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M Y O F

A NA T O
E S TIV E
DIG
YS T E M
S
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The human digestive system is a
series of organs that converts food into
essential nutrients that are absorbed into
the body and eliminates unused waste
material.

It is essential to good health because


if the digestive system shuts down, the
body cannot be nourished or rid itself of
waste.
DIGESTION
Digestion is the breakdown of large
insoluble food molecules into small water-
soluble food molecules so that they can be
absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Digestion is a form of catabolism that is
often divided into two processes based on
how food is broken down:

1. Mechanical digestion
2. Chemical digestion
PHASES OF DIGESTION
INGESTION- Consumption of nutrients
from the food.
DIGESTION- Chemical breakdown of
large organic molecules into smaller by
enzymes.
ABSORPTION- Transport of digested
nutrients to body tissues.
ASSIMILATION- Conversion of food
taken into the substance of the body.
EGESTION Elimination of food waste
from the body.
CONTD
1. MECHANICAL DIGESTION:
The term mechanical digestion refers to the
physical breakdown of large pieces of food
into smaller pieces which can subsequently
be accessed by digestive enzymes.

2. CHEMICAL DIGESTION
In chemical digestion, enzymes break
down food into the small molecules
which body uses.
PARTS OF THE
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
MOUTH
The mouth is a hollow cavity
which plays an important role
in eating (chewing and biting
the food), drinking, breathing
and speaking.
FUNCTIONS:
Mechanical breakdown
of food
Secretion of salivary
glands
PHARYNX
Pharynx is commonly referred as the throat. A
thick lining in the pharynx protects it from
rough food particles and harsh chemical food
components.
FUNCTION
The function of the pharynx is to transfer food
from the mouth to the esophagus and to warm,
moisten and filter air before it moves into the
trachea. The pharynx is a part of both digestive
and respiratory systems.
ESOPHAGUS
It is a collapsible, musculo-membranous tube
extends from the pharynx to the stomach.

FUNCTION
It carries food, liquids, and
saliva from the mouth to the
stomach. The stomach then
acts as a container to start
digestion and pump food and
liquids into the intestines in a
controlled process.
STOMACH
Stomach is the large dilatation of the
alimentary canal just behind the diaphragm
which intervenes between the esophagus
and the small intestine. It is a muscular bag
forming the widest and most distensible part
of the digestive system.
FUNCTION
The main function of the stomach is to
break down and digest food in order to
extract necessary nutrients from it.
SMALL INTESTINE
Small intestine is the major digestive organ in
our body which is about 20 feet long, is so
named as its diameter is much smaller than
that of the large intestine. It has three
regions: 1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum
FUNCTION
The main function of the small intestine is
absorption of nutrients and minerals from
food. 90% of the digestion and absorption
of food occurs in the small intestine.
LARGE INTESTINE
Large intestine is the last part of the
digestive system, it is horse-shoe shaped and
extends around the small intestine like a
frame. It consists of appendix, cecum,
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
colon and rectum.
FUNCTION
The major function of the large intestine is to
absorb water from the remaining indigestible
food matter and transmit the useless waste
material from the body.
ACCESSORY PARTS
Organs that are not in digestive tract but
helps in digestion are:
Teeth
Tongue
Salivary glands
Rectum
Accessory digestive organs:
liver, gallbladder, pancreas