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All Staple fibre yarns vary in linear density , and most problems of
yarn quality are related to this basic property.

Irregularity in yarn is recognized in one of the ways-

1.Variation in linear density

2.Variation in thickness
3. Variation in twist
4.Variation in strength
5.Variation in colour
Irregularity and Evenness

Irregularity is used to imply variation in any property along a

strand , and unevenness is reserved to mean variation in
linear density of a strand or part of it.

Causes of Unevenness In yarn:

1.A random distribution of fibres in slivers by preparatory

2.A wave like grouping of fibres caused by roller drafting.
3. Regular periodic variations in linear density caused by
mechanical imperfections in drafting mechanism.
4. Fortuitous happenings in drafting caused by working conditions
and faulty operations.
Measures Of Irregularity

When variations are periodic ,they may be classified according to

their wavelength using fibre length as unit-

Short Term Variation : 1 to 10 times the fibre length

Medium Term Variation : 10 to 100 times fibre length

Long Term Variation : 100 to 1000 ( or more) times fibre length

The importance of the classification is evident when the probable

causes of faults in yarns and fabrics are being investigated.

1. The cutting and weighing method :

It is one of the techniques used in the measurement of
irregularity, but it has the disadvantage of being slow
and laborious.

2.Visual Examination :

The effect of introducing a

non conducting material
such as sliver ,roving or
yarn into the space
between the plates is to
change the capacity of the
capacitor , the change
being proportional to the
weight of material

The material is drawn continuously through the capacitor continuously ,

the changes in the capacity will follow the variation in the weight per
unit length of the strand , the unit length being the length of the
Unevenness , Imperfection
The integrator computes percentage mean deviation% - U% or
coefficient of variation of linear density.
Imperfections are considered frequently occurring faults
and are normally reported as the number per km.Addition
of Thin(-50),Thick(+50) and Neps (+200) (+280 for rotor
yarn) is referred as imperfections.
The Spectrogram
The spectrogram chart is a graphical wavelength representation of
the tested material.
The spectrogram is designed to show cyclic variation which is
usually caused by mechanical problem

The spectrogram shows following :

The length and severity of periodic defects.
The length and severity of nearly periodic faults drafting waves.
Multiple periodic and nearly periodic faults.
Mean fibre length
Can be used to optmise machine settings
Variance Length Curve

The variance length curve is a graphic representation of the

relationship between material cut length and the variation between
those lengths , and provides a comprehensive summary of short,
medium and long term variation.
The variation curve reacts more to random rather than periodic
From variance length curve fabric defects like cloudy appearance,
stripes , thick / thin places can be forecasted.