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By: Katrina, Anne, Annika &
Cellular respiration: The process of combining glucose
(C6H12O6) with oxygen (O2) to get carbon dioxide (CO2), water
(H2O), and usable energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate
ATP: The molecule in which energy is stored for use by all
energy-consuming activities of the cell
One molecule of glucose can make up to 38 molecules of ATP
The use of enzymes to breakdown glucose, and release energy and pyruvic acid
The breaking down of glucose
Glyco = sugar
Lysis = breaking
Occurs in cytoplasm
Breaking down of glucoses six-carbon ring into two, three-carbon molecules known
as pyruvic acids or pyruvate molecules
Uses two ATP to make four ATP, two ATP profit
Glycolysis Cont.
Other products:
Two NADH molecules
Two pyruvate molecules
Can take place without oxygen- an anaerobic process
Pyruvates sent to fermentation
Frees up more NAD+ molecules to continue glycolysis

fun fact!
Fermentation creates some fun byproducts! Some organisms like yeast create ethyl
alcohol through fermentation, its what makes wine and that fun stuff!! Sadly
enough, when our muscles lack oxygen, they dont make ethyl alcohol, they make
lactic acid- the stuff that makes you feel sore after working out! But this only
happens when your muscles run out of oxygen, and glycolysis becomes an
anaerobic process.

Krebs Cycle

Also called the Citric Acid Cycle

Requires oxygen- aerobic process
Results in 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP
Turns pyruvate molecules into ATP and other energy storing molecules
Occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Krebs cycle Cont.

Oxidizes pyruvate molecules (combines it with oxygen)

Takes one of the carbons off of the three carbon chain
Bonds carbon to an oxygen molecule, leaving CO2 as a waste product
Left is a two carbon chain- acetyl coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA)
NAD+ bonds with H+ ion, forms NADH
Three-carbon chain

Krebs Cycle Cont.
Enzymes bring together a phosphate and ATP, creates two more ATP molecules for
each pyruvate
Enzymes bond acetyl-CoA with a four-carbon molecule (Oxaloacetic acid), forms a
six-carbon molecule called citric acid
Krebs cycle cont.
Citric acid is oxidized, eventually recreates oxaloacetic acid
Byproducts of this process are CO2
Citric acid creates CO2 when stripped of carbon
Energy stored in FAD and NAD+
NAD+ and FAD pick up H+ and electrons from each pyruvate, which then charges
them like batteries
Hydrogen turns them into NADH and FADH2
Each pyruvate yields one FADH2 and three NADH molecules
Electron Transport Chain
Requires oxygen- aerobic process
Where the bulk of ATP is made
A very efficient cell can yield up to 34 ATP molecules
Electrons from NADH and FADH2 provide energy
Works as a pump along a chain of protein channels in the inner mitochondrial
Protein channels take the electrons from NADH and FADH2
send hydrogen protons from the matrix across the inner membrane to the outer
compartment of the mitochondria- the intermembrane space
E- transport Cont.
Hydrogen protons come out of the matrix
Hydrogen protons want to go back because of high concentration of protons in the
intermembrane space (concentration
To seek equilibrium (which nature loves to do), they flock to the ATP synthase protein
The protein channel combines a phosphate, and ADP to create ATP