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LTE Interoperability in

Idle Mode(LTE->G/U)

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Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Contents
1. LTE Interoperability in Idle Mode Overview

2. IRAT PLMN Selection Procedure

3. IRAT Cell Selection Criteria

4. IRAT Cell Reselection Criteria

5. IRAT Signaling Procedure in Idle Mode

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States of UE at Switch on * Related to
interoperability which
will be discussed in
this course

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States and Relationships in Idle
Mode

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Camp-on Strategies in the Idle
Mode
Idle-Mode Camp-On Idle-Mode Camp-On
Between Different PLMNs Within the Same PLMN

PLMN A LTE
LTE PLMN A LTE
LTE

PLMN B UMTS
UMTS PLMN A UMTS
UMTS

PLMN C GSM
GSM PLMN A GSM
GSM

The dual-mode UE camps on the The dual-mode UE camps on the


network with the highest priority network with the highest priority
(usually LTE by default) through (usually LTE by default) through
PLMN selection. cell reselection.

Power PLMN Selection Cell Cell Reselection


on selection

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Comparation of Camp-on Strategies
LTE use the same or different PLMN IDs with GERAN/UTRAN

Arrange EUTRAN use the same PLMN ID with EUTRAN use different PLMN ID with
Description GERAN/UTRAN GERAN/UTRAN
Set the cell reselect priority in eNodeB Configure high priority PLMN ID for LTE and low
Remain in ENodeB broadcasts system information priority PLMN ID for GERAN/UTRAN (notes UE update
LTE network UE stay in LTE and not easy reselect to EHPLMN date in USIM card via SMS via OTA mode )
in Idle state GERAN/UTRAN cell UE will select PLMN of LTE at first when attach or
reselect in idle state

RAN broadcasts cell reselection parameter in SIB3/4 Configure high priority PLMN ID for GERAN/UTRAN
Remain in RAN broadcasts inter-RAT cell reselection and low priority PLMN ID for LTE (notes UE update
GERAN/UTRA parameter in SIB3/4 and inter-RAT frequency priority EHPLMN data in USIM card via SMS via OTA mode )
N network in of LTE UE will select PLMN of GERAN/UTRAN at first when
Idle State UE searches all high priority of RAT frequency cell attach or reselect in idle state

User smoothly upgrade (do not need update RAN does not need upgrade
EHPLMN data in USIM card)
Advantage The time of cell reselection is short
UE Returns to LTE on time
Reduce electric power
It is suggested EUTRAN uses the same PLMN ID with GERAN/UTRAN
Need RAN upgrade UE search and measure LTE cell for long time
Disadvantage Consume electric power
Cant reselect to LTE on time

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Contents
1. LTE Interoperability in Idle Mode Overview

2. IRAT PLMN Selection Procedure

3. IRAT Cell Selection Criteria

4. IRAT Cell Reselection Criteria

5. IRAT Signaling Procedure in Idle Mode

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page9
PLMN Selection Principle
When a dual-mode UE is powered on in an area covered by both the
LTE and the GERAN/UTRAN network, it needs to select a network to
camp on. The principles of network selection are as follows:

After the dual-mode UE is powered on, it first tries the Registered Public
Land Mobile Network (RPLMN) and the cell that it previously camps on.

If the RPLMN and cell do not meet the camp-on conditions, the UE selects a
proper PLMN and RAT according to the configurations in the UMTS
Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) and then a qualified cell.

To improve user experience and make full use of the newly deployed
LTE network, the LTE network is usually set with the highest priority.
The public priorities are broadcast through system messages.

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PLMN Selection Procedure Overview

RPLMN

EPLMN
(if available)
The highest (If present and
priority EHPLMN not empty

(If the EHPLMN list


HPLNM is not present or
empty)

UPLMN

OPLMN

Other PLMN

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PLMN Selection Procedure in
Detail Stored in Last RPLMN or equivalent PLMN
PLMN Select
UE When UE
Switch On
HPLMN&EHPLMN Selector with Access
Set in SIM Technology data file (in priority order)

User Controlled PLMN Selector The Timer of HPLMN


Set in UE with Access Technology data file Reselection is Saved in
(in priority order) USIM Card(6m~8h in 6m
steps or no periodic
Operator Controlled PLMN Selector attempts)
Set in SIM with Access Technology data file (in
priority order)
Suggested PLMN List in
SIM card: The PLMN with Better Wireless
PLMN + E-UTRAN
PLMN + UTRAN
Quality in random order
PLMN + GSM
Other PLMN Base On Wireless Quality
in order of decreasing signal quality

Customized PLMN/Frequency List in SIM card, UE Prefers to Camp on LTE Network

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page13
Contents
1. LTE Interoperability in Idle Mode Overview

2. IRAT PLMN Selection Procedure

3. IRAT Cell Selection Criteria

4. IRAT Cell Reselection Criteria

5. IRAT Signaling Procedure in Idle Mode

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Location of UE Search and Selection
Procedure Power on

Time and Downlink


Frequency
UE synchronization synchronization
idle complete
Behavior Decode system
phase information
Physical layer
measurement
(RSRP&RSRQ)

UE eNodeB provides Uplink Invisible flow

access timing advance synchronization Partial visible flow


phase information complete Visible flow

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Cell Search

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Synchronized Signal

DL SS is used to realize DL synchronization between


UE and eNodeB and also help UE to get PCI of cell

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System Message Receiving
Purpose: From the system
message, UE get all
necessary parameters for
the further procedure,
such as cell camping,
random access, etc.

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System Message Overview

For detail, please refer to notes below.

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RRC States

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RRC Connection

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LTE RRC State Interoperability with 2G/3G

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Cell Selection/Reselection
Procedures

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Cell Selection
After receiving all necessary system message, UE start to
measure RS (Reference Signal) for cell selection judgment
RSRP and RSRQ can be evaluated

Criteria for cell selection:


Srxlev > 0 and Squal > 0
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - (Qrxlevmin + Qrxlevminoffset) Pcompensation
Squal = Qqualmeas (Qqualmin + Qqualminoffset)

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Cell Selection Configuration
The parameter Minimum Required RX quality level offset(dB)
will appear only when the Minimum required RX quality level
offset configure indicator is configured as CFG(Configure).

Qrxlevmin

Qrxlevminoffset Qqualmin

Qqualminoffset

Criteria for cell selection:


Srxlev > 0 and Squal > 0
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - (Qrxlevmin + Qrxlevminoffset) Pcompensation
Squal = Qqualmeas (Qqualmin + Qqualminoffset)

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Cell Selection Configuration
MOD CELLRESEL

PMaximum allowed power

Pcompensation = max (PMaximum allowed power PUE MAX Output Power, 0)

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Contents
1. LTE Interoperability in Idle Mode Overview

2. IRAT PLMN Selection Procedure

3. IRAT Cell Selection Criteria

4. IRAT Cell Reselection Criteria

5. IRAT Signaling Procedure in Idle Mode

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page29
Cell Reselection Overview
The signal strength of both the serving cell and
neighboring cells varies with the movement of a UE,
so the UE needs to select a better cell to camp on.
This process is called cell reselection.

* Related to interoperability which will be discussed in this course

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Cell Reselection Evaluation Criteria

Cell Reselection Priority

Confirm the
Blacklisted target cell in
Cell Reselection
Cell cell reselection
Evaluation

Result of Neighboring
Cell Measurement

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Blacklisted Cell Identifying
During cell reselection, UEs are not allowed to
measure or reselect blacklisted cells of the serving
cell.
UEs identify blacklisted cells by PCIs(Physical Cell
Types of
Delivere
Identifiers).
Blacklisted
d via
MML. Parameter
Cells
Intra-frequency 1)IntraFreqBlkCell.PhyCellId : a starting PCI;
blacklisted SIB4 2)IntraFreqBlkCell.PhyCellIdRange:the number of
cells consecutive PCIs from the starting PCI onwards
1)InterFreqBlkCell.DlEarfcn:specifies the
downlink EARFCN of the neighboring E-UTRAN;
Inter-frequency
2)InterFreqBlkCell.PhyCellId :a starting PCI;
blacklisted SIB5
3)InterFreqBlkCell.PhyCellIdRange : the number
cells
of consecutive PCIs from the starting PCI
onwards.

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Data Configuration of Blacklisted
Cell
For intra-frequency blacklisted cells

For inter-frequency blacklisted cells

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The Neighboring Cell Priority Overview
During implying measurements and the cell reselection, the UE needs to
obtain the priorities of neighboring frequencies.
Note: Frequencies of different RATs must have different priorities. During
the evaluation for reselection to an intra-frequency neighboring cell, the
UE ignores the priority of the target frequency because cells that work
on the same frequency have the same priority.
The priorities of inter frequency and IRAT are classified into two types:

Absolute priority

Static configuration via MML

Dedicated priority

Assigned by RRC Conncection Release message and is valid for a
specific UE

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Types of the Neighboring Cell Priority
Delive
Priorit ry MML Command. Product
Notes
y Type Metho Parameter Version
d
SIB3 CELLRESEL.CellReselPriority The Serving Cell
EUTRANINTERNFREQ. Inter-frequency
SIB5
CellReselPriority Ncells
Absolute It is permanent when
Priority SIB6 UTRANNFREQ.CellReselPriority UMTS Ncells
UE has no dedicated
(Cell GERANNFREQGROUP. GSM Ncells
Level) SIB7 priority
CellReselPriority
CDMA2000BANDCLASS. CDMA2000 Ncells
SIB8
CellReselPriority
Mapping to UEs SPID:
180min
RATFreqPriorityGroup. Priority
Priority
The priority is delivered to the UE
Dedicate Send to in an RRC Connection Release Valid within associated with
UE in an message when the UE attempts to RRCCONNSTATETI
d the UEs SPID, has
RRC release radio resources for "other
Priority Connecti MER.T320ForOther higher priority
cause.
on than that
(User Valid within
Release The priority is delivered to the UE
Copyright
Level) 2013
message Huawei
in anTechnologies
RRC ConnectionCo.,Release
Ltd. All rights reserved. Page35 configured by
RRCCONNSTATETI
when the UE attempts to release
The Absolute Priority Configuration-
the Serving Cell Reselection Priority
(1/4)
The absolute priority of the serving frequency is set by

CELLRESEL.CellReselPriority which is broadcasted in the


SIB3.

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The Absolute Priority Configuration-
EUTRAN Target Cell (2/4)
MOD EUTRANINTERNFREQ

Note: if priority indicator is set Not CFG, then UE


doesnt implement cell reselection to the target
frequency.

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The Absolute Priority Configuration- the
IRAT Neighbor Cell Reselection
The absolute priority of the neighboring GERAN frequency is
Priority(3/4)
set by GERANNFREQGROUP.CellReselPriority which is
broadcasted in the SIB7.

GSM

The absolute priority of the neighboring UTRAN frequency is


set by UTRANNFREQ.CellReselPriority which is broadcasted
in the SIB6.
UMTS

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The Absolute Priority Configuration -
the IRAT Neighbor Cell Reselection
Priority(4/4)
The absolute priority of the neighboring CDMA2000 frequency
is set by CDMA2000BANDCLASS.
Cdma20001XrttCellReselPri which is broadcasted in the SIB8.

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Dedicated Cell Reselection Priority
Configuration and Application Overview
Dedicated cell reselection priority in RRC Release is received by UE when UE leave RRC-Connected state.
Dedicated cell reselection priority is configured in eNodeB based on Operator policy for every SPID.
Step1:Dedicated cell reselection priority configuration in eNodeB
MML COMMAND: RatFreqPriorityGroup
RatFreq RatType DlEarf Prio BandIndicat
Step2: setup the mapping between dedicated priority and SPID
Priorit cn rity or UE MML COMMAND: SpidCfg
yGroupI Spid RatFreqPriorityInd RatFreqPriorityGroupId
d
1 EUTRAN F1 7 Not involved 1 1 CFG(CFG) 1
1 EUTRAN F2 6 Not involved 2 2 NOT_CFG(NOT_CFG) Not involved
1 UTRAN F3 4 Not involved 3 3 NOT_CFG (NOT_CFG) Not involved
1 GERAN F4 1 GSM_dcs18 4 4 CFG(CFG) 2
00
2 EUTRAN F1 0 Not involved 5 5 CFG(CFG) 4
2 ... ... CFG(CFG) ...
EUTRAN F2 1 Not involved
... 256 CFG(CFG) 255
2 UTRAN F3 7 Not involved

2 GERAN F4 6 GSM_pcs19 Step3: eNodeB send dedicated cell reselection priority to UE


00
... ... ... ... ...

Step4: UE firstly applies dedicated priority before the optional


validity time of dedicated priorities (T320) expires.
By dedicated Priority based on SPID, Operators can make its subscribers to camp in a suitable RAT (a cell of LTE/UMTS/GSM) or
frequency (a cell of LTE) based on the service characteristics. For example, for a data centric subscriber, a LTE cell will be the more
suitable selection than an UMTS cell or a GSM cell; for a voice centric subscriber, a GSM cell or an UMTS cell will be the more
suitable selection than a LTE cell.

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The Dedicated Priority Configuration
for the Flexible User Steering
If flexible user steering feature is activated, we can set the dedicated
priority based on subscriber profile ID, and valid duration is 180 min.
It is delivered to the UE in an RRC Connection Release message when
the UE's radio resources are released.

mapping

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Timers Configuration of the Dedicate
Priority
A UE deletes priorities provided by dedicated signaling in any
of the following situations:
The NAS signals the AS to perform PLMN selection.

The UE enters the connected mode.
The validity time (specified byT320) of the dedicated
priority expires.
The value of T320 is fixed to 180 minutes for UEs SPID.
Otherwise, timers configured in the following figure will be
used.

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The IRAT Neighboring Measurement
Overview
Before the cell reselection, a UE performs measurements of
neighboring cells based on the RX signal level and quality of the
serving cell and frequency priorities of the neighboring cells.
The UE only measures the neighboring frequencies
broadcasted in the system information and the
neighboring frequencies whose priority information is
carried in the RRC Connection Release message.

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Neighboring Cell Measurement
Procedure before Cell Reselection
Intre-Freq /IRAT Measurement
Intra-Freq
Measurement PNCELLPSCELL PNCELL>PSCELL

Qqual Qqual
CELLRESEL.S
IntraSearch Always
measuring
Always
measuring
CfgInd= SNonIntraSearchQ
SIntraSearchQ
NOT_CFG(No
t Srxlev Srxlev Always
configure) SIntraSearchP SNonIntraSearchP Measuring

CELLRESEL.S
IntraSearch
Always Measuring Always Measuring
CfgInd=CFG(
Configure)

From SIB ,UE can get the serving cell and IRAT neighbors priorities.
For the high priority cells, UE measure them always, for the low priority cells, UE measure them in case
of the serving cell signal is lower than the threshold.
The intra frequency cells have the same frequency priority, frequencies of different RATs must have
different priorities.

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Data Configuration of Neighboring Cell
Measurement Threshold

SNonIntraSearchCfgInd
SNonIntraSearchP

SNonIntraSearchQ

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Cell Reselection Criteria Overview
Reselection to a Better Cell
Cell Reselection
TDD
TDD Principal
S-eNB is worse than
Thresh_serving.low & T-BTS is
FDD better than Thresh_x.low
FDD Cell Reselection
High Prio. T-eNB is better than Thresh_x.high Low Prio.
eNodeB eNodeB/BTS

UMTS/GSM No need consider serving cell Both CellS and Celln should be
considered

Low Prio. -> High


Prio.
Happens when UE
enters Higher
Priority
High Cell.
Prio. -> Low
Prio.
Happens when UE
moves out of
Higher Priority Cell.
UEs camp on Cell
which providing best Cell Reselection (Low -> High)
Cell Reselection (High -> Low)
service

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Inter-RAT Cell Selection Criteria
During reselection to an inter-RAT neighboring cell, the Srxlev
and Squal values of inter-RAT neighboring cells need to be
calculated as follows:
UTRAN Neighboring cell
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - (Qrxlevmin + Qrxlevminoffset)
Pcompensation
Squal = Qqualmeas - (Qqualmin + Qqualminoffset)
GERAN Neighboring cell
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - Qrxlevmin Pcompensation
CDMA2000 Neighboring cell
Srxlev = -FLOOR(-2 x 10 x log10 Ec/Io)
Reselection to an inter-RAT cell can be classified into reselection to
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The General Procedure of Reselection
to a Higher-priority Cell
No need consider serving cell
When ThrshServLowQCfgInd CFG
that is to say, SIB3 contains
threshServingLowQ, only for EUTRAN
and UTRAN neighbour cells, using :
Squal>Threshx.highQ.
While for GERAN and CDMA neighbour
cells , no matter whether
ThrshServLowQCfgInd CFG, always
using:
Srxlev> Threshx.high
Cell Reselection( Low -> High)

step1 step2
ThrshServLowQCfgInd ThreshServingLowQ

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The Data Configuration of Reselection
to a Higher-priority Cell(1/2)

TReselUtran
UTRAN

ThreshXHigh

ThreshXHighQ

TReselGeran
GERAN

ThreshXHigh

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The Data Configuration of Reselection
to a Higher-priority Cell(2/2)

CDMA2000 TreselectionHrpd

Cdma1XrttTreselection

Cdma20001XrttThreshXHigh

Cdma2000HrpdThreshXHigh

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The General Procedure of
Reselection to a Lower-priority Cell
When ThrshServLowQCfgInd CFG

Both CellS and Celln should be considered


that is to say, SIB3 contains
threshServingLowQ,
For serving cell,
Squal<threshServingLowQ
For EUTRAN and UTRAN neighbour
cells, Squal>threshXLowQ
When ThrshServLowQCfgInd NOT
CFG,
For serving cell,
Srxlev<threshServingLow
For EUTRAN and UTRAN neighbour
cells, Srxlev>threshXLow
Cell Reselection (High -> Low)
While for GERAN and CDMA neighbour
cells , no matter whether
ThrshServLowQCfgInd CFG,
Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Srxlev>Page54
threshXLow
The Data Configuration of
Reselection to a Lower-priority
Cell(1/2) TReselUtran

UTRAN

ThreshXLow

ThreshXLowQ

TReselGeran
GERAN

ThreshXLow

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The Data Configuration of
Reselection to a Lower-priority
Cell(2/2)

CDMA2000 TreselectionHrpd

Cdma1XrttTreselection

Cdma20001XrttThreshXLow

Cdma2000HrpdThreshXLow

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Contents
1. LTE Interoperability in Idle Mode Overview

2. IRAT PLMN Selection Procedure

3. IRAT Cell Selection Criteria

4. IRAT Cell Reselection Criteria

5. IRAT Signaling Procedure in Idle Mode

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page57
MS eNodeB new SGSN old MME S-GW P-GW HSS

0. UE changes to UTRAN or GERAN

1. Routeing Area Update Request


LTE->GU Cell
2. SGSN Context Request Reselection
3. Security Functions
2. SGSN Context Response
GnGp SGSN
4. SGSN Context Acknowledge

old SGSN

6. Update PDP Context Request

6. Update PDP Context Response


Key process of inter RAT
7. Update Location RAU
8. Cancel Location Locate UE identity
8. Cancel Location Ack MME check P-TMSI
9. Insert Subscriber Data signature
9. Insert Subscriber Data Ack MME mapping MM context
10. Update Location Ack MME performs EPS and
11. Routeing Area Update Accept
PDP context mapping
include pre-R8 and R8 QoS
12. Routeing Area Update Complete
13. Delete Session Request
mapping
Create PDP context and
13. Delete Session Response
delete bearer
13. S1-AP: S1 Release
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Page58
GU->LTE
Cell Reselection
Gn/Gp SGSN

Key process of inter RAT


TAU
Locate UE identity
MME check PTMSI
signature
MME mapping MM context
MME performs EPS and PDP
context mapping include
pre-R8 and R8 QoS
mapping
Crete PDP context and delete
PDP context
Other is just as the same as
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