc c f
(1 m) NBoi ( )p (We W p ) Bw
1 S wc

( Bo Boi ) ( Rsi Rs ) B g
Bg c w S wc c f
N p [ Bo ( R p Rs ) B g ] NBoi m 1 (1 m) p
B
Boi gi 1 S wc
(We W p ) Bw (3.7)

Note : Bo , Rs , B g f ( p)
We f ( p, t )
Simple form : Pr oduction Expansion of reservoir fluids
dV c V p
Main difficulty : measuring p
F N ( Eo mE g mE f ,w ) We Bw (3.12)
where

F N p [ Bo ( R p R s ) B g ] W p B w []RB
E o ( Bo Boi ) ( Rsi Rs ) B g [] RB
STB
Bg
E g Boi ( 1) [] RB
B gi STB
c w S wc c f
E f , w (1 m) Boi ( )p RB
1 S wc STB
F N ( E o mE g mE f , w ) We Bw (3.12)

No initial gascap, negligible water influx


c f & cw 0
Eq.(3.12) F NE o (3.13)

With water influx eq(3.12) becomes


F We
N (3.14)
Eo Eo

Eq.(3.12) having a combination drive-all possible


sources of energy.
3.4 RESERVOIR DRIVE
MECHANISMS
Reservoir drive mechanism

-reducing the M.B to a compact form to


quantify reservoir performance
- Solution gas drive -determining the main producing
- Gascap drive characteristics,
-Natural water
drive
In terms of for example, GOR; water cut
- Compaction drive -determining the pressure decline in the
reservoir
- estimating the primary recovery factor
3.5 SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

(a) above the B.P. pressure (b) below the B.P. pressure
ABOVE THE B.P. PRESSURE
- NO INITIAL GASCAP, M=0
- NO WATER FLUX, WE=0 ; NO WATER PRODUCTION, WP=0
- RS=RSI=RP

from eq.(3.7)
( Bo Boi ) ( R si R s ) B g
Bg c w S wc c f
N p [ Bo ( R p R s ) B g ] NBoi m 1 (1 m) p

B
Boi gi 1 S wc
(We W p ) B w (3.7)

Note : ( R p Rs ) 0 ; ( Rsi Rs ) 0 ; m 0 ;We 0 ;W p 0


( Bo Boi ) (c w s wc c f )
N p Bo NBoi [ p ]
Boi 1 S wc
cw S w c f 1 dVo 1 dBo
N p Bo NBoi [co ( )]p co
1 S wc Vo dp Bo dp
co S o c w S w c f ( Boi Bo ) ( Bo Boi )
N p Bo NBoi ( )p (3.17)
1 S wc Boi p Boi p
or N p Bo NBoi ce p (3.18) S o S wc 1
co S o c w S w c f
where ce the effective, saturation weighted compressib ility
1 S wc
p pi GAS
EXERCISE3.1 SOLUTION
if pb DRIVE,
UNDERSATURATEDPVTOIL RESERVOIR
table 2.4 ( p.65)
c w 3 10 6 psi 1 c f 8.6 10 6 psi 1 S w 0.2
DETERMINE R.F.
Solution:
1 dVo 1 dBo
co
FromTable2.4(p.65) Vo dp Bo dp
Bob Boi
co
pi 4000 psi, Boi 1.2417 RB Boi p
STB
1.2511 1.2417
pb 3330 psi, Bob 12511 RB 11.3 10 6 psi 1
STB 1.2417(4000 3330)

Eq(3.18)

N p Bo NBoi c e p
Np Boi
R.F . c e p
N Pb
Bob
1.2417
22.8 10 6 ( 4000 3330)
1.2511
0.015 1.5%
TABLE 2.4 FIELD PVT

P(psia) Bo (Rb/STB) Rs(SCF/STB) Bg( Rb/SCF)

4000 (pi) 1.2417 510


3500 1.2480 510
3300 (pb) 1.2511 510 0.00087
3000 1.2222 450 0.00096
2700 1.2022 401 0.00107
2701 1.1822 352 0.00119
2702 1.1633 304 0.00137
1800 1.1450 257 0.00161
1500 1.1287 214 0.00196
1200 1.1115 167 0.00249
900 1.0940 122 0.00339
901 1.0763 78 0.00519
300 1.0583 35 0.01066
BO AS FUNCTION OF PRESSURE
RS AS FUNCTION OF PRESSURE
BG AND E AS FUNCTION OF PRESSURE
PRODUCING GAS-OIL RATIO (R) AS FUNCTION OF
PRESSURE
Note :
co S o c w S w c f
ce
1 S wc
1
(11.3 10 6 0.8 3 10 6 0.2 8.6 10 6 )
1 0. 2
22.8 10 6
4000 3330
p % 0.167 16.7%
4000
BELOW B.P. PRESSURE (SATURATION OIL)

P<PB =>GAS LIBERATED FROM SATURATED OIL

1 1 1
cg 300 106 psi 1 cg 300 106 psi 1
p Pb 3300
co 11.3 106 psi 1
cw 3 106 psi 1
c f 8.6 106 psi 1
EXERCISE3.2 SOLUTION GAS DRIVE; BELOW BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE
RESERVOIR-DESCRIBED IN EXERCISE 3.1
PABANDON = 900PSIA
(1) R.F = F(RP)? CONCLUSION?
(2) SG(FREE GAS) = F(PABANDON)?

SOLUTION:

(1) FROM EQ(3.7)

( Bo Boi ) ( R si R s ) B g
Bg c w S wc c f
N p [ Bo ( R p R s ) B g ] NBoi m 1 (1 m) p

B
Boi gi 1 S wc
(We W p ) Bw (3.7)

for solution gas below B.P.


m0 no initial gas cap
We 0 ; W p 0
c w S wc c f
NBoi ( ) p is negligible if S g is developed
1 S wc
Eq(3.7) becomes

N p [ Bo ( R p Rs ) B g ] N [( Bo Boi ) ( Rsi Rs ) B g ] (3.20)

Np ( Bo Boi ) ( Rsi Rs ) B g
R.F .
N Bo ( R p R s ) B g
Np (1.0940 1.2417) (510 122) 0.00339 344
R.F . p 900
N p 900
1.0940 ( R p 122) 0.00339 R p 201

1
Conclusion: RF
Rp

From Fig .3.3 ( p.55)


Np
R p 500 SCF 49% 0.49
STB N 900
(2) THE OVERALL GAS BALANCE

liberated total gas gas still


gas in the = amount produced dissolved
reservoir of gas at surface in the oil

NBoi HCPV
pore volume for p pb
1 S wc (1 S wc )
NBoi S g
NRsi B g N p R p B g ( N N p ) Rs B g
(1 S wc )
[ N ( Rsi Rs ) N p ( R p Rs )]B g (1 S wc )
Sg (3.21)
NBoi

Np
[ N ( Rsi Rs ) Np( R p Rs )]Bg (1 S wc ) [( Rsi Rs ) ( R p Rs )]
Sg N Bg (1 S wc )
NBoi Boi
[(510 122) 0.49(500 122)]
0.00339 0.8 0.4428
1.2417