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Building Drawing

Some basic Definitions

is a mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic
cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water, with
or without admixtures.
Plain Cement Concrete:
a)Lean Concrete( Cement content <10% , e.g P.C.C(1:4:8),
P.C.C(1:6:12) used under floor and foundations)
b)Normal Concrete,(cement content: 10%-15% e.g.1:2:4,
used in D.P.c, R.C.C and floor finishes)
c)Rich Concrete(Cement content >10% , e.g
P.C.C(1:1.5:3), used for R.C.C when smaller strcutural
members are required to support heavier structures for
architectural reasons)
Reinforced Cement Concrete(R.C.C):
Concrete with the addition of steel bars or
reinforcement to resist tension.
Used for beams, lintels,roof slabs,concrete
columns etc.
Mortor(c/S mortor)
Mortor is a material used for plastering of walls
and roofs and to join bricks in masonry.
e.g. 1:2(means cement is one part by weight
nd sand is 2 part by weight out of three
Brick is a basic building unit which is in the form
of rectangular block in which length to breadth
ratio is 2 but height can be different.
Normal size (nominal size)
9''4" 3"
Architectural size (Working size)
8116" x 4" x 2116"
Beam is a structural member used to provide support to
upper part of the building leaving a clear space underneath
and to transfer the imposed load at its ends.
A beam is a structural element that carries load primarily in
bending (flexure).
Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can
also be used to carry horizontal loads (i.e. loads due to an
earthquake or wind).
The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns and
Roof Slab:
Actual load carrying part of the roof present as
the lowermost layer.
Column is the structural member which
provide a continuous support to upper
part of the building and carries the
load directly to the foundation.
May be made of bricks. R.C.C or steel.
The portion of a structure under columns and
walls which transfer load of the structure to the
soil underneath in a safe way without excessive
settlement is called foundation.
Function of foundation is to redistribute this load
over a larger area reducing the load/unit area
until it becomes equal to the safe B.C. of the soil
underneath(o.5 to 1.5 tons/ sft)
For 4 wall thickness of P.C.C is 4, for 9 wall
P.C.C is 6
Damp Proof Course( D.P.C)
A continuous water proof layer is provided above the
ground level to prevent the moisture to come up
which is called D.P.C
If there is any direct contact b/w the underneath soil
and brick work of the super structure even at very
small part , whole building will be effected.
D.P.C material:1 to 3 thick layer of P.C.C+two
coats of hot bitumen+polythene sheet.
Ceiling Height(C.H):
Bottom of roof is called ceiling.
Height of ceiling from finished floor level is called
ceiling height. Normally varies from 8 to 12.
Sill Level(S.L):
It is the level of bottom of main window higher
than floor level.
Genelally 3
Floor Finished level(F.F.L):
Top level of the building in any part of the building .
Plinth level(P.L):
Level of the ground floor top in main part of the
Ground Level:
Level of ground in or near the building which may
be natural or developed ground level
Small wall provided in the periphery of the roof for safety
and privacy purposes is called parapet wall.
Usually 1 to 5 from top of the roof slab.
Superstructure & Substructure:
The portion of the structure which is visible or which is
above the ground level is called superstructure.
Portion of the structure present underground is called sub-
structure including foundations and basements if present.
Boundary Wall:
Outer wall of a building marking the boundary of the area
used to provide safety & privacy inside the building.
A Stair is a series of steps with or without landings
or platforms, which is installed between two or more
floors of a building to bridge a large vertical
Flight of stairs:
A series of stair steps arranged together
usually in a singleline is called a flight
Lintel is a small usually concealed
beam provided over openings in
walls like doors, windows &
Now we discuss
A sectional top view which is formed
by an imaginary plan just above the
sill level.
We assume a horizontal cutting plan
at sill level so all work above sill level
is being removed.
Dash line (-------) are used to show
the features above the cutting plan
e.g . Sunshades , contilevers etc.
It is the simple view of that part of
the building which is above the
ground level.
For any plan there is possibility of
four elevatins.
N- Elevation.
Elevation which contains the main
part of the building is called front
Usually for a building only one front
elevation is drawn but depending
upon the features and importance of
the building more than one elevation
can be drawn.
Elevation is drawn to show the
appearance of a building.
Section for a building is either sectional
front view or end view.
We assume a vertical cutting either
parallel to length or parallel to width where
maximum enterior details can be exposed.
It shows height of rooms, depth of
foundations types of roof, floors thickness
of walls plinth height and also show type of
material used for construction.
Usually drawn on double scale
In architectural drawing plan, section
and elevation are drawn on same
In structural; drawing section is
drawn on bigger scale.
Typical features present in a
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or
vehicle that allows the passage of light and, if not
closed or sealed, air and sound. Modern windows
are usually glazed or covered in some other
transparent or translucent material. Windows are
held in place by frames
In vertical section and elevation just like a
When we assume cutting for plan, the ventilators
are removed with the upper part. At the level of
cutting there is a solid wall shown by the symbol
of brickwork.
Symbol of brick work just like a window, is then
superimposed on the plan by using dashed lines.
A window going near the ceiling is called
Cielicious window denoted by CW
A door is a moving structure used to block off, and allow
access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space
In elevation the door is shown
according to its surface

In plan the door is shown in open position & with a thin

line , swing of the door during opening is also shown.
Double leaf Door:
is preferred for wide doors and for doors present away
from the corners of the room.
Single leaf Door:
Is preferably be accomodated near the corner of the
building leaving a gap of 4 from the other wall.

Swinging Door:
May open on both sides & is preferred for kitchen,
clinics, cafeterias etc.
In Section
The door is shown like a window. At the bottom of the
door the top floor finish layer will be continuous over the
brickwall underneath
Damp proof course is provided inside all
the walls which are continuous above
the plinth level.
Its top is generally made in level with the
top of the floor.
Thichness: 1(residential) 3(official).
D.P.C is not provided under the doors
and all such openings which start from
the floor level like Verandah opening etc.
Typical Floor Details
Typical Roof Details
Schedule of openings
It provide a complete record of the
number and size of all the doors,
windows & ventilator etc

Type size Sill Quantit Description


D1 4-0x7- 0-0 1 Wooden panelled single leaf

0 door
W1 4-0x4- 3-0 4 Steel panelled glazed window
0 with wire-gauze.
V1 4-0x1- 10-6 4 Steel panelled glazed window
6 with wire-gauze
ALI 4-0x4- 2-6 2 10 Deep Wooded shelved


1 D1 8'-0"12'-0" 0'- 0" 01 WOODEN PANEL DOORWITH 9' OPENING

2 D2 6'-0"9'0" 0'- 0" 03 WOODEN PANEL DOOR

3 D3 4'-0"7'-0" 0'- 0" 24 WOODEN FLUSH DOOR WITH COATING


4 D4 4'-0"7'-0" 0'- 0" 24 WOODEN FLUSH DOOR WITH COATING


5 D4a 4'-0"7'-0" 0'- 0" 02 UPVC DOORS

6 D5 3'-6"7'-0" 0'- 0" 48 WOODEN FLUSH DOOR WITH MALAYSIA

7 D5a 3'-6"7'-0" 0'- 0" 18 UPVC DOORS

8 D6 3'-0"7'-0" 0'- 0" 12 WOODEN FLUSH DOOR WITH MALAYSIA

9 D6a 3'-0"7'-0" 0'- 0" 07 UPVC DOORS

10 D7 2'-6"7'-0" 0'- 0" 12 UPVC DOORS
11 D8 2'-3"7'-0" 0'- 0" 19 UPVC DOORS
Drawing of a building
A single room building may serve the purpose of a
shop, clinic , cafeteria or a filling station office etc.
A two room building may serve the purpose of a
bus-stop, clinic, post office etc
A two room building with Verandah may be
recommended for a small primary village school or
check post etc.
A 108 room means that 10 is dimension parallel
to front side of building.
For doors or windows 4-07-0, means that 4 is
width & 7 is length
Check post
A check post consists of two rooms of equal size
13x18 with a Veranda 8-0 on the front side in an
open area. The ceiling height for rooms is 12-
0.Ceiling height for Verandah is 9-0 and its roof
is supported over a beam present all the three open
sides . The beam in turn is supported over three
columns and corner of the rooms.Floor is provided
at 18 above the G.L and there are two steps which
lead into the building.
Sill level for windows = 3-0
for ventilator = 10-6
for almirah = 2-6