Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 35

The Anatomy and Physiology of

the Respiratory System

Dr. Ramadan Mohamed Ahmed


Assoc. Prof. (physiology)
Functions of the Respiratory
System

Air Distributor
Gas exchanger
Filters, warms, and humidifies air
Influences speech
Allows for sense of smell
Divisions of the Respiratory
System
Upper respiratory
tract (outside
thorax)
Nose
Pharynx
Larynx
Divisions of the Respiratory
System
Lower respiratory
tract (within
thorax)

Trachea
Bronchial Tree
Lungs
Structures of the Upper
Respiratory Tract
Nose;- warms and moistens air
Palatine bone;
separates nasal cavity
from mouth.
Septum;- separates
right and left nostrils
Sinuses;- 4 air
containing spaces
open or drain into nose
- (lowers weight of
skull).
Structures of the Upper
Respiratory Tract

Pharynx ;- (throat)
3 divisions
Nasopharynx - behind
nose to soft palate.
Adenoids swell and
block.
Oropharynx;- behind
mouth.
Laryngopharynx -
hyoid bone to
esophagus.
Structures of the Lower
Respiratory Tract

Larynx- voice box


Made of cartilage
Contain
vocal cords
Structures of the Lower
Respiratory Tract larynx

Thyroid cartilage - adams


apple - larger in males
due to testosterone.
Epiglottis;
closes off trachea
when swallowing food
Sound Production
Air passing through glottis:
vibrates vocal folds
produces sound waves

Sound Variation
Sound is varied by:
tension on vocal folds: slender and short =high
pitched.
thicker and longer = low pitched.
Structures of the Lower
Respiratory Tract

Trachea
Larynx to bronchi
Consists of smooth
muscle and C
shaped rings of
cartilage.
Structures of the Lower
Respiratory Tract
Bronchi
Tubes that branch off trachea
and enter into lungs
Branches: Primary bronchi
secondary bronchitertiary
bronchibronchioles
Bronchioles Terminate into
alveoli
Gas exchange with blood
occurs in alveoli.
Structures of the Lower
Respiratory Tract
Bronchodilation
Dilation of bronchial airways
Caused by sympathetic activation
Increase air flow.
Bronchoconstriction
Constricts bronchi
Caused by:
parasympathetic activation
histamine release (allergic reactions)
An Alveolus

Consists of thin, delicate Type


I cells
Alveolar macrophages, also
called dust cells
Type II cells; produce
Surfactant which;
1) Contains phospholipids and
proteins
2) Coats alveolar surfaces and
reduces surface tension
Respiratory Distress

Difficult respiration:
due to alveolar collapse
caused when septal cells do not produce
enough surfactant
Structures of the Lower
Respiratory Tract

Lungs
Extend from
diaphragm to
clavicles
Divided into lobes
by fissures.
Lobes of the Lungs
Lungs have lobes separated by deep
fissures

1) The Right Lung- Has 3 lobes:


superior, middle, and inferior
2) The Left Lung- Has 2 lobes:
superior and inferior
View (b) View (c)

Apex
Superior lobe

ANTERIOR

Horizontal
fissure
Oblique fissure Oblique fissure
Cardiac notch
Inferior lobe Inferior lobe
Middle lobe
POSTERIOR POSTERIOR
Base
(b) Lateral view of right lung (c) Lateral view of left lung
Pleural Cavities and
Pleural Membranes
2 pleural cavities:
are separated by the mediastinum
Each pleural cavity:
holds a lung
Pleura consist of 2 layers:
parietal pleura
visceral pleura
Pleural fluid:
lubricates space between 2 layers
Respiratory Physiology

Pulmonary Ventilation =
breathing
Mechanism
Inspiration; air flows
in.
Expiration air flows
out.
The Mechanics of Breathing

Inhalation: inspiration
always active.

Exhalation: expiration
active or passive
3 Muscle Groups of
Inspiration
1. Diaphragm:
contraction draws air into lungs
75% of normal air movement
2. External intracostal muscles:
assist inhalation
25% of normal air movement
3. Accessory muscles assist in elevating
ribs:
Sternomastoid.
Muscles of forced Expiration

1. Internal intercostal muscle:


depress the ribs
2. Abdominal muscles:
compress the abdomen
force diaphragm upward
MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION
INSPIRATION
It is an active process.

1. Diaphragm:
- Dome-shaped ms in relaxed condition.
- Contraction: it becomes flat length of thoracic cavity
- It is responsible for 75% of in the intrathoracic volume.

2. External intercostal muscles:


- At rest, ribs are inclined downwards.
- Contraction: elevates ribs & pushes sternum forwards
antero-posterior of chest.
With deep inspiration, accessory inspiratory ms contract.

24
MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION
EXPIRATION
It is a passive process.
During inspiration, the elastic structures of the lungs are stretched.
When contraction of inspiratory muscles stops:
Diaphragm relaxes becomes dome-shaped
Elastic structures of lungs retract to their initial shape
= elastic recoil
Air is forced out of lungs
With heavy breathing, elastic forces are insufficient to cause rapid
expiration, so that extra forces are required:
contraction of expiratory muscles.

25
LUNG VOLUMES & CAPACITIES
To study pulmonary ventilation, the volume of air moved in & out of
the lungs is recorded by spirometry.

THE SPIROMETER

The values in males are ~10% greater than in females.


26
LUNG VOLUMES & CAPACITIES
(cont.)

27
Volumes of Air Exchange

Tidal volume - amount of air exhaled normally


after a typical inspiration. Normal - about 500 ml
Expiratory Reserve volume - additional amount of
air forcibly expired after tidal expiration (1000 -
1200 ml).
Inspiratory Reserve volume - (deep breath) amount
of air that can be forcibly inhaled over and above
normal.
Residual volume - amount of air that stays trapped
in the alveoli (about 1.2 liters).
Volumes of Air Exchange

Vital capacity - the largest volume of air


an individual can move in and out of the
lungs.
Vital capacity = sum of IRV+TV+ERV
Depends of many factors
size of thoracic cavity
posture
volume of blood in lungs congestive heart failure,
emphysema, disease, etc
O2 and CO2
Blood arriving in pulmonary arteries has:
low PO2
high PCO2
The concentration gradient causes:
O2 to enter blood
CO2 to leave blood
Rapid exchange allows blood and alveolar air to
reach equilibrium.
Oxygen Transport

O2 binds to iron ions in hemoglobin


(Hb) molecules:
in a reversible reaction
Each binds 4 oxygen molecules
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Is generated as a byproduct of
aerobic metabolism (cellular
respiration).
CO2 in the Blood Stream
70% is transported as carbonic acid
(H2CO3):
which dissociates into H+ and bicarbonate
(HCO3)
23% is bound to amino groups of globular
proteins in Hb molecule:
forming carbaminohemoglobin
7% is transported as CO2 dissolved in
plasma
THE RESPIRATORY CENTER
It is composed of collections of neurons located in pons & medulla:

I. MEDULLARY RESPIRATORY CENTER:


It is composed of 2 bilateral groups of nuclei in the medulla:
1. Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG):
- responsible for normal inspiration.
2. Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG):
- Deep inspiration and expiration.
II. PONTINE RESPIRATORY CENTER:
It is composed of 2 bilateral groups of nuclei in the pons:
1. Apneustic Center (APC):
responsible for the SWITCH ON point of inspiration
2. Pneumotaxic Center (PNC):
- It is located in upper pons.
34
- It is responsible for the SWITCH OFF point of inspiration
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF RESPIRATION
The ultimate goal of respiration is to maintain the P O2,
PCO2 & pH in tissues constant.
O2, CO2 or pH in arterial blood increases the
activity of the respiratory center pulmonary
ventilation, while O2, CO2 or
pH has the opposite effect.
In this way, the respiratory rate is adjusted according to
the bodys metabolic needs.
The effect of changes in PO2, PCO2 & pH on ventilation is
mediated through central or peripheral chemoreceptors
to the respiratory center.
35