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BASIC

PRINCIPLES
OF
RECOMBINAN
T DNA
TECHNOLOGY
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
Genetic engineering procedures involve type of DNA
called recombinant DNA
RECOMBINANT DNA (rDNA)
is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two
or more sequences that would not normally occur together
through the process of gene splicing.
is DNA that contains genetic material from 2 different
organisms
is made by inserting a gene obtained from DNA of one
organism into the DNA from another kind of organism.
Encompasses a number of experimental protocols
leading to the transfer of genetic information(DNA)
from one organism to another. Involves the
manipulation of genetic material(DNA) to achieve the
desired goal in a pre-determined way.
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
What is Recombinant DNA Technology?
Recombinant DNA technology is a technology
which allows DNA to be produced via artificial
means. The procedure has been used to change
DNA in living organisms and may have even more
practical uses in the future.
It is an area of medical science that is just
beginning to be researched in a concerted effort.
Recombinant DNA technology is one of the recent
advances in biotechnology, which was developed
by two scientists named Boyer and Cohen in
1973.
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
Recombinant DNA technology works by taking
DNA from two different sources and combining
that DNA into a single molecule. That alone,
however, will not do much.
Recombinant DNA technology only becomes
useful when that artificially-created DNA is
reproduced. This is known as DNA cloning.
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
Basic principles of rDNA technology:
Generation of DNA fragments & selection
of the desired piece of DNA.
Insertion of the selected DNA into a
cloning vector to create a rDNA or
chimeric DNA.
Introduction of the recombinant vectors
into host cells.
Multiplication & selection of clones
containing the recombinant molecules.
Expression of the gene to produce the
desired product.
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING (RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY)
The bacterium E. coli w/c is found in the
intestinal tract of humans an animals, is
the organism most often used in
recombinant DNA experiments.
Steps in obtaining E. coli cells that
contain recombinant DNA
step1 : Cell Membrane Dissolution
step2: Isolation of Plasmid fraction
step3: Cleavage of Plasmid DNA
step4: Gene removal from another organism
step5: Gene-plasmid splicing
THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
A technique called the Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized recombinant
DNA technology. It can amplify DNA from as little material as a single cell and from very
old tissue such as that isolated from Egyptian mummies, a frozen mammoth, and insects
trapped in ancient amber.
Is a method for rapidly producing multiple copies of a DNA nucleotide
sequence.
method is used to amplify DNA sequences
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can quickly clone a small sample of DNA in a test
tube
Billions of copies of a specific DNA sequence (gene) can be produced in a few hours via
this reaction.
Is easy to carry out, requiring only a few chemicals, a container, and a source of heat.
The PCR process, devised in 1983, has become a valuable tool for diagnosing diseases
and detecting pathogens in the body.
It is now used in the prenatal diagnosis of a number of genetic disorders, including
muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis, and in the identification of bacterial pathogens
It is also the definitive way to detect the AIDS virus.
The PCR process has also proved useful in certain types of forensic investigations.
A DNA sample may be obtained from a single drop of blood or semen or a single strand
of hair at the crime scene and amplified by the PCR process.
Work with DNA in the forensic area is often referred to as DNA fingerprinting.
THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Plasmids-are circular, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules that are separate


from a cells chromosomal DNA.
These extra chromosomal DNAs, which occur naturally in bacteria and in lower
eukaryotic cells (e.g., yeast), exist in a parasitic or symbiotic relationship with their
host cell.
DNA Ligase- pastes the DNA fragments together
joins the DNA fragments by forming a phosphodiester bond b/n the phosphate
group of 5-carbon of one deoxyribose with the hydroxyl group of 3-carbon of
another deoxyribose.
Restriction Enzyme- is an enzyme that recognizes specific base sequences in
DNA and cleaves the DNA in a predictable manner at these sequences. The
discovery of restriction enzymes made genetic engineering possible.
Transformation is the process of incorporating recombinant DNA into a
host cell
Clones are cells with identical DNA that have descended from a single cell
DNA Polymerase an enzyme present in all living organisms, is a key
substance in the PCR process.
Primer A short starter nucleotide chain where additional nucleotides
attach.
APPLICATIONS OF
RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY TO
MEDICINE & PHARMACY
APPLICATIONS OF RECOMBINANT DNA
TECHNOLOGY
Analysis of Gene Structure and Expression
Pharmaceutical Products
Drugs
Vaccines

Genetically modified organisms (GMO)


Transgenic plants
Transgenic animal

Applications in medicine
Human Gene Therapy
Diagnosis of genetic disorders
Forensic Evidence

Industrial Application
Enzymes
Protein Products
ANALYSIS OF GENE STRUCTURE
AND EXPRESSION
Usingspecialized recombinant DNA techniques,
researchers have determined vast amounts of DNA
sequence including the entire genomic sequence of
humans and many key experimental organisms.
This enormous volume of data, which is growing at
a rapid pace, has been stored and organized in two
primary data banks:
the GenBank at the National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Maryland,
and the EMBL Sequence Data Base at the European
Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany.
PHARMACEUTICAL
PRODUCTS
Some pharmaceutical applications of DNA technology:
Large-scale production of human hormones and other proteins
with therapeutic uses
Production of safer vaccines
A number of therapeutic gene products insulin, the
interleukins, interferons, growth hormones, erythropoietin,
and coagulation factor VIIIare now produced
commercially from cloned genes
Pharmaceutical
companies already are
producing molecules
made by recombinant
DNA to treat human
diseases.
Recombinant bacteria
are used in the
production of human
growth hormone and
human insulin
Use recombinant cells to mass produce proteins
Bacteria
Yeast
Mammalian
Insulin
Hormone required to properly Human Growth hormone deficiency
process sugars and fats Faulty pituitary and
Treat diabetes regulation
Now easily produced by Had to rely on cadaver source
bacteria Now easily produced by
bacteria
SUBUNIT HERPES VACCINE
NOT ALWAYS USED FOR GOOD...

High doses of HGH can cause permanent side effects


As adults normal growth has
stopped so excessive GH can
thicken bones and enlarge organs
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
(GMO)
The first organisms to be genetically engineered were Bacteria in 1973
& Mice in 1974
Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982
Genetically Modified Food Crops (GMO) have been available since 1994
Genetically Modified Form of Foods & Fibres now dominate several
major crops in the U.S.
For Plant Crops listed below, the most common genetic modification
involves the introduction of a herbicide tolerance trait.
A gene is inserted that allow the crops to be sprayed w/ the Weed killer
GLYPHOSATE (Round-up) w/o harm to the plants.
These crops also frequently have an insect resistant trait that is
obtained from the presence of a gene obtained fro the soil bacteria
Bacillus thuringiensis ( presence of this bacteria causes the plants to
produce their own pesticide)
Most Common GMO Crops in the U.S.
SUGAR BEETS(95%) SOYBEANS(91%)
COTTON(88%) CORN(85%)
CANOLA(85%)
INTRODUCTION
In 2011, the USDA gave approval for planting corn that
is genetically modified to produce the enzyme alpha-
amylase (rapidly breaks down starch to glucose)
Genetically modified Tomato plants w/ a longer shelf
life now exist. (ripening process was turned off or
deactivated)
Strawberry gene is introduced to a mustard plant
variety that is very susceptible to attack by spider
mites ( the gene produced a chemical attractant for
predator mites that eat the spider mites)
Bacteria Protein Factories These genetically
engineered bacteria, containing genes for human
proteins, can produced large quantities of designated
proteins because of their rapid production rate.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED
ORGANISMS (GMO)
Use of recombinant plasmids in
agriculture
plants with genetically desirable
traits
herbicide or pesticide resistant corn &
soybean
Decreases chemical insecticide use
Increases production

Golden rice with beta-carotene


Required to make vitamin A, which in
deficiency causes blindness
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
(GMO)
Crops have been
developed that are
better tasting, stay
fresh longer, and are
protected from disease
and insect infestations.

Golden rice has been


genetically modified to
contain beta-carotene
GENETIC ENGINEERING OF
PLANTS
Plants have been bred for millennia to enhance
certain desirable characteristics in important food
crops.
Transgenic plants.
The luciferase gene from a
firefly is transformed into
tobacco plant using the Ti
plasmid. Watering the plant
with a solution of luciferin
(the substrate for firefly
luciferase) results in the
generation of light by all plant
tissues.
Insect-resistant tomato plants
The plant on the left contains a gene that encodes a
bacterial protein that is toxic to certain insects that
feed on tomato plants. The plant on the right is a wild-
type plant. Only the plant on the left is able to grow
when exposed to the insects.
TRANSGENIC ANIMALS

Green fluorescence Red fluorescence


TRANSGENIC ANIMALS
A transgenic mouse

Mouse on right is
normal; mouse on
left is transgenic
animal expressing
rat growth hormone
FARM ANIMALS AND PHARM
ANIMALS
Trangenicplants and animals
have genes from other
organisms.

These transgenic sheep


carry a gene for a human
blood protein
This protein may help in
the treatment of cystic
fibrosis
OTHER BENEFITS OF GMOS
Disease resistance
There are many viruses, fungi, bacteria that cause
plant diseases
Cold tolerance
Antifreeze gene from cold water fish introduced to
tobacco and potato plants
Drought tolerance & Salinity tolerance
As populations expand, potential to grow crops in
otherwise inhospitable environments
WHERE IN THE WORLD?
DOWNSIDES???
Introduce allergens?
Pass trans-genes to wild
populations?
Pollinator transfer
R&D is costly
Patents to insure profits
Patent infringements
Lawsuits

potential for capitalism to

overshadow
humanitarian efforts
APPLICATION IN MEDICINE
Human Gene Therapy
Diagnosis of genetic disorders
Forensic Evidence
HUMAN GENE THERAPY
Human gene therapy seeks to repair the
damage caused by a genetic deficiency
through introduction of a functional version
of the defective gene. To achieve this end, a
cloned variant of the gene must be
incorporated into the organism in such a
manner that it is expressed only at the proper
time and only in appropriate cell types. At this
time, these conditions impose serious
technical and clinical difficulties.
HUMAN GENE THERAPY

Gene therapy is the alteration of an afflicted


individuals genes
Gene therapy holds great potential for treating
disorders traceable to a single defective gene
Vectors are used for delivery of genes into cells
Gene therapy raises ethical questions, such as
whether human germ-line cells should be treated to
correct the defect in future generations
HUMAN GENE THERAPY
Many gene therapies have received approval
from the National Institutes of Health for
trials in human patients, including the
introduction of gene constructs into patients.
Among these are constructs designed to cure
ADA- SCID (severe combined
immunodeficiency due to adenosine
deaminase [ADA] deficiency), neuroblastoma,
or cystic fibrosis, or to treat cancer through
expression of the E1A and p53 tumor
suppressor genes.
Cloned gene
Insert RNA version of normal allele
into retrovirus.

Viral RNA

Let retrovirus infect bone marrow cells


Retrovirus that have been removed from the
capsid patient and cultured.

Somatic cells
Only!
Viral DNA carrying the normal
allele inserts into chromosome.
Not for
reproductive
Bone
marrow cells !!
cell from
patient

Bone
Inject engineered marrow
cells into patient.
DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC
DISORDERS

AIDS test: Has become simple & rapid


Diagnosis of molecular diseases: sickle cell
anemia, thalassemia, familial
hypercholesterolemia, cystic fibrosis
Prenatal diagnosis: DNA from cells collected
from amniotic fluid, chorionic villi
APPLICATION IN FORENSIC
MEDICINE
The restriction analysis pattern of DNA of one
individual will be very specific(DNA
fingerprinting),but the pattern will be different
from person to person. Helps to identify
criminals & to settle disputes of parenthood of
children.
Transgenesis: Gene replacement therapy will
not pass on to offspring. Therefore genes are
transferred into fertilised ovum which will be
found in somatic as well as germ cells & passed
on to the successive generations.
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION
Enzymes---use to produce sugars, cheese,
detergents.
Protein products---used as food additives,
increases nutritive value, besides imparting
flavour.
SUMMARY
1. Recombinant DNA technology builds on a few basic techniques:
isolation of DNA, cleavage of DNA at particular sequences, ligation
of DNA fragments, introduction of DNA into host cells, replication
and expression of DNA, and identification of host cells that contain
recombinants.
2. DNA Fragments generated by restriction endonucleases can be
ligated into a wide range of cloning vectors, including: plasmids,
bacteriophage, viruses, or artificial chromosomes.
3. Cells containing recombinant DNA molecules can be selected, often
by the activity of a marker gene. Cells containing the desired
recombinant are identified by screening.
4. The product of a gene that has been incorporated into an
appropriate expression vector can be generated in prokaryotic or
eukaryotic cells. Foreign genes can also be stably incorporated into
the genomes of animals and plants.
5. Recombinant DNA methods allow the production of proteins for
therapeutic use and the identification of individuals with genetic
defects.
NUCLEOTIDE
S
N U C L E I C AC I D
is an unbranched polymer in which the monomer units are
nucleotides.
-are biopolymers, or large bio molecules, essential for all known
forms of life.Nucleic acids, which include DNA
(deoxyribonucleicacid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), are made
from monomers known as NUCLEOTIDES.
NUCLEOTIDES
is a three-subunit molecule in which a pentose sugar is bonded to
both a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic base.
are more complex monomers than monosaccharide of polysaccharides
and the amino acids of proteins.
Nucleotides have a variety of roles in cellular metabolism:
They are the energy currency in metabolic transactions,
The essential chemical links in the response of cells to hormones and
other extracellular stimuli, and the structural components of an array
of enzyme cofactors and metabolic intermediates.
And, last but certainly not least, they are the constituents of nucleic
acids: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA),
The molecular repositories of genetic information. The structure of
every protein, and ultimately of every bio molecule and cellular
component, is a product of information programmed into the
nucleotide sequence of a cells nucleic acids. The ability to store and
transmit genetic information from one generation to the next is a
fundamental condition for life.
A block structural diagram for a
nucleotide is:
Nucleotide Building Blocks
PENTOSE SUGARS
The sugar unit of a nucleotide is either the pentose ribose or
the pentose 2-deoxyribose
Structurally, the only difference between these 2 sugars occur
at carbon 2. Ribose (-OH) Deoxyribose (-H).
Nu c l e o t i d e B u i l d i n g B l o c k s
N I T R O G E N - C O N TA I N I N G
H E T E R O C YC L I C B A S E S
5 N-containing heterocyclic bases are nucleotide components
3 are derivatives of PYRIMIDINE (monocyclic base w/ a 6-membered ring
2 are derivatives of PURINE ( bicyclic based w/ fused 5- & 6- membered
rings)
Both are bases because they contain amine functional groups(2 or 3 )
basic behaviour (proton acceptors)
PYRIMIDINE & PURINE do not themselves occur naturally; numerous
derivatives of these 2 compounds, however, are naturally occurring
substances. (pyrimidine-thiamine, purine-caffeine)
Nu c l e o t i d e B u i l d i n g B l o c k s
3 pyrimidine derivatives found in nucleotides
THYMINE (T) =5-methyl-2,4-dioxo derivative

CYTOSINE (C) =4-amino-2-oxo derivative

URACIL (U) =2,4-dioxo derivative

2 purine derivatives found in nucleotides


ADENINE (A) =6-amino derivative

GUANINE (G) = 2-amino-6-oxo derivative

A,G,C found both in DNA, RNA


U found only in RNA
T found only in DNA
Nu c l e o t i d e B u i l d i n g B l o c k s
P H O S P H AT E S
the 3rd component of a nucleotide, is derived from
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
Under cellular pH conditions, the phosphoric acid loses
2 of its H-atoms to give a Hydrogen Phosphate ion
(HPO4-2)
Nu c l e o t i d e B u i l d i n g B l o c k s
NUCLEOSIDE to NUCLEOTIDE FORMATION

2 Step Process:
1. Pentose sugar and N-containing base reacts to form
a 2 sub unit entity called a NUCLEOSIDE
2. The nucleoside reacts with a phosphate group to
form the three sub-unit entity called a
NUCLEOTIDE

NUCLEOSIDE= Sugar + Base


NUCLEOTIDE= Nucleoside + Phosphate
Important characteristics for Nucleoside
formation
1. Base always attached to C1 of sugar(Anomeric C atom), w/c is
always in configuration
2. Purine bases = N-9
3. Pyrimidine bases = N-1
4. The connection of sugar & base is a -N-glycosidic linkage
5. Molecule of water is formed from bonding; a condensation
reaction occurs
6. 8 nucleosides are associated w/ nucleic acid chemistry (RNA-
ribose A,C,G,U DNA- deoxyribose A,C,G,T)
7. Nucleosides are named as derivatives of the base that they
contain; modifying names using suffix and prefix
8. Pyrimidine Bases suffixidine (Cytidine,Thymidine,Uridine)
9. Purine Bases suffix-osine (Adenosine,Guanosine)
10. DNA- prefix deoxy RNA no prefix
11. DNA (deoxythymidine) RNA (adenosine)
Important characteristics for Nucleotide
formation
1. Phosphate group is attached to the sugar at the C-5 position
through a phosphate-ester linkage.
2. As with nucleoside formation, a molecule of water is also
produced in nucleotide formation
3. Overall, 2 molecules of water are produced in combining a
Sugar, Base, & Phosphate into a nucleotide
Nucleotides are named by appending the term 5-
monophosphate to the name of the nucleoside from which
they are derived
Example: addition of the phosphate group to the

nucleoside Adenosine produces the nucleotide


adenosine 5-monophosphate
The abbreviation for nucleotides exist, w/c are used in a

manner similar to amino acids


Nucleotides are related to nucleic acids in the same way

that amino acids are related to proteins


The abbreviation use one-letter symbols for the base

(A,C,G,T & U)
MP for monophosphate

lowercase d at the start of the abbreviation when

deoxyribose is the sugar


The number of phosphate groups is indicated by the terms

monophosphate, diphosphate, or triphosphate.


8 NUCLEOTIDES THAT ARE
BUILDING BLOCKS FOR DNA &
RNA
DNA NUCLEOTIDE
DAMP ( DEOXYADENOSINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)

Deoxyadenosine monophosphate,
also known asdeoxyadenylate,
ordAMP, is a derivative of the
commonnucleic acidAMP, or
adenosine monophosphate, in which
the -OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2'
carbon on the
nucleotide'spentosehas been reduced
to just a hydrogen atom (hence the
"deoxy-" part of the name).It is
amonomer used inDNA.
Molecular Formula C10H14N5O6P
DNA NUCLEOTIDE
DGMP ( DEOXYGUANOSINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)

Deoxyguanosine monophosphate,
also known asdeoxyguanylate,
ordGMP, is a derivative of the
commonnucleic acid Guanosine
triphosphate(GTP), in which the
OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2' carbon
on the nucleotide'spentosehas been
reduced to just a hydrogen atom
(hence the "deoxy-" part of the name).
It is used as amonomerinDNA.
Molecular Formula C10H14N5O7P
DNA NUCLEOTIDE
DCMP ( DEOXYCYTIDINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)

Deoxycytidine monophosphate,
also known asdeoxycytidylate,
ordCMP, is adeoxynucleotide, and
one of the fourmonomers that make
upDNA. In a DNA double helix, it
will base pair withdeoxyguanosine
monophosphate.
Molecular Formula C9H14N3O7P
DNA NUCLEOTIDE
DTMP ( DEOXYTHYMIDINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)
Deoxythymidine 5-
monophosphate also known as5-
thymidylate,thymidylate,TMP,
ordTMP, is anucleotidethat is used
as a monomerinDNA. It is
anesterofphosphoric acidwith
thenucleosidethymidine. dTMP
consists of aphosphategroup,
thepentose sugardeoxyribose, and
thenucleobasethymine. As
asubstituent, it takes the form of the
prefixthymidylyl-.
Molecular Formula C10H14N2O8P1
RNA NUCLEOTIDE
CMP ( CYTIDINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)
Cytidine monophosphate, also
known as5'-cytidylic acidor
simplycytidylate, and
abbreviatedCMP, is
anucleotidethat is used as
amonomerinRNA.It is
anesterofphosphoric acidwith
thenucleosidecytidine. CMP consists
of thephosphategroup, the
pentosesugarribose, and
thenucleobasecytosine; hence,
aribonucleoside monophosphate. As
asubstituentit takes the form of the
prefixcytidylyl-.
Molecular formula C9H14N3O8P
RNA NUCLEOTIDE
AMP ( ADENOSINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)
Adenosine
monophosphate(AMP), also known
as5'-adenylic acid, is
anucleotidethat is used as
amonomerinRNA. It is an
esterofphosphoric acidand the
nucleosideadenosine. AMP consists
of aphosphategroup, the
sugarribose, and the nucleobase
adenine. As asubstituentit takes the
form of the prefixadenylyl-
Molecular formula C10H14N5O7P
RNA NUCLEOTIDE
GMP ( GUANOSINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)
Guanosine monophosphate, also known as5'-
guanidylic acidorguanylic acidand
abbreviatedGMP, is anucleotidethat is used as
amonomerinRNA. It is anesterofphosphoric
acidwith thenucleosideguanosine. Guanosine
monophosphate is commercially produced by microbial
fermentation.
Guanosine monophosphate in the form of itssalts,
such asdisodium guanylate(E627),dipotassium
guanylate(E628) andcalcium guanylate(E629),
arefood additivesused asflavor enhancersto provide
theumamitaste. It is often used in synergy
withdisodium inosinate; the combination is known
asdisodium 5'-ribonucleotides. Disodium guanylate is
often found in instant noodles, potato chips and
snacks, savoury rice, tinned vegetables, cured meats,
and packet soup.
As it is a fairly expensive additive, it is usually not
used independently ofglutamic acidormonosodium
glutamate(MSG), which also contribute umami. If
inosinate and guanylate salts are present in a list of
ingredients but MSG does not appear to be, the
glutamic acid is likely provided as part of another
ingredient, such as a processed soy protein complex
(hydrolyzed soy protein),autolyzed yeastorsoy sauce.
As anacylsubstituent, it takes the form of the
prefixguanylyl-.
Molecular Formula C10H14N5O8P
RNA NUCLEOTIDE
UMP ( URIDINE 5-MONOPHOSPHATE)
Uridine monophosphate, also known as5'-uridylic
acidand abbreviatedUMP, is anucleotidethat is
used as amonomerinRNA. It is
anesterofphosphoric acidwith
thenucleosideuridine. Another common shorthand for
the molecule isuridylate- the deprotonated form of
the molecule, which is predominant in aqueous
solution. As asubstituentit takes the form of the
prefix uridylyl-. The deoxy form is abbreviateddUMP.
Effects on animal intelligence
In a study,gerbilsfed a combination of uridine
monophosphate,choline, anddocosahexaenoic
acid(DHA) were found to have significantly improved
performance in running mazes over those not fed the
supplements, implying an increase in cognitive
function.
In brain research studies, uridine monophosphate is
used as a convenient delivery compound foruridine.
Uridineis the active component of this compound.
Uridine is present in many foods, mainly in the form of
RNA. However, uridine in RNA is not bioavailable,
since it is almost entirely destroyed in the liver and
gastrointestinal tract. Thus no food, when consumed,
has ever reliably been shown to raise blood uridine
levels except mothers' milk or infant formulas which
contain uridine in the form of uridine monophosphate
instead of as RNA.
Molecular formula C9H13N2O9P