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ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY PRESENTED BY: MEMOONA MEMON AN D FAZILA KANWAL

ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

PRESENTED BY:

MEMOONA MEMON AN D FAZILA KANWAL

INTRODUCTION

Early chemists realized that organic and inorganic compounds are different in their properties.

By the end of the eighteenth century, chemists had divided compounds into two broad categories: organic and inorganic.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Late 18 th century: “Organic” term was used only for those substances which were obtained from animal or plants sources and could not be prepared in the laboratory.

VITAL FORCE THEORY:The origin and properties of organic compounds led early chemists to postulate that organic compounds are unique to living organisms.

They postulated that living organisms employed a vital force—a mystical or supernatural power—that allowed them to produce organic compounds.

They thought it impossible to produce an organic compound outside of a living organism because the vital force is not present.

This belief—which became known as vitalism—was thought to explain why no chemist had succeeded in synthesizing an organic compound in the laboratory.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  In 1828, a German chemist named Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882) proved vitalism wrong. 

In 1828, a German chemist named Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882) proved vitalism wrong.

Wöhler heated ammonium cyanate (an inorganic compound) and formed urea (an organic compound).

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  In 1828, a German chemist named Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882) proved vitalism wrong. 

Wöhler’s experiment was a crucial step in opening all of life to scientific investigation.

Wöhler showed that the compounds that compose living organisms follow scientific laws and can be studied and understood.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  In 1828, a German chemist named Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882) proved vitalism wrong. 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Mid 19 th Century: re-define organic substances:

Those composed of Carbon, Hydrogen (usually) and other elements (maybe i.e. oxygen ,sulphur ,nitrogen etc).

Note: Carbon Dioxide , Carbon Monoxide , Metal Carbonates and metal cyanides are not classified as Organic Compounds.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  Mid 19 th Century: re-define organic substances: Those composed of Carbon, Hydrogen (usually)

But Why We study “Organic Compounds”

Separately

....

??

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

The number of compounds containing carbon is greater than the number of compounds of all the rest of the elements in the periodic table combined.

A second reason is “Catenation” property of carbon, more than any other element, can bond to
A second reason is “Catenation” property of
carbon, more than any other element, can
bond to itself to form chain, branched, and
ring structures.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including:

Medicinal chemistry: The design, development, and synthesis of medicinal drugs. It overlaps with pharmacology (the study
Medicinal chemistry: The design, development, and
synthesis of medicinal drugs. It overlaps with pharmacology
(the study of drug action).
Food
Organometallic chemistry: The study of chemical
compounds containing bonds between carbon and a metal.
chemistry
Polymer chemistry: The study of the chemistry of
polymers.
Physical organic chemistry: The study of the
interrelationships between structure and reactivity in
organic molecules.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including: Medicinal chemistry: The design, development, and synthesis

Stereochemistry: The study of the spatial arrangements of atoms in molecules and their effects on the chemical and physical properties of substances.

Fossil Fuels

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Classification of Organic Compounds:

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Classification of Organic Compounds:

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

The field of organic chemistry includes more than twenty million compounds for which properties have been determined and recorded in the literature. Many hundreds of new compounds are added every day. Much more than half of the world's chemists are organic chemists. Some new organic compounds are simply isolated from plants or animals; some are made by modifying naturally occurring chemicals; but most new organic compounds are actually synthesized in the laboratory from other (usually smaller) organic molecules. Over the years organic chemists have developed a broad array of reactions that allow them to make all kinds of complex products from simpler starting materials.

ORGANIC

CHEMISTRY

In Our

Body: The element

carbon is not found in a pure form in the human body, but rather in compounds within the body. Carbon constitutes roughly 18 percent of body mass, and millions of carbon atoms form the thousands of molecules in virtually every cell. Carbon is the basic building block required to form proteins, carbohydrates and fats, and it plays a crucial role in regulating the physiology of the body.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  In Our Body: The element carbon is not found in a pure form

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

INTRODUCTION: It is the branch of chemistry that deals with the chemistry of elements and their compounds, generally obtained from non living organism i.e. minerals.

includes compounds that do not contain carbon. i.e. NaCl, SO 2, etc.

Few that do contains carbon.

Inorganic chemistry is also closely related to other disciplines such as materials sciences, physical chemistry, thermodynamics, earth sciences, mineralogy, crystallography, spectroscopy etc.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

However, the boundary between organic and inorganic compounds is not always well defined. For example, oxalic
However, the boundary between organic and inorganic
compounds is not always well defined. For example, oxalic acid,
H 2 C 2 O 4 , is a compound formed in plants, and it is generally
considered an organic acid, but it does not contain any C-H
bond.
 Organic compounds that contain Carbon:
Oxides of carbon. (CO 2 and CO)
 Any compound with Carbonate ion. () i.e. KNa
Any compound with contain just metal and carbon i.e. CaC 2 and
SiC
 HCN, Or a compound with a metal and CN group i.e. NaCN, KCN.
Note: when the CN group appears with other carbon atom then
compound is Organic.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Branches of inorganic chemistry include:

Bioinorganic chemistry: The study of the interaction of metal ions with living tissue, mainly through their direct effect on enzyme activity.

Geochemistry: The study of the chemical composition and changes in rocks, minerals, and atmosphere of the earth or a celestial body.

Nuclear chemistry: The study of radioactive substances.

Organometallic chemistry: The study of chemical compounds containing bonds between carbon and a metal.

Solid-state chemistry: The study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid materials.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

THE WORD ORGANIC MEANS YOU'RE DEALING WITH CARBON COMPOUNDS. CARBON IS AN ELEMENT YOU MIGHT BE FAMILIAR WITH. IT'S AN ELEMENT THAT IS PRESENT IN ALL FORMS OF LIFE AND IS THE FOURTH MOST ABUNDANT ELEMENT IN THE UNIVERSE. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IS BASICALLY THE STUDY OF CARBON- HYDROGEN BONDS. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, ON THE OTHER HAND, IS THE OPPOSITE. IT IS THE STUDY OF THE FORMATION, SYNTHESIS, AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOUNDS THAT DO NOT CONTAIN CARBON-HYDROGEN BONDS.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY There are around 100,000 known inorganic compounds
INORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
There are
around
100,000 known
inorganic
compounds

INORGANIC

CHEMISTRY

while there are around two million known organic compounds.

INORGANIC

CHEMISTRY

Examples of inorganic compounds include:

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY  Examples of inorganic compounds include:  Sodium chloride (NaCl): used as table salt

Sodium chloride (NaCl): used as table salt Silicon dioxide (SiO2): used in computer chips and solar cells Sapphire (Al2O3): a well-known gemstone Sulfuric acid (H2SO4): a

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY  Examples of inorganic compounds include:  Sodium chloride (NaCl): used as table salt
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY  Examples of inorganic compounds include:  Sodium chloride (NaCl): used as table salt

INORGANIC

CHEMISTRY

  • I norganic compounds can

be classified into two main categories

MOLECULER: covalent bonds , non metal elements , small group, but very common

Example: co 2 ,

INORGANIC

CHEMISTRY

Classification Of Organic Compounds:

Acids

Bases

Salts

Oxides

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Classification Of Organic Compounds:  Acids  Bases  Salts  Oxides