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Group 7 the halogens
The elements in group 7 of the periodic table, on the right,
are called the halogens.
F fluorine

Cl chlorine

Br bromine

I iodine

At astatine

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What are the halogens?

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Why are they called the halogens?
Halogens are very reactive non metals.

They are all toxic or harmful


because they are so reactive.
Before antiseptics, iodine was
used to clean wounds as it is
harmful to all things, including
bacteria.

They are also never found free in nature because of their


reactivity they are found as compounds with metals.

These halogen-metal compounds are salts, which give


halogens their name halo-gen means salt-former.

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What is the electron structure of the halogens?

All halogens have seven electrons in their outer shell.


This means that:
fluorine
They can easily obtain a 2,7
full outer shell by gaining
one electron.
chlorine
They all gain an electron
2,8,7
in reactions to form
negative ions with a -1
charge.

They have similar bromine


chemical properties. 2,8,8,7

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How do halogen molecules exist?
All halogen atoms require one more electron to obtain a full
outer shell and become stable.
Each atom can achieve this by sharing one electron with
another atom to form a single covalent bond.

F + F F F

This means that all halogens exist as diatomic molecules:


F2, Cl2, Br2 and I2.

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What are the general properties of the halogens?
All the halogens are:
non-metals and so do not conduct electricity
brittle and crumbly when solid
poisonous and smelly.

They become darker in colour down the group:


is pale yellow

is green-yellow

is red-brown

is blue-black.

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What is the physical state of the halogens?
The melting and boiling points of the halogens increase
down the group, as the molecules become bigger.
Halogen Relative Melting Boiling State
size point (C) point (C)
-220 -118 gas

-101 -34 gas

-7 59 liquid

114 184 solid

What is the state of each halogen at room temperature?


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Melting and boiling points of halogens

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Halogen vapours
Bromine and iodine are not gaseous, but have low boiling
points. This means that they produce vapour at relatively
low temperature. They are volatile.

Bromine produces some When iodine is heated gently, it


red-brown vapour, seen changes directly from a solid to a
here above the liquid gas without first becoming a liquid.
bromine in the jar. This is called sublimation.
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True or false?

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How do the halogens react with metals?
The reactivity of halogens means that they readily react with
most metals.
Halogens need to gain electrons for a full electron shell and
metals need to lose electrons for a full electron shell.
This means that halogens and metals react to form ionic
compounds.
These are metal halides, which are a type of salt.

nickel (II) chloride copper (II) chloride


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What are halides?
When halogens react with another substance, they become
negative ions, as they are gaining an extra electron.
When this happens, they are called halides.
The name of each of the halogens changes slightly once
it has reacted instead of ending with ine, they end
with -ide.

Halogen reaction Halide


(F) fluoride (F-)

(Cl) chloride (Cl-)

(Br) bromide (Br-)

(I) iodide (I-)

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Halogens reacting with iron wool

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What is the order of reactivity?

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What is the reactivity of the halogens?
The iron wool experiment shows that the reactivity of
halogens decreases as you go down the group.
decrease in reactivity

Halogen Reaction with iron wool

Iron wool burns and glows brightly.


Iron wool glows but less brightly than
with chlorine.
Iron wool has a very slight glow.

Astatine is the halogen that appears directly below iodine in


the periodic table.
How do you think astatine would react with iron wool?

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Equations of halogens and iron
When a halogen reacts with iron it forms an iron halide:

halogen + iron iron (III) halide


The word and chemical equations for the reaction between
chlorine and iron are:
iron (III)
chlorine + iron
chloride
3Cl2 (g) + 2Fe (s) 2FeCl3 (s)
What would the equation be for the reaction that forms
iron (III) bromide?
iron (III)
bromine + iron
bromide
3Br2 (g) + 2Fe (s) 2FeBr3 (s)
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How does electron structure affect reactivity?

The reactivity of alkali metals decreases going down the


group. What is the reason for this?
The atoms of each element get
F
larger going down the group.
This means that the outer shell gets

decrease in reactivity
further away from the nucleus and
is shielded by more electron shells. Cl
The further the outer shell is from
the positive attraction of the
nucleus, the harder it is to attract
another electron to complete the
outer shell. Br
This is why the reactivity of the
halogens decreases going down
group 7.
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How do the halogens react with non-metals?

Halogens also react with non-metals.


For example, halogens react with hydrogen to create
hydrogen halides.

H + Cl H Cl

hydrogen chlorine hydrogen chloride

Unlike their reactions with metals, halogens share electrons


with non-metals, and so react to form covalent compounds.
All hydrogen halides are gases. They dissolve easily in
water and become strong acids.
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Displacement of halogens
If a halogen is added to a solution of a compound containing a
less reactive halogen, it will react with the compound and form
a new one.
This is called displacement.

sodium sodium
fluorine + chloride

fluoride
+ chlorine

F2 (aq) + 2NaCl (aq) 2NaF (aq) + Cl2 (aq)

A more reactive halogen will always displace a less reactive


halide from its compounds in solution.

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Displacement of halogens
Why will a halogen always displace a less reactive halogen?

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Displacement theory
If a metal halide is mixed with a more reactive halogen,
the extra electron will be transferred from the less reactive
to the more reactive halogen.
--
+
sodium chlorine
chloride
Na Cl

-
fluorine
fluoride F

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Displacement reactions of halogens

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Displacement reactions: summary
The reactions between solutions of halogens and metal
halides (salts) can be summarised in a table:

salt (aq) potassium potassium potassium


halogen chloride bromide iodide

chlorine 2KCl + Br2 2KCl + I2

bromine no reaction 2KBr + I2

iodine no reaction no reaction

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Is there a displacement reaction?

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Reactions of halogens: summary

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What are the uses of halogens?
How many everyday uses of halogens can you see below?

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What are the uses of halogens?

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What are the uses of halogens?

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Glossary
diatomic Molecules that exist as two atoms covalently
bonded together.
displacement The reaction when a more reactive
halogen reacts with a compound containing a less reactive
halogen.
halide The name of a halogen when it has reacted with
another substance and gained a full outer electron shell.
halogen An element that belongs to group 7 of the
periodic table.
hydrogen halide A compound formed from the reaction
between hydrogen and a halogen.
metal halide A compound formed from the reaction
between a metal and a halogen.
sublime To change from a solid to a gas without first
becoming a liquid.
volatile A substance that evaporates or produces vapour
at relatively low temperatures.
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Anagrams

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Multiple-choice quiz

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