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Ohms Law

Ohms Law is therelationship between the


current (I) flowing through resistance (R)
andthe potential drop acrossit (V).
Ohms Law states that the voltage or electric
potential indirection proportional to the
product of the current and the resistance
where current isin Amps (A), voltage
involts (v), and resistance in Ohms
().Therefore, the relationship: expresses
Ohms law as

Ohms Law

Ohms Law can be applied to any network


(DC, AC, digital and microwaves
circuits) at any time frame.
It can be applied for over a period of time
or for instantaneous responses using
equation: Cause
Effect
Opposition

Effect is the flow of charge or current


Cause is the potential difference or
voltage between two points
Opposition is the resistance
encountered
Ohms Law

Cause Potential Difference


Effect
Is the same as: Current
Opposition Resistance

(Amperes,
A)
The greater the voltage across a resistor, the
more the current and the more the resistance.
Current is proportional to the applied voltage
& inversely proportional to the resistance.
Using math voltage and resistance can be
found
(Volts, V) (ohms, )
Defining the polarities

For any resistor in any network, the


direction of the current through
a resistor will define the polarity
of the voltage drop across the
resistor.
Example 4.1 pg. 93
Determine the current resulting from the
application of a 9v battery across a
network with a resistance of 2.2.

Example 4.2
Calculate the resistance of a 60 W bulb if a
current of 500 mA results from an applied
voltage of 120v
Example 4.3
Calculate the current through the 2k resistor if
the voltage drop across is 16v.
Example 4.3
Calculate the current through the 2k resistor if
the voltage drop across is 16v.
Example 4.4

Calculate the voltage that must be applied across


the soldering iron to establish a current of 1.5 A
through the iron if its internal resistance is 80
Example 4.4

Calculate the voltage that must be applied across


the soldering iron to establish a current of 1.4 A
through the iron if its internal resistance is 80

Solution:
E = VR = IR = (1.5A)(80) = 120v
In-class problem1
If 220 volts flow through a wire and the
current is measured to be 36A, what would
the resistance of the wire be?
In-class problem1
If 220 volts flow through a wire and the
current is measured to be 36A, what would
the resistance of the wire be?

Solution:
In-class problem 2
What is the current through a circuit that
has 3V and 0.5ohm of resistance?
In-class problem 2
What is the current through a circuit that
has 3V and 0.5ohm of resistance?
Solutions:
In-class problem 3

What would the effect be on a person if


they stuck their finger into a regular wall
outlet that supplies 120V (dont try this at
home) with completely dry skin
(R=100,000ohms)?
In-class problem 3

What would the effect be on a person if


they stuck their finger into a regular wall
outlet that supplies 120V (dont try this at
home) with completely dry skin
(R=100,000ohms)?
Current is
Solution: very small

This would be similar to touching a bare


piece of wire on an electrical cord with dry
fingers. It would not feel pleasant but it
also wouldnt send you to the hospital
In-class problem 4

What is the value of this resistor,


inohms()?

In-class problem 4

What is the value of this resistor, inohms()?


Solution:

Resistor value =
In-class problem 4

What is the value of this resistor, inohms()?


Solution:
12v / 4.556 mA
= 2.6338893767
2.7 k
Resistor value = 2700 , or 2.7 k.
4.3 Power
poweris the rate at whichenergyis transferred,
used, or transformed.
Electric poweris the rate at whichelectric
energyis transferred by anelectric circuit. It is
the rate of doingwork, measured inwatts, and
represented by the letterP.
Theunit of power is thewatt, onejouleper
second.
1 watt (W) = 1 joule/second (J/s)
Power is P = W/t with the energy (W) measured in
joules & in time t in seconds.
1 horsepower (hp) 746 watts
Equation of power delivered to or
absorbed by an electrical system
From the equation P = W/t we can derive
different equations for power by direct
substitution of Ohms Law.

Power by direct substitution


Power supplied of Ohms Law
by a battery
Example 4.5 Voltage
(V or E

Current

Find the power delivered to the dc motor

Example 4.6
What is the power dissipated by a 5
resistor if the current is 4A?
Example 4.7
The I-V characteristics of a light bulb are
provided. Note the nonlinearity of the curve,
indicating a wide range in resistance of the bulb
with applied voltage. If the rate voltage is 120v,
find the wattage rating of the bulb. Calculate the
resistance of the bulb under rated conditions.

Find P & R
Example 4.7
The I-V characteristics of a light bulb are
provided. Note the nonlinearity of the curve,
indicating a wide range in resistance of the bulb
with applied voltage. If the rate voltage is 120v,
find the wattage rating of the bulb. Calculate the
resistance of the bulb under rated conditions.
Power

Sometimes the power is given and


the current and voltage must be
determined.
In Class Problem 1
A toaster oven is plugged into an outlet that
provides a voltage difference of 120 V.
What power does the oven use if the
current is 10A?
Example 4.8

Determine the current through a 5k


resistor when the power dissipated by the
element is 20mW
4.4 Energy
Electricalenergyis the presence and flow of
anelectric charge. This charge can be
transferred between bodies using direct
contact with a conductive material like a wire.
For power, which is the rate of doing work, to
produce an energy conversion of any form it
must be over a period of time.
Energy lost or gained by any system is
determined by W = Pt
Power is measure in watts (or joules per
second) & time in seconds, so the unit of
energy is wattsecond or joule.
Energy
Since wattsecond is quantity too small so the
watthour and kilo-watthour where defined.

Energy (Wh) power (W) time (h) Energy in Watthours W = Pt

power (W) time (h)


Energy (kWh) Energy in kiloWatthours
1000
kilo-watthour merter: instrument to measue
the energy supplied to the residential or
commercial user of electricity.
Energy (W) lost or gained by any system is
determined by: W = Pt
Example 4.9 pg. 97

Calculate the electricity bill if the previous


reading was 4650 kWh and the average
cost in your area is 9 cents per kilo-
watthour.
Example 4.10
How much energy (in kilowatthours)
is required to light a 60 W bulb
continuously for 1 year (365 days)
Wh
Example 4.11
How long can a 205 W television set
be on before using more than 4 kWh
of energy?

Example 4.12
What is the cost of using a 5 hp motor
Remember: 1
horsepower 746

for 2 h if the rate is 9 Watts

cents/kilowatthour?
Example 4.12
What is the cost of using a 5 hp
motor for 2 h if the rate is 9
cents/kilowatthour? Remember: 1
hosepower 746
Watts
Example 4.13
What is the total cost of using all of the
following at 9 cents per kWh?
A 1200W toaster for 30 min
Six 50W bulb for 4 hrs
A 400W washing machine for 45 mins
A 4800W electric clothes dryer for 20 mins

Cost = (3.7 kWh)(9/kWh) = 33.3


Typical wattage ratings of
some common household
items
In class problem
A refrigerator operates on average for 10.0
h a day. If the power rating of the
refrigerator is 700 W, how much electrical
energy does the refrigerator use in 1 day?
(make sure to convert to kW)
W= 700W * 60/1000
Plotting Ohms Law
A plot of voltage vs. current yields a
straight line whose slope is the
resistance of the material.
Current (I) is represented by the
vertical axis (ordinate) and voltage
by the horizontal axis (abscissa)
Plotting Ohms Law
Vertical axis is in amperes and the
horizontal axis in volts
Plotting Ohms Law cont
Consider a point on the plot where v = 20v
and I = 4A. The resulting resistance is R =
V/I = 20V/2A = 10.
For comparison a 1 and a 10 resistors were
plotted, the less the resistance the steeper
the slope of the curve
Relating Ohms law to a basic
straight-line equation

The slope is = 1
divided by the
resistance value
The greatest the
resistance the less the
slope
Where signifies a small finite change in the variable
Equation to determine resistance:
Plotting Ohms Law contt
If the plot curves
at all, the
resistance will
change

If the plot is a
straight line the
equation will provide
the same result
where ever it is
applied
Example 4.19
Determine the resistance associated
with the curve and compare results.

At V = 6v, I = 3mA

For the interval between 6v and 8v ,


HW page 114 - 116
Problem # 1, 3, 5, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21,
33, 35, 37, 39, 54 & 55