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Civilization II

-- Warming-Up Review
(from early modern period,
around 1500 AD)

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Europe: Emerging from
the Medieval Ages
Declining influence of church on secular
affairs
Burgeoning period of the establishment
of the principles that holds even today
separation between church and
state
Liberation of peoples mind look at the
world from secular perspective
HOW?
Whats next?

Inside Europe: Outside Europe:


changes in internal colonialism and
mechanism imperialism

1. In politics: the rise and establishment of 1. Bring foreign lands into


sovereignty, by challenging papal the European system
authority
2. Spread Western culture,
2. In economy: wide spread of capitalism technology and religion
3. In science and technology: study nature 3. Increasingly a real world
from secular perspective -- Scientific system took shape
Revolution
4. In society and culture: Renaissance,
enlightenment movement, great thinkers
emerged, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau
Liberation and
Contradiction
1. Liberation: of peoples mind and hand --
the Renaissance

2. Contradiction: Facing the New while


Struggling with the Old

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1. Renaissance and Impact
(beginning about 1350, lasted 2 centuries)

Artists and thinkers recover and apply the


learning and standards of ancient Greece and
Rome
an age of transition: crucial elements of the
medieval outlook were rejected, classical cultural
forms were revived, and modern attitudes
emerged

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1) Secular Outlook Accepted

began in the independent city-states of Northern


Italy
in these urban centers, commercial elites
enjoyed the leisure and freedom that came with
the wealth procured by trade
members of urban upper class did not allow
religion to interfere with their quest for the full life
secular outlook was increasingly challenging the
dominance of religion in life

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2) Humanism Expanded
medieval scholars used Greek philosophy to
prove the truth of Christian doctrines

Italian humanists read classical literature to


nourish their new interest in the worldly life

subject of the art forms are also secular and


worldly

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3) Individualism Established
competitive marketplace in the cities taught the
urban elite to assert their own personalities
demonstrated their unique talents and fulfill their
ambitions
motivated them to venture into uncharted seas
to look for greater opportunities, including
conquering other lands and peoples

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An Entirely New Culture Created
In art: the human form and rules of perspective
were recovered from antiquity
In politics: ancient history of Greece and Rome
was studied for clues on how to solve the problems
of the Renaissance city-state
such as internal turmoil, mercenary army, the threat
of powerful foreign monarchies like France and
Spain
e.g. Niccolo Machiavelli (14691527)-The Prince

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2. Facing the New while
Struggling with the Old

1492 1560s

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1) The NewExploring the World
Map 14.1 Early Voyages of World
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Exploration
Map 14.2 Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in
the Americas, 14921560 14
2) The Old Struggling for the
True Religion

Life of
Martin
Luther and
the heroes of
the
Reformation
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Attackers:
Four Major Reformers
1. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
2. Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531)
3. John Calvin (1509-1564)
4. Henry VIII (1491-1547) and the
Anglican Church in England

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1. Martin Luther (1483-
1546)
YoungGerman friar,
abandoned law for monastery

Tormented by own religious anxieties

Hated priests selling indulgences--substitutes


for the spiritual activities of prayer and
pilgrimage

1517, posted ninety-five theses that questioned


the sale of indulgences and church offices
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2. Huldrych Zwingli

(1484-1531)
Chief Preacher in Zurich
1520, declared himself reformer
and attacked the corruption of the ecclesiastical
hierarchy and church rules (fasting and clerical
celibacy)
Under him, Zurich became center of Swiss
reform movt
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3. John Calvin
(1509-1564)

French man who studied law


Led another movt in France and

Switzerland
Gradually abandoned Catholic Church
Gather many adherents, in France, culminated in the
Affair of the Placards in 1534church doors were
posted with broadsheets denouncing the mass
Provoked crackdown on Protestants, Calvin fled abroad

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Anne Boleyn, 1501-1536
4. Henry VIII (1491-
1547)
Initially opposed the Reformation
and even granted Defender of
Faith by the Pope
Needed a male heir and wanted
to marry Anne Boleyn
To do so, his marriage to
Catherine of Aragon
must be invalidated by
Pope, but was refused

Catherine of Aragon, 1485 1536


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Henry VIII (continued)
He chose 2 protestants for important positions:
-- Thomas Cromwell as Chancellor
-- Thomas Cranmer as archbishop of Canterbury
Under them, Parliament passed acts severing ties
between the English church and Rome

The Act of Supremacy (1534) made Henry head


of the Anglican church
Other legislation recognize his marriage to Anne
and invalidated claim to the throne by Mary, his
daughter by Catherine
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Henry VIII
(continued)
He took a series of anti-Catholic measures:
confiscated and sold property of monasteries

Divorced Anne (w/ whom he had a daughter


Elizabeth I)

Married six times and had one son Edward

When he died in 1547, principle of royal


supremacy in religious matters was firmly
established in England
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What about the other force
- the Roman Catholic Church?

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The Council of Trent
-- 1545, Pope Paul III convened a general council
of the church at Trent, a town between Holy
Roman Empire and Italy
-- 1545-1563, meetings sporadically lasted nearly
20 years
-- bishops, archbishops and
cardinals made a wide-ranging
decisions in condemning the
central doctrines of Protestantism

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-- Reasserted the supremacy of clerical
authority over laity
-- reaffirmed that the churchs interpretation of
Bible could not be challenged
-- reaffirmed the legitimacy of indulgences
-- rejected divorce that is permitted by
Protestants
-- but, it also called for
reform from within

(A session of the Council of


Trent, from an engraving.) 25
Impact of the Council of Trent
-- a watershed in the history of Christianity

-- the schism between Protestant and Catholic


was made permanent
-- all hopes of reconciliation
faded

-- Catholic church now


started to roll back the tide
of dissent
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Catholic Church after the
Council of Trent
-- founding new religious orders
-- most important of them: the Society of Jesus
Jesuits
Established
by Spanish
nobleman, -- Jesuits
Ignatius of
Loyola missionaries
(1491-1556)
a man who
played a key
turned from role in the global
favoring
quest for Portuguese
military glory
to serving the maritime empire
church
A painting of St Ignatius Loyola (kneeling), founder of the
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Society of Jesus, with Pope Paul III in 1534.
Controversial Missionary Zeal
-- set sail throughout the globe
-- message to indigenous peoples were conflict
- for some, a repressive and coercive alien
religion
- for others, a sweet sign of reason and faith

-- In Africa and America, relied


more on swords to win
converts

-- In East Asia, mainly sermon


rather than the sword
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Mapping the
West:
Reformation
Europe, c.
1560

Approximate spread of
Protestantism during the
Reformation and after the
Counter Reformation in Europe
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Summary and
Conclusion
Europe: undergoing new changes, at the same
time, struggling with the past
Both combined, shaped the development of
western civilization since the 16th century
Protestant permanently broke from the Roman
Catholic Church
Unfortunately, Catholics and Protestants would
continue to fight for the restoration of a SINGLE
faith for many generations
These fighting took the form of civil war as well as
international conflict
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The End

Spring 2016
(Insertion)
Holy Roman Empire (962 1806)
The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges
Rmisches Reich) was a union of territories in
Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the Early
Modern period under a Holy Roman Emperor.
The first Holy Roman Emperor was Otto the Great
in 962
The last was Francis II, who abdicated and
dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic
Wars.
It was officially known as the Holy
Roman Empire of the German from the
16th century onwards.
Banners of the Holy Roman Emperor 32
The Empire's territorial extent varied over its
history, but at its peak it encompassed the
following:

-- Kingdom of Germany
-- the Kingdom of Italy
-- the Kingdom of Burgundy
-- territories embracing the present-day Germany
(except Southern Schleswig)
-- Austria (except Burgenland)
-- Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Belgium, the
Netherlands, Luxembourg, the Czech Republic,
Slovenia (except Prekmurje)
-- significant parts of modern France, Italy, and
Poland

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For much of its history the Empire consisted of
hundreds of smaller sub-units, principalities,
duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, as well as
other domains. Despite its name, for much of its
history the Empire did not include Rome within its
borders.

The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1600,


superimposed over modern European state borders. 34
Map 14.4 Habsburg-Valois-Ottoman Wars,
14941559 35