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Management

Information Systems,
10/eJr. and George P.
Raymond McLeod
Schell

2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e 1


Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Chapter 7
Systems Development

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Learning Objectives
Recognize the systems approach as the
basic framework for solving problems of
all kinds.
Know how to apply the systems
approach to solving systems problems.
Understand that the systems
development life cycle (SDLC) is a
methodology a recommended way to
develop systems.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Learning Objectives (Contd)
Be familiar with the main SDLC approaches
the traditional waterfall cycle, prototyping,
rapid application development, phased
development, and business process redesign.
Know the basics of modeling processes with
data flow diagrams and use cases.
Understand how systems development
projects are managed in a top-down fashion.
Be familiar with the basic processes of
estimating project cost.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
The Systems Approach
John Dewey identified three series of judgments
involved in adequately resolving a controversy:
Recognize the controversy.
Weigh alternative claims.
Form a judgment.
During the late 1960s/early 1970s, interest in
systematic problem solving strengthened.
Systems approacha series of problem-
solving steps that ensure the problem is first
understood, alternative solutions are
considered, and the selected solution works.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Series of Steps
Preparation effort prepares the problem solver
by providing a systems orientation.
Business areas, level of management, resource flows
Definition effort consists of identifying the
problem to be solved and then understanding it.
Solution effort involves identifying alternative
solutions, evaluating them, selecting the one
that appears best, implementing that solution,
and following up to ensure that the problem is
solved.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.1 Phases and Steps of
Systems Approach

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Figure 7.2 Each Business Area Is
a System

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Definition Effort Terminology
Problem trigger is a signal that things
are going better or worse than planned.
Symptom is a condition that is produced
by the problem and is usually more
obvious than the root cause of the
problem.
Problem is a condition or event that is
harmful or potentially or beneficial or
potentially beneficial to the firm.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.3 Each Part of the
System Is Analyzed in Sequence

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Select the Best Solution
Analysisa systematic evaluation of
options.
Judgmentthe mental process of a
single manager.
Bargainingnegotiations between
several managers.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Systems Development Life
Cycle
Methodology is a recommended way of
doing something.
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
is an application of the systems approach to
the development of an information system.
Traditional SDLC stages are:
Planning
Analysis
Design
Implementation
Use

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.4 The Circular Pattern
of the System Life Cycle

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Prototyping
Prototype is a version of a potential
system that provides the developers
and future users with an idea of how
the system in its completed form will
function.
Prototyping is the process of
producing a prototype.
Best suited for small systemsreflecting
the prototyping influence.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Evolutionary Prototype
Evolutionary prototype is continually
refined until it contains all of the
functionality that users require of the new
system. The steps involved are:
Identify user needs.
Develop prototype.
Integrated application developer
Prototyping toolkit

Determine if the prototype is acceptable.


Use the prototype.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.5 Development of an
Evolutionary Prototype

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Requirements Prototype
Requirements prototype is developed as
a way to define the functional requirements
of the new system when users are unable to
articulate exactly what they want. Begin
with the Evolutionary Prototype steps, then
the next steps are:
Code the new system;
Test the new system;
Determine if the new system is acceptable;
Put the new system into production.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.6 Development of a
Requirements Prototype

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Attraction of Prototyping
Communications between the developer and
user are improved.
The developer can do a better job of
determining the users needs.
The user plays a more active role in system
development.
The developers and the user spend less time
and effort developing the system.
Implementation is much easier because the
user knows what to expect.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Potential Pitfalls of
Prototyping
The haste to deliver the prototype may
produce shortcuts in problem definition,
alternative evaluation, and documentation.
The shortcut produces a quick & dirty effort.
The user may get overly excited about the
prototype, leading to unrealistic expectations
regarding the production system.
Evolutionary prototypes may not be very
efficient.
The computer-human interface provided by
certain prototyping tools may not reflect good
design techniques.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Rapid Application
Development
Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a
term coined by James Martin. It refers to a
development life cycle intended to produce
systems quickly without sacrificing quality.
Information engineering (IE) is the name
that Martin gives to his overall approach to
system development, which treats it as a firm-
wide activity.
Enterprise is used to describe the entire firm.
Essential to RAD is management, people,
methodologies, and tools.
Best suited for large systems.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.7 Rapid Application
Development Is an Integral Part of
Information Engineering

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Phased Development
Phased development is an approach for
developing information systems that
consists of six stages:
Preliminary investigation
Analysis
Design
Preliminary construction
Final construction
System test
Installation.
Best suited for systems of all sizes.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.8 The Stages of the
Phased Development
Methodology

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Module Phases
System is subdivided into major
modules such as:
Report writer;
Database;
Web interface.
Number of modules varies with the
system from one to a dozen or so.
Stages are performed separately for
each module.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.9 Analysis, Design, and
Preliminary Construction are Performed
on Each System Module

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Business Process Redesign
Reengineering or Business process redesign
(BPR) is the process of reworking the systems.
Systems include both those that process the firms
data and those that perform basic functions such as
drilling for oil.
BPR affects the firms IT operations in two ways:
Aids in the redesign of old information systems ( legacy
systems);
Applies to the redesign of information systems to
support major operations.
Usually initiated at strategic management level

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.10 Top-Down Initiation
of BPR Projects

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Strategic Initiation of BPR
Reverse engineering is the process of
analyzing an existing system to:
Identify its elements and their interrelationships;
Create documentation at a higher level of
abstraction than currently exists.
Functionality is the job that it performs.
Reengineering is the complete redesign of
a system with the objective of changing its
functionality.
Forward engineering is given to the
process of following the SDLC in the normal
manner while engaging in BPR.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
BPR Components
BPR components can be applied
separately or in combination.
Functional quality is a measure of
what the system does.
Technical quality is a measure of
how well it does it.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.11 BPR Component Selection Is
Based on Both Functional and Technical
Quality

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Methodologies in Perspective
Traditional SDLC is an application of the
systems approach to the problem of system
development; contains all elements.
Prototyping is an abbreviated form focusing
on the definition and satisfaction of user
needs.
RAD is an alternative approach to the design
and implementation phases of SDLC.
Phased development uses traditional SDLC
and applies it in a modular fashion.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
System Development Tools
Process modeling was first done with
flowcharts.
ISO standards
Use of 20+ symbols
Data flow diagrams (DFD) is a graphic
representation of a system that uses four
symbol shapes to illustrate how data flows
through interconnected processes.
DFDs are excellent for modeling processes at
a summary level.
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Data Flow Diagram Symbols
Terminator describes an environmental element,
such as a person, organization, or another system.
Environmental elements exist outside the boundary of
the system.
Process is something than transforms input into
output.
Data flow consists of a group of logically related
data elements that travel from one point or process
to another; can diverge and converge.
Data storage is a repository of data.
Connector contains the number of the process that
provides the data flow.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.12 A DFD of a Sales
Commission System

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Leveled Data Flow Diagrams
Leveled DFDs is used to describe the hierarchy of
diagrams, ranging from context to lowest-level n
diagram.
Figure 0 diagram identifies the major processes of a
system.
Use additional DFDs to achieve documentation at both a more
summarized and a more detailed level.
Context diagram is a diagram that documents the
system at a more summarized level.
Positions the system in an environmental context.
Figure n diagram is a diagram that provides more
detail.
n represents the # of processes on the next higher level.
Documents a single process of a DFD in greater detail

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.13 A Context Diagram
of a Sales Commission System

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Figure 7.14 A Figure 4 Diagram
of a Sales Commission System

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Use Cases
Use case is a narrative description in an
outline form of the dialog that occurs
between a primary and secondary system.
Continuous narrative format with each
action numbered sequentially.
Ping-pong format consists of two
narratives and the numbering indicates how
the tasks alternate between the primary and
secondary systems.
Alternative events are actions that are not
normally expected to occur; alphabetic
letters are appended to step numbers.
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Figure 7.15 A Use Case

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Figure 7.16 Use Case
Guidelines

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Project Management
Steering committee is a committee with
the purpose of providing ongoing guidance,
direction, and control of all systems projects.
MIS steering committee purpose is
directing the use of the firms computing
resources.
It establishes policies.
It provides fiscal control.
It resolves conflict.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.17 Managers of a
System Life Cycle Arranged in a
Hierarchy

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Project Leadership
Project team includes all of the
persons who participate in the
development of an information
system.
Team leader (project leader)
provides direction throughout the life
of the project.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Project Management
Mechanism
Basis for project management is the project
plan.
Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart that
includes a bar for each task to be performed;
bars arranged in time sequence.
Network diagram (CPM diagram, PERT
chart) is a drawing that identifies activities and
links them with arrows to show the sequence in
which they are to be performed.
Narrative reports are in the form of weekly
written reports by project leader, communicates
project information to MIS steering committee.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 7.18 A Gantt Chart

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Figure 7.19 A Network
Diagram

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Project Cost Estimating
Cost-estimating inputs
Work breakdown structure (WBS)
Resource requirements, resource rates
Activity duration estimates
Historical information
Cost-estimating tools and techniques
Bottom-up estimating
Computerized tools
Mathematical models
Cost-estimating outputs
Supporting details
Cost-management plan

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Table 7.1 Components of Cost-
Estimating Process

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Table 7.2 Example of Project
Cost

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