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Syllabus Design

Syllabus Design

To design a syllabus is to decide Syllabus design involves a logical

what gets taught and in what sequence of three main stages,
order. these are: (
the theory of language underlying 1. needs analysis,
the language teaching method
will play a major role in 2. content specification, and
determining what syllabus should 3. syllabus organization
be adopted.
Theory of learning also plays an
important part in determining the
kind of syllabus used.
According to Halim (1976), the language course designer has to
pay serious consideration to all the relevant variables:
1. linguistic variables, which include the linguistic relations, between
the language to be taught and the language or languages which the
student uses in his or daily activities; and
2. non-linguistic variables which range from policy to social, cultural,
technological and administrative variables.
Steps in designing a syllabus

1) needs analysis
2) formulation of objectives
3) selection of content
4) organization of content
5) selection of learning activities
6) organization of learning activities
7) decisions about what needs evaluating and how to evaluate
Types of Syllabuses

The design of a syllabus

a teacher adopts is
dependent on the needs
it is meant to serve
Evaluation Syllabus

a statement of what is to be learnt handed down by ministries

and/or regulatory bodies. It states what a successful learner will
know by the end of the course it reflects an official assumption
as to the nature of language and linguistic performance
(Hutchinson & Waters 1987:80)
Organizational Syllabus

an implicit statement about the nature of language and of

learning. This kind of syllabus not only lists what should be learnt
but also states the order in which it should be learnt.
it carries assumptions about the nature of learning as well as
language, since, in organizing the items in a syllabus, it is
necessary to consider factors which depend upon a view of how
people learn:
What is more easily learnt
What is more fundamental to learning?
Are some items needed in order to learn other items?
What is more useful in the classroom?
Example: contents in a textbook.,
Material Syllabus

While organizational and evaluation syllabuses state what should be

learnt with some indication of the order to be followed, they do not
say how learning will be achieved.
The organizational syllabus undergoes a lot of interpretations on its way
to the learner. The first interpreter is the material writer; thus we
have materials syllabus.
he or she (material writer) makes assumptions about the nature of
language, language learning and language use.
8 criteria for a materials syllabus design, namely: topic syllabus
structural/situational syllabus, functional/notional syllabus, skills syllabus,
situational syllabus, functional/task-based syllabus, discourse/skills syllabus,
and skills and strategies syllabus (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987: 85).
Teachers Syllabus

The syllabus undergoes through the interpretation of the teacher:

where majority of the students in the world learn language through
mediation of a teacher.
Classroom Syllabus

the classroom is not simply a neutral channel for the passage of

information from teacher to learner, it is a dynamic, interactive
environment, which affects the nature both of what is taught
and what is learnt.
Learner syllabus

Candlin (1984) describes it as a retrospective record of what has

been learnt rather than a prospective plan of what will be learnt.
It is the network of knowledge that develops in the learners
brain and which enables that learner to comprehend and store
the later knowledge.