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Plant Disease

General
Concepts
Signs
Symptoms
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenicity
Virulence
Photos used from various UF/IFAS Extension Publications or provided by UF/IFAS faculty and staff, unless otherwise stated.

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Signs vs.
Sign ofSymptoms
Disease
observation of the organism
causing the disease (objective
observation)

Symptom of Disease
observation of how the host
is manifesting infection by a
pathogen and disease
development due to a
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Signs vs.
Symptoms

Symptoms of Guinea worm disease or Symptoms of Ganoderma Butt Rot


dracunculiasis

Dracunculus medinensis - nematode Ganoderma zonatum - fungus


Photos from The Carter Center
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Rust spores on
Signs of
Bacteria oozing from
leaf leaf
Rust spores on leaf Mycelia (cottony

Disease
growth)

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Fungal sclerotia inside Fungal mycelia and
stem sclerotia

Powdery mildew
Signs of
Fungal
mycelia
Disease mycelia

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Pycnidia (fungal structures with spores) on
Pycnidia (fungal structures with spores) orange skin
on branch
Signs of
Fungal mycelia on roots (microscopic Pythium oospores on roots
view)
Disease (microscopic view)

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Plant
Organs Disease
And Sympto
Functio ms
ns

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Types of
spot small,Symptoms
distinct lesion on leaf,
fruit . . .
blight spots that have coalesced or
merged
together; more tissue being
affected

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Types of
rot tissue Symptoms
is breaking down (fruit,
roots);
usually mushy, but can be dry
wilt plant droops due to water
stress; can be
systemic (xylem) or due to
root rot

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Types of
Symptoms
canker sunken lesions; usually on
stems or

woody tissue; but can


occur on fruit

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Types of
Symptoms
gall masses of undifferentiated
growth; usually
on stems or woody tissue
(branches) but
can be on roots

S. Browning, University of Nebraska,


Lincoln
http://hortupdate.unl.edu/peach-leaf-
curl

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Types of
patches,Symptoms
decline terms often
used in
association with grasses (turf,
grain crops)

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Symptoms Caused by
Bacteria
leaf spots and blights water
soaked, greasy
soft rots of fruits
wilts (systemic xylem)
cankers
gall (overgrowths/cell proliferation)

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Symptoms Caused by
Fungi/Oomycota
leaf spots and blights (including
rust and
powdery mildew)
soft or dry rots of fruits,
bulbs . . .
root rots
wilts (systemic xylem)
overgrowths/cell proliferation
clubroot,
broom galls, warts, witches-
scabs, cankers, patches and
decline
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Symptoms Caused by
Viruses
dwarfing or stunting to some
degree
mosaics light green, yellow or
white
areas
leaves intermingled with green
or fruits
ring spots chlorotic or necrotic
rings
leaves, fruits or stems
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Symptoms Caused by
Viruses
Dwarfing

Mosaic

Ringspot
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Plant Pathology
Terms
Pathogenicity: the pathogen either
does
or does not cause a disease; a
question
with yes or no answer
Virulence: relative capacity of
pathogen to
cause disease; range from minimal
damage
to dead plant
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Etiology and Pathogenicity
Testing
1) Consistent isolation of a pathogen
from symptomatic host tissue
2) Pathogen is grown in pure culture and
its characteristics documented
3) Inoculation of a healthy plant with the
pure culture of the pathogen, and
inoculated plant must then develop
symptoms similar to those observed
initially
4) Recovery of the same pathogen used
for inoculation purposes
This is general scheme; non-culturable plant pathogens
have special rules.
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Etiology and Pathogenicity
Testing
Example: Fusarium Wilt of
Queen Palm

The potential pathogen isolated


consistently from symptomatic
tissue was Fusarium.
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Etiology and Pathogenicity
Testing
Example: Fusarium
Isolated Three Wilt of
Fusarium Species
Queen
(sometimes from Palmtissue piece)
the same
1) F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (6
isolates)
isolated from Fusarium wilt symptomatic palms
in Australia
2) F. oxysporum (43 isolates)
known Fusarium wilt pathogen of palms
worldwide

3) F. proliferatum (9 isolates)
known pathogen of palms; can cause wilt
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Control F. oxysporum

F. incarnatum-equiseti F. proliferatum
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Plant Pathology
Terms
Epidemiology: study of the factors
influencing the initiation,
development and spread of
infectious disease
But, how do pathogens
enter the plant?

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How do pathogens enter
Viruses and plant?
Viroids and Fastidious
Bacteria
most require vectors; a few
mechanical entry
Bacteria most enter through
natural
openings or wounds
Fungi & Oomycetes enter through
natural
openings, wounds; by mechanical
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How do pathogens enter
plant?
Plants have natural
openings: stoma or
stomata (plural)

Plant
Epidermis

Stoma Plant Stoma


(plural=stoma Epidermis (plural=stoma
ta) ta)
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How do pathogens enter
Leafhopper
(insect vector)
plant?
Use mouth
parts to
penetrate

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How do pathogens enter
Leafhopper
plant?
Bacteria
(insect vector) on water
Use mouth film, enter
parts to through
penetrate stoma

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How do pathogens enter
Leafhopper
plant?
Bacteria
(insect vector) on water Fungal Spore
Use mouth film, enter entering
parts to through through stoma
penetrate stoma

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How do pathogens enter
Leafhopper
plant?
Bacteria
(insect vector) on water
Appressorium
fungal structure Fungal Spore
Use mouth film, enter from spore for entering
parts to through direct through stoma
penetrate stoma penetration

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How do pathogens enter
Leafhopper
plant?
Bacteria
(insect vector) on water
Appressorium
fungal structure Fungal Spore
Use mouth film, enter from spore for entering
parts to through direct directly
penetrate stoma penetration through stoma

Fungal Hyphae
can grow between
cells or penetrate
cells
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Disease
Development
pathogen comes in contact with
plant
pathogen infects plant penetration,
can be
direct or indirect; with or without
vector
incubation period time between
penetration
and first appearance of symptoms
pathogen increases within plant,
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Disease
Development
Environmental conditions influence
each and every step in disease
development process!!
Susceptible
Host

Favorable DISEASE
Environment
Pathogen

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Disease
Development
Susceptible
Nematod Host Fungus
e W. Deacon, Univ. of
Edinburgh

Vector required for


some pathogens!
DISEASE

Favorable Pathogen
Environment

Mite Insect
USDA/AR
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How do plant
pathogens move from
plant to plant if they
are not moved by a
Wind dispersal of spores
vector?
Splash dispersal of spores rain,
irrigation
Physical movement of soil-borne
pathogens that dont produce spores
ex: soil tillage
Nematodes swim or move with soil
Seed associated internal or
external
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How do plant
pathogens move from
plant to plant if they
are not moved by a
vector?
Time to have some fun!
Cheap, easy way to
demonstrate
spore dispersal without
water or spores!
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Splash Dispersal of
Spores

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