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A STUDY ON

Skyscraper

Submitted to
Architecture Discipline, Khulna University
Submitted By
Student ID# 100134
Nazmun Nahar Parvin
3rd year, term-2
Conten
ts
PROJECTS Page No.
30 St. Mary Axe The Swiss Re 03
1.INTRODUCTION
2.CONTEXT 04 05-08
3.PROGRAM 09
4.FORM 10-18
5.CONCLUSION 19

UN TOWER 20

CONTEXT 21
HVAC SYSTEM 22
CONCLUSION 23

BEST WESTERN HOTEL LA VINCI 24


PLAN,SECTION,ELEVATION 25

INTERIOR VIEW 26
CONCLUSION 27

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30 St. Mary Axe
The Swiss Re

General information:
Type :Office
Location :London, United Kingdom
Clint :Swiss Re
Construction :2001- 2004
Opening :28 April 2004
Cost :138,000,000.00
Height :180 metres (591 ft)
Floor count :41
Floor area :47,950 sq m (516,100 sq ft)
Architect :Foster and Partners
Structural :Engineer Arup
Main Contractor :Skanska
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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
1.Introduction

The skyscraper is an icon for new technologies and techniques for high rise building. The
architect Norman Foster was inspired by the design
of aircrafts and the way that streamlined
bodies interacted with wind.

The building has a distinctive shape


and circular plan, double-glazed, circular
outer envelope incorporates a
diagrid structural system,a
single-glazed inner envelope,
and asterisk-shaped floor plates.
Each floor is rotated five degrees
from the floor below, generating six
atria in the form of triangular prisms
that spiral around the building, admitting daylight and allowing for air circulation
in the offices. This generates a kind of incomprehension,
reducing the viewers perception of how the building works to
speculation and technological fantasy.

What makes this building unique?


Diagrid Structure, double helix
Air Ventilation System with double
skin shell
Rotation of floors to incorporate vertical
lightwells

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
2.Context
2.1.SITE TOPOGRAPHY:
The tower situated in capital London of United Kingdom.
One of the most crowded city of the world . It creates an Iconic value
in the sky of the city London.

Restrictions of small site (1.4 acres):


Concrete pours, limitations of time
Traffic, limited accessibility.

2.2. CLIMATE:
CLIMATIC CONTEXT:
Temperature Range:
22 degrees in December - 94 degrees in June
The change in temperature effect the expansion
and contraction of the steel members.

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
Wind Calculations pertaining to building & site
Wind Pressure: Answer (1.12 psf)
(.5)C x D x V^2
V= London wind speed (6.7 m/s = 21.9 f/s)
note: used in multi frame as wind load
D= Air Density (1.25 kg/m^3 (at 44 degrees today))
C= Drag coefficient of streamlined form (0.04)
qZ = 0.0026KZKZtKdV2l (lb/ft2)
Kz = velocity pressure exposure coefficient
Kzt = topographic factor (1.0 since it is on flat land)
V= wind speed (21.9 f/s or 6.7 m/s)
I = Importance factor (1.0)
C = mean pressure coefficient aka drag (0.04)
G = gust effect factor.6

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT:

ENERGY SOURCE:
Temperature can be controlled in several separate zones on each floor.
Windows open when external temperature is between 20C and 26C and wind speed is less than 10 mph.
Building can potentially turn off mechanical temperature system 40% of the year.
Main energy source is gas.
Building was supposed to consume 50% less energy.

WATER SOURCE
The external cladding system is to be designed to resist water penetration from heavy rain, windy conditions
and during window cleaning. The cladding standards are to meet AS 4420.5:1996
Windows Methods to test. Water penetration resistance test.

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
SITE CONTEXT:
Formerly location of the Baltic Exchange.
Second tallest building in the City of London and sixth tallest in London.
First tall green building in London.
Commissioned by former owners Swiss Re.
Won the Stirling Prize from the Royal Institute of British Architects.

FOUNDATION
333 Piles
2.5 feet (750 mm) in diameter
98 feet (25 m) deep
Because of site restrictions and in order to
create a monolithic foundation,
all piles and pile caps were poured
in one day.

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
3.PROGRAM

its a office building. The design subway specially designed for public who come
here .
The building criteria:

Tapers outward from the base and then narrows


Smaller footprint allows for a public plaza
Aerodynamic shape creates less downdraft
shape allows for natural light

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
4.FORM
Shape

The overall cylindrical shape allows for the wind to move around the building.

How does this shape effect the horizontal wind loads?


Decreased Buffetting
Reduced Vibrations
Diminished Fluttering

Ventilation
30 St Mary Axe is designed to maximise daylight and natural ventilation so that it uses
half the energy typically required by an office block (Glass Works). Gaps in floor
create six shafts that serve as a natural ventilation system for the entire building . A
double glazing effect, which insulates the office space inside is caused by air being
sandwiched between two layerof glazing. These shafts pull warm air out of the
building during the summer and warm the building in the winter using passive solar
gain. Blinds located within the cavity of the ventilated double skin facade intercept
solar gain before it enters the office environment; intercepted heat can then be
reclaimed or rejected depending on the requirement for heating or cooling (Swiss Re).
The ventilation system is decentralised which enables occupants to supply and
control mechanical ventilation on a floor by floor basis. Windows in the facade of the
wedges, which open automatically, allow for fresh air to be drawn into the building. As
a result the building uses 50% less energy that a typical prestige air-conditioned office
building (Swiss Re).

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
Lighting System
The light wells allow daylight to penetrate the building to a further distance
inside the building then they would have had the floor gone all the way to the
perimeter, helping to improve the internal environment. Although these light
wells reduce the need for artificial lighting some is still required.
The building has also been equipped with motion and light level sensors to
prevent unnecessary lighting (Glass Works).

Acoustic Performance
The external cladding is required to protect the occupants from external noises
entering the building and to help maintain a good acoustic atmosphere internally. The
acoustic performance design is to me AS 1055.1-1997 Acoustic Description and
Measurements of Environmental Noise General Procedures.

Plumbing
The building uses an electric heat-tracing system which provides energy-
efficient hot water temperature maintenance, frost protection and snow melting
(Process Heat). Over 1000 metres of Raychem HWAT-M self-regulation heating
cable has been installed. This particular type of electric heat tracing system
provides instant hot water throughout the building without any re-circulation
plumbing. This allows for greater energy efficiency, lower maintenance and
significant installation time/cost savings over traditional recirculation systems
(Process Heat).

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
Structure
General Structure
diagrid exterior structure
diagrid nodes at connections
gerkin shape
5 degree rotation of floor plates
wedge shaped light wells

Primary Structure

There are two primary sructures.


The Diagrid is the main structure (resisting
horizontal and gravity loads)
The Core (resisting gravity loads)

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
Structural analysis

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
Plan analysis

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
Plan analysis

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re
structural detail

joining

Black belt

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re

Air Conditioning
Air conditioning system consists of assumed 4 pipe fan coil system in conjunction with
ventilated facade and closed circuit evaporative cooling towers for heat rejection (Great
Buildings Online).

Lift System
St Mary Axe consists of 23 lifts including; 16 passenger lifts (6 high rise, 5 mid rise and
5 low rise) 2 good lifts, 2 fire fighters lifts, 2 shuttle lifts for the top floor and 1 car
park lift. The lifts can carry a maximum of 378 people at any one time reaching speeds of
6 metres a second.
Majority of buildings will have extensive lift equipment on the
roof of the building. However seen as a bard had been planned
for the 40th floor this was not possible. The architects dealt with
this by having the main lift only reach the 34th floor, and then
having a push-from-below lift to the 39th floor (Wikipedia, 2009).

Glazing
Majority of the cladding system of St Mary Axe consists of glazing. Glazing to the first 38 levels of the building are to be aluminium framed, while the domed
structure on the top is to be frameless glass.
The glass used for the external cladding is to be produced and installed with good characterises in subject to wind loading, human impact, safety, security and
the UV elimination.
Glazing to be used for the cladding is SolarplusR Low E Twin-Glaze unit by G.James. It is chosen for its superior thermal performance. Glass is to be clear in
colour and grey glass for the atrium and dome.

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re

Fire Regulations
The spiral lightwell arrangement allows for a fire
escape strategy based on a variation of phased
evacuation. The building is divided into fire safety
zones at every sixth then second floor. This allows
for the evacuation of one area at a time as opposed
to the whole building at once. A system of smoke
curtains form smoke reservoirs in the lightwells.
Natural ventilation is used for smoke clearance for
the lightwells. (Mace) This eliminated the spread of
smoke through the lightwells from lower floors.

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30 St. Mary Axe ,The Swiss Re

5.Conclusion
This building is an icon.
The Diagrid Provides:
a unique structural solution to an
innovative form
an aerodynamic form, reducing effects
of wind
a response to external and internal
Loading.

References:
Skyscrapers- an architectural type of Urbanism
30StMaryAxe
SwissRe
Building_Shen_Yuming_pres

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UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON TOWER
UW TOWER
General information:

Alternative names UW Tower


Safeco Plaza
Safeco Building
Type Commercial offices
Location 4333 Brooklyn Avenue
University District
Seattle, Washington
Completed 1975
Owner University of Washington
Roof 99 m (325 ft)
Floor count 22
Design and construction
Architect NBBJ

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UW TOWER
SITE CONTEXT

4
UW TOWER

HVAC system of
UW TOWER

UW Tower famous for


inovative HVAC
system. The parimeter air, floor air, cold air,
chiller, boiler, cooling tower , fresh air,
exhasusted air
succesfully contain
The HVAC system of the
building.

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22
UW TOWER

Conclusion

the HVAC system of the building is an inovative system . It helps me to understand the
technological part of highrise.

References
UWT Axon Diagram
University of Washington - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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THE BEST WESTERN HOTEL
LA VINCI
General information:

Type Hotel
Location 54.karwan Bazer , Dhaka
clint A.T.M. saidul alam
Floor count 15
Architect D.Nusrat Jahan

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core
LA VINCI
Plan ,ELEVATION,SECTION

Fire stair

Public stair

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LA VINCI
INTERIOR VIEW

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LA VINCI
CONCLUSION

as La Vinci is a Bangladeshi highrise , so to understand the context and the program


diagram , I choose the highrise as my case study.

References
La Vinci- The best western hotel

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